(Upload on October 31 2014) [ 日本語 | English ]

Individual (個体)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily




  1. Inseparable things.
  2. A single member of a species; a single specimen of an animal or plant.

From Oxford English Dictionary (Internet version)

Genet: a genetic individual that develops from a zygote (seed) and is therefore a product of sexual reproduction
Ramet: an individual that develops from a genet or another ramet and is a product of asexual reproduction

Reproduction (生殖, 繁殖)

Sexual reproduction (有性生殖)

= reproduction (s.s.), = amphimixis
reproduction induced by gametes

→ the combinations of genes are changed from parents to the child(ren)

Asexual reproduction (無性生殖)

= agamic reproduction, or apomixis (clone)
Reproduction, not concerned with gametes

One or more individuals develop from a part (e.g., cells and spores) of the parent
→ the combinations of genes are identical between parent and the child(ren)

At cell level

Asexual gametic reproduction (無性配偶子生殖)

= gamogony
= somatic reproduction, all-inclusive term
Division (分裂)
Cell division of monocellular organisms

Binary division (二分裂, 二分法)

Transverse division (横分裂): bacteria, paramecium
Longitudinal division (縦分裂): Euglenophyceae, vorticellae

Multiple division (複分裂, 多分法)


Budding (出芽)

yeasts (division, s.l.)

Sporogenesis (胞子生殖)
New individuals are produced by spores (spore cells)

bacteria, mosses, ferns, algae, (seed plants)

Diplospory (generative apospory, 複相胞子生殖): the megagametophyte arises from a cell of the archesporium. Ex. Taraxacum officinale
Apospory (somatic apospory, 無胞子生殖): the megagametophyte arises from some other nucellus cell

planospore (遊走子)
aplanospore (不動胞子)
ascospore (子嚢胞子)
basidiospore (担子胞子)
tetraspore (四分胞子)
monospore (単胞子)(
conidiospore (分生子)

At tissue level

Division (分裂)

sea anemone

Budding (出芽)

hydra, sea sponge

Propagule (栄養体生殖, 栄養体繁殖)
Stolones and runners (匍匐枝, ストロン), developed on the ground surface

saxifrage, strawberry

Rhizomes and tubers (地下茎), developed in the ground

potato, Colocasia, lotus, iris, Chrysanthemum

Storage and tuberous root (貯蔵根, 塊根)

sweet potato, dahlia

Adventitious buds (むかご, 珠芽, 肉芽), on cut stems or fallen leaves

Japanese yam, lily

False vivipary (偽胎生): vegetative progagules within a flower
Artificial vegetative reproduction

cuttage, layerage, grafted tree, division
→ used for the persistence of cultivars, etc.