(Upload on November 4 2017) [ 日本語 | English ]

Geography (地理学)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily


[Japan, Hokkaido] [geomorphology · geoecology]

Human geography (人文地理学): a branch of the social sciences related to the world, its people, communities and cultures

economic geography
social geography

Physical geography, geosystems or physiography (自然地理学): a branch of natural sciences dealing with processes and patterns in the natural environments in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and geosphere

terraquatic science

Map (地図)

Symbolic depiction highlighting relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, and themes.

[remote sensing]

[biodiversity hotspots, biome]

World (世界)

Classification of continents



Melanesia + Micronesia + Polynesia + Australasia

Asia (アジア)



Wuhan (武漢)
Leye-Fengshan Geopark-P.R.China (中国乐山凤山世界地质公园), located in northwestern Guangxi, southwest China


It was the West Pakistan when I was an elementary school student
Capita = Dhaka (largest in the country)
Population (2015) = ca 170 million → density = 1034/km² Geography =

largely dominated by the fertile Bengal delta

Social problems =

political instability
global warming

Purbachal New Town Project
24.9 km2
Sal forest in Purbachal
Sal: Shorea robusta Roth
Sal forest: 122 ha in 2002 → 41 hectares in 2014


Indonesia Natural History National Museum (Museum Nasional Sejarah Alam Indonesia, MUNASAIN) on January 25 2018
Biological Indonesia (Hayati Indonesia)
Taxon                      World (Dunia)    Indonesia      %
a. Spore plant               1,560,500         91,251      6
1. Cryptogame (Kriptogam)
- Mushrooms (Jamur)          1,500,000         86,000      6
                              (750,000  (Micro: 64,000
            identified (diidentifikasi)) Macro: 16,000)
- Lichens (Lichen)             20,000            595       3
- Liverwort (Hepaticae)          7,500            949      8
- Musci (Musci)                 23,000          1,510      6
2. Ferns (Paku-pakuan)          10,000          2,197     22
b. Seed plant                  251,000         19,232      8
1. Gymnospermae                  1,000            120     12
2. Angiospermae                250,000 (identified 19,122  8
                                   probably 30,000-40,000)
Decrease in forests and era of wood industries in Indoensia
In 19th century, most of Indonesian land, i.e., 193.7 million ha was covered by forests (MacKinnon 1997)
In 1950, 163 million ha (84%) of Indonesian land was still covered by primary and secondary forests; tea, coffee, and rubber plantations (Indonesia Forest Agency 1950)

Deforestation since 1970 (million ha/year)
Deforestation rate: In 1985-1997: 1.7 (World Bank 2000)
In 1997-2003: 2.83 (Bappenas 2003)
In 2000-2005: 1.9 (FAO 2007)
Era of plywood industries 1980-1997
In 1967-1979, forestry sectors played an important role as foreign-exchange sources through exporting of round woods (Munarsih 2008)
In 1980-1997, rapid development of Plywood Industries; from 2 factories in 1973, increased 122 factories in 1997 (Munarsih 2008)
Era of pulp-paper industries since 1987

In 1985, forest area was 119 million ha or decreased by 27% from 1950; covering 63% of land (RePPProT 1990)

Collapse of Plywood Wood Industries since 1998
(1) economic crisis in 1997, fall-off of IDR exchange rate, investor debts,
(2) decreasing of wood raw material supply, increasing of wood raw material price,
(3) decreasing of forest potency, infraction of forest management by Forest Concessions,
(4) eco-labelling regulation, illegal exploitation and export,
(5) development of Oil Palm Industries.
Development of forest plantation since 1990
Acacia mangium (Mangium)
Paraserianthes falcataria (Sengon)
Tactona grandis (Teak)

In 1997, forest area was 100 million ha or decreased by 17% from 1985; covering 50% of land
In the early 20th century, forest area was estimated 98 million ha (Wasson & Applegate 2000)

Era of oil palm industries since 2005

Imaginary lines underlying bioregion sharing in Indonesia
Garis Imajiner yang Mendasari Pembagian Bioregion di Indonesia
  • Sumatra
  • Jawa
  • Kallimantan
Wallace Line: a faunal boundary line proposed by Alfred Russel Wallace in 1859 → birds, shells and insects
  • Sulawesi
  • Nusa Tenggara
Weber Line: proposed by Max Carl Wilhelm Weber van Bosse → freshwater fish
  • Maluku
Lydekker Line: proposed by Richard Lydekker
  • Papua
→ vertical distribution of vegetation on Mount Jayawijaya

IPB, January 23/24 2018

Hokkaido University Liaison Office in Indonesia: Grand opening studium generale and workshop

Objectives of this workshop
  • Connect: to connect young faculties of Hokkaido University with researchers and faculty members from Indonesia
  • Collaborate: to build research collaboration involving both countries
  • Contribute: to give solution for problems in Indonesia/Japan or world, and improve the life quality in both countries

Pacific (太平洋)



subregion of Oceania



Samoa (サモア)
Independent State of Samoa (1962) |W171°| American Samoa (territory)
Independent State of Samoa, often called as Samoa
Capital city: Apia on Upolu Island
Volcanoes: Savai'i and Upolu
Fig. Monthly precipitation and temperature in Apia


norway Plants in Svalbard
Sanionia uncinata (カギハイゴケ)
Cetrariella delisei (トゲエイランタイ)
Salix polaris (キョクチヤナギ)
Saxifraga oppositifolia (ムラサキユキノシタ)
Dryas octopetala (チョウノスケソウ)

North America (北アメリカ)

Alaska (アラスカ)

wildfire (森林火災)

Cascade Range, Cascades

Cascade Range
Major Cascade Range volcanoes
Mount St. Helens (セントへレンズ山)
Mount Rainier (Mount Rainier)
Portland, Oregon
Downtown: ESA meeting in 2017

Africa (アフリカ)

The place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes)
Area: 30,370,000 km2
Language: 1250–3000 native languages

North Africa
West Africa
Central Africa
East Africa
Southern Africa

Fig. Köppen climate classification
Deforestation + soil degradation
Fig. Present vegetation
Fig. Potential present vegetation

[ Western Australia | Anthem ]

Australia (豪州)


a region of Oceania, comprises Australia, New Zealand, neighboring islands in the Pacific Ocean, and sometimes, the island of New Guinea

Tropical rainforest Savanna Temperate humid Mediterranean Desert Steppe West coast marine Dec-Apr averages
2-3 per season
Feb-Mar peak
averages 3 per

Fig. Climate features. ♠ climate stations. Arrows: preferredd tropical cyclone
Tropical rainforest
Mediterranean: smoke-induced seed germinaiton
Fig. Vegetation formation (Moore & Perry 1970). Arid zone boundary derived from rainfall and evaporation.
Nullabor Plain (ナラボー平原)
Etymology: nullus (none)+ abor (tree)
20000 km2 (1200 km long from east to west)
Annual precipitation < 250 mm

Polar regions (極地)

Arctic + Antarctic

Greenland (グリーンランド)

Kalaallit Nunaat (island of human, Greenlandic)