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(Upload on February 12 2019) [ 日本語 | English ]

Bird (鳥類)






Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

Bird (Aves)

Class: Aves Linnaeus (1758), ca 10,000 spp.

Feathered, winged, bipedal, warm-blooded and egg-laying vertebrates

Bird greatly contributes seed dispersal of plants



[Field training: integrated environmental research: fauna and flora (種リスト), avifauna (鳥類リスト)]
insect (昆虫), mammal (哺乳類), 維管束植物 (vascular plant)]

bird

bird bird bird

Taxonomy


Subclass Archaeornithes 古鳥亜綱

developing teeth
Archaeoteryx (= Archaeornis) 始祖鳥: after Cretaceous

Subclass Neornithes 新鳥亜綱

Order Odontognahta 歯顎目

Cretaceous-Eocene

Order Ichthyornithes 魚鳥目

Cretaceous

0. Struthioniformes (Ratitae), 走鳥類

≈ 平胸類, ペンギン類, not fly in the present

Order Struthioninformes ダチョウ

Struthionidae, ostrich

Order Sphenisciformes ペンギン

Rheidae, rhea
Casuariidae, cassowary
Dromaiidae, emu
Aepyornithidae, elephant bird: extinct
Dinornithidae, moa: extinct
Apterygidae, kiwi

1. Geornithes 地鳥類

live on ground

Order Galliformes キジ

after Eocene. brids in Japan are resident, excpet quail

Phasianidae キジ: most species feed grass seeds on the ground (rarely feed insects. the feet are covered with feather
Phasianus soemmerringii ヤマドリ, P. colchicus キジ pheasant、Bambusicola thoracica コジュケイ, Coturnix coturnix ウズラ quail
Tetraonidae ライチョウ: the feet are not covered with feather
Lagopus mutus ライチョウ grouse、Tetrastes bonasia エゾライチョウ, Tetrao urogallus ヨーロッパオオライチョウ capercaillie
Order Gruiformes (Alectorides) ツル
Otididae ノガン
Gruidae ツル: Grus ツル crane
Rallidae クイナ
Order Limicolae-Lari シギ・カモメ
Larus カモメ gull
Order Alciae ウミスズメ
Order Ansers ガンカモ
Order Phoenicopteri ベニヅル(フラミンゴ)
Order Gressores コウサギ
Ardea アオサギ grey heron
Order Accipitres ワシタカ
after Eocene. coarnivore, ♀ > ♂
Accipitridae ワシタカ: wing tips open like fingers
Milvus migrans トビ, Heliaeetus albicillaオジロワシ white-tailed eagle, H. pelagicus オオワシ, Aquila chrysaetos イヌワシ, Accipiter gentilis オオタカ
White-tailed eagle
Range of Heliaeetus albicilla. = nesting range, = wintering range, = year-round range

Falconidae ハヤブサ, sharp wings and a long tail: Falco peregrinus ハヤブサ

Order Steganopodes ウ
Phalacrocorax ウ cormorant
P. capillatus ウミウ(used for cormorant fishing), P. carbo カワウ
Order Tubinares ミズナギドリ
Order Pygopodes アビ

2. Dendronithes 樹鳥類

Order Cuculi ホトトギス
four species in Japan → all species are brood parasitism → not building the nests
Cuculidae ホトトギス
Cuculus poliocephalus ホトトギス, C. canorus カッコウ: north to Shikoku, C.saturatus ツツドリ: north to Shikoku, C. fugax ジュウイチ: north to Shikoku
Order Columbae ハト
Columbidae ハト: herbivorous
Sphenurus sieboldii アオバト, Columba janthina カラスバト, Streptopelia orientalis キジバト(ヤマバト), S. decaoto シラコバト(ドバト/デンショバト) = カワラバト C. livia breeing species
Order Psittaci オウム
Order Strigesフクロウ
Strigidaeフクロウ, carnivorous, nocturnal habit
Strix (フクロウ, 梟)
S. uralensis フクロウ

four subspecies in Japan: fuscescens Temminck et Schlegel 1850 (キュウシュウフクロウ), hondoensis Clark 1907 (フクロウ), momiyamae Taka-Tsukasa 1931 (モミヤマフクロウ), japonica Clark 1907 (エゾフクロウ)

Order Caprimulgiヨタカ
ヨタカ科: nests built on the ground: Caprimulgus indicus ヨタカ
Order Coracii ブッポウソウ
Alcedinidae カワセミ
Halcyon coromanda アカショウビン, Alcedo atthis カワセミ, Ceryle lugubris ヤマセミ
Coraciidae ブッポウソウ, insectivorous: Eurystomus orientalis ブッポウソウ
Order Macrochires アマツバメ

Apodidae アマツバメ: Apus pacificus アマツバメ

Order Pici キツツキ
Picidae キツツキ: in forest

Picus canus ヤマゲラ, Dryocopus martius クマゲラ, Dendrocopos kizuki コゲラ Japanese pygmy woodpecker

Ramphastidae オオハシ
Order Passeresスズメ

Hirundinidae ツバメ

Hirundo rustica ツバメ, Delichon urbica イワツバメ

Pittidae ヤイロチョウ
Alaudidae ヒバリ
Alauda arvensis ヒバリ skylark
Motacillidae セキレイ
Motacilla cinerea キセキレイ
Anthus タヒバリ
Campephagidae (Vigors 1825) サンショウクイ
Pycnonotidae ヒヨドリ: Hypsipetes amaurotis ヒヨドリ
Laniidae モズ: 肉食, solitary life: Lanius bucephalus モズ
Bombycillidae (Swainson 1831) レンジャク: Bombycilla garrulus キレンジャク, B. japonica ヒレンジャク
Cinclidae (Sundevall 1836) カワガラス, resident bird in mountain streams: Cinclus pallasii カワガラス
Troglodytidae (Swainson 1832) ミソサザイ: Troglodytes troglodytes ミソサザイ
Prunellidae (Richmond 1908) イワヒバリ: omnivorous
Muscicapoidea ヒタキ

