Reflectance Spectroscopy of Plants. Optical and spectral characteristics of leaf. Reflectance mechanisms. Leaf Visible and Near- Infrared Reflectance spectra. Measurement of Reflectance of Plants. Radiometer for measurement of leaf reflectance. Chlorophyll Fluorescence Measurements. The photosynthetic apparatus and chlorophyll fluorescence. Blue, green, and red fluorescence emission signature of leaves. Measurement of Chlorophyll Fluorescence. Laser trofluorometry. Fluorescence induction kinetics. Monitoring of Plants. Detection of stresses affecting leaf reflectance: dehydration, salt treatment, metal and mineral deficiency, ozone damage, UV-irradiation, temperature effect, pest and disease attacks. Effects of herbicides, chlorophyll breakdown and senescence, water stress, mechanical injury, temperature, nitrogen deficiency, atmospheric pollution on chlorophyll fluorescence.