Turdinae ツグミ亜科

Erithacus akahige コマドリ, E. komadori アカヒゲ(天然記念物), Saxicola torquata ノビタキ, Turdus naumanni ツグミ, Zoothera dauma aurea トラツグミ White's Thrush

Sylvinae ウグイス亜科

Cettia ウグイス (C. squameiceps ヤブサメ, C. diphone ウグイス), Locustella センニュウ, Acrocephalus ヨシキリ (A. arundinaceus オオヨシキリ), Phylloscopus ムシクイ

Muscicapinae ヒタキ亜科 (Muscicapa narcissina キビタキ, M. syanomelana オオルリ

Dicruridae カササギヒタキ
Paridae (シジュウ)カラ chickadee
Sittidae ゴジュウカラ: Sitta europaea ゴジュウカラ
Certhiidae キバシリ
Zosteropidae メジロ: Zosterops palpebrosa メジロ
Emberizidae ホオジロ: Emberiza cioides, indigo bunting
Fringillidae アトリ: Carduelis flammea (L.)ベニヒワ, カワラヒワ, ベニマシコ, ウソ, イカル, シメ
Ploceidae ハタオリドリ
Sturnidae Sturnidae ムクドリ: Sturnus cineraceus ムクドリ
Corvidaeカラス: Garrulus glandariusカケス, Pica pica カササギ, Nucifraga caryocatactes ホシガラス
Corvus カラス

3. Anseriformes 海鳥類/陸水鳥類, waterbird

Anseriformes (Wagler 1831) カモ

Anatidae カモ/ガンカモ

wild goose ガン(カリ) (goose ガチョウ/家雁: poultry), duck カモ/アヒル/家鴨: poultry)


geological timescale (地質年代)

Species ()


Sunasaki
African Stonechat (Saxicola torquata) at Sunasaki Coast on July 22 2011.
Yachidamo Park
Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) near a Yachidamo (Fraxinus mandshurica) Park, West Ward, Sapporo, on May 5 2012.
Sunasaki
Slaty-backed Gull (Larus schistisagus) at the mouth of Myojin River on July 22 2011.
O-no Pond
Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) at Ono Pond close to the Faculty of Engineer, HU, on July 15 2011.
Hirose river
[10] Grey duck or Spotbill duck (Anas poecilorhyncha)in Hirose River, close to Aoba Castle, northern Honshu, on March 23 2016. We can often see them in the pond of Hokkaido Government Office.
Hamamatsucho
Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) with Common slider (Trachemys scripta) at Kyu-Shiba-Rikyu Gardens, Tokyo, on May 29 2015.
Hamamatsucho
White-cheeked Starling (Sturnus cineraceus) at Kyu-Shiba-Rikyu Gardens, Tokyo, on May 29 2015.
Sendai
Grey heron (Ardea cinerea) in Oi Pier Seaside Park, Tokyo, on June 3 2016.
Hamamatsucho
Intermediate Egret (Ardea intermedia) Wagler in Hama-rikyu Gardens, Tokyo, on November 13 2015.
Sendai
Dusky thrush (Turdus eunomus) at the Third Block North Park in the city of Sendai, northern Honshu, on March 23 2015. They are winter bird and move to Hokkaido soon.
Muroran
Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica L. in the former sport ground of an elementary school in the city of Muroran on September 14 2015. The school was closed in the last year. The number of individuals has beeen increasing in the Iburi District of Hokkaido. Now it is popular in the residential areas of Tomakomai City.
Tokyo Station
Brown-eared bulbul (Hypsipetes amaurotis) near JR Tokyo Station, central Japan, on March 6 2012.
rock dove
Rock dove or rock pigeon (Columba livia Gmelin 1789) near Subway North 24th Sation on December 23 2017. This species is originally in North Africa, Europe and Central Asia.
little grebe
Little grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis Pallas 1764) in the inner moat of Edo Castle, Tokyo, on October 19 2018.
find

Crow (カラス)


Crow: all-inclusive
Raven: large
Rook: small
Jackdaw: pigeon-sized = smallest

Crows distributed on Mount Koma


Corvus macrorhynchos (Jungle Crow or Large-Billed Crow), Corvus corone (Carrion Crow)
The former species is widespead more than the latter species on Mount Koma.

Corvus macrorhynchos on Mount Koma


H. Nishi took all pictures.

crow crow crow
1. A Corvus macrorhynchos fed at 500 m in elevation. (July, 2002) 2. A Corvus macrorhynchos caws on a palign at 450 m in elevation. Near the car pool on Mount Koma, crows often use artificial poles as perch. (July, 2002) 3. Refer to photo 2.
crow crow crow
4. A Corvus macrorhynchos stays on a larch. The dominant tree species on Mount Koma is now Japanese larch, and many bird species feed, reproduce and rest in areas where the larch is dominant. This photo was taken at 700 m in elevation. (July 2002) 5. A Corvus macrorhynchos walks on the ground to find out food. (Aug. 2002) 6. Refer to photo 5.
crow crow crow
7. Corvus macrorhynchos caws on a Populus maximowiczii tree. As mentioned above, crows often utilize trees as perch. Therefore, the seedlings of Rhus trichocarpa often establish under the perches. 8. Corvus macrorhynchos on a larch at 500 m in elevation (August 2002) 9. Refer to photo 8.
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