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Landscape (景観)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

[satoyama, restoration ecology, geographic information system]

The main landscape is a combination of land systems in one geographical region (Naveh & Lieberman 1984) → successional landscape
Three characteristics (Forman & Godron 1986)
  1. Structure: the spatial relationships among the distinctive ecosystems or "elements" present - more specifically, the distribution of energy materials, and species in relation to the sizes, shapes, numbers, kinds, and configuration of the ecosystems
  2. Function: the interactions among the spatial elements, that is, the flows of energy, materials, and species among the component ecosystems (Forman 1979)
  3. Change: the alteration in the structure and function of the ecological mosaic over time

Scale-dependent factor (スケール依存性要因)

Ecosystem at different spatial scales: We conceive the landscape as ecosystems, large and small, nested within one another in a hierarchy of spatial sizes (Row & Sheard 1981)

  1. the ecosphere is the largest ecosystem we can know
  2. we can segment the ecosphere into volumetric units at all levels, including macro-, meso-, and micro-levels
  3. down to the individual organism and its site
A hierarchy of scales for analyzing the geographic distribution of the moss Tetraphis
The answer to the question "What limits geographic distribution?" may have different answers when analyzed at the continental scale versus the local scale of the individual tree stump. (Forman 1964)
Level of landscape
______________Local__Regional__Provincial__Continental* Space
________________________________________or insular
Fig. Relationship between spatial and temporal scales for various ecological phenomena. At the microscale, natural and human disturbances affect the establishment and succession of species. At the macroscale, regional climatic changes affect process such as species migration and displacement of ecosystems. At the megascale, plate techtonics, evolution of major groups, and development of global vegetation patterns are prominent. The five vertical arrows on the lower left represent disturbance events such as wildfire, wind damage, clear cutting, flood, and earthquake (Delcourt et al 1983).
Fig. 2. Hierarchical organization of a stream system and its habitat subsystems. Approximate linear spatial scale, appropriate to second-or third-order mountain stream, is indicated (Frissell et al. 1986)
Hierarchy of landscape units in relation to map scale
ExplanationSuggested unit namesApproximate map-scale range
I.Large size landscape units (ca 10,000 ha or higher)Bioclimatic region or zone, biogeoclimatic zone, life zone, vegetation zone, ecoregion, biome, ecological zoneNational (small map scale) 1:1 million and smaller in map scale
II.Intermediate size landscape units (ca 500 to 10,000 ha)Land system, land form, forest cover type, plant formation, forest land type, forest ecosystem typeRegional-overview (medium map scale) 1:1 million to 1:100,000 (or occasionally up to 1:50,000)
III.Small-sized landscape units (ca 1 to 500 ha)Forest site type, forest habitat type, land typeSubregional or local-detailed (large map scale) 1:100,000 (or 1:50,000) up to 1:1,000)

Landscape Ecology (景観生態学)

The study of land systems and of their relationship to one another, for each is set in the "environment" of its surrounding neighbors. In other words, landscape ecology is the science of landscapes, understood concretely as spatial and volumetric ecosystems in their regional contexts.

Landscape ecosystem approach: To take an ecosystem approach means that everyone attends to the conservation (保全) and sustainability of ecosystems, instead of sharply focusing on the productivity of individual or competing resources - which has been our traditional mode of operation. It means our focus is on landscape ecosystems rather than organisms which are parts of ecosystems.

Landscape structure and function principles (Forman 1986)

Landscapes are heterogeneous and differ structurally in the distribution of species, energy, and materials among the patches, corridors, and matrix present. Consequently, landscapes differ functionally in the flows of species, energy, and materials among these structural landscape elements.

Biotic diversity principles

Landscape heterogeneity decreases the abundance of rare interior species, increases the abundance of edge species and animals requiring two or more landscape elements, and enhances the potential total species coexistence.

species diversity (種多様性)

Energy flow principles

The flows of heat energy and biomass across boundaries separating the patches, corridors, and matrix of a landscape increase with increasing landscape heterogeneity.

energy (エネルギー) · nutrients (栄養分) · species (種) → trophic level (栄養段階)

Landscape change principle

When undisturbed, horizontal landscape structure tends progressively toward homogeneity; moderate disturbance rapidly increases heterogeneity, and severe disturbance may increase or decrease heterogeneity.

Landscape stability principle

Stability of the landscape mosaic may increase in three distinct ways, toward (a) physical system stability (characterized by the absence of biomass), (b) rapid recovery from disturbance (low biomass present), or (c) high resistance to disturbance (usually high biomass present).

Table. Major landscape types classified, according to the degree of naturalness (Westhoff 1971)
Flora and faunaDevelopment of vegetation and soilExamples
Natural landscapesSpontaneousNot influenced by manParts of the Wadden area (mud flats, coastal beaches, and salt marshes)
Subnatural landscapesCompletely or largely spontaneousTo some extent influenced by manParts of the dune landscape, most salt marshes, inland drift sands, deciduous woods with some cutting, final stages of succession in hydroseries in fens
Seminatural landscapesLargely spontaneousDrastically influenced by man (other formation than the potential natural vegetation)Heathlands, oligotrophic grasslands, sedge swamps, reed swamps, inner dune grasslands, coppice, osier beds, many woods in which the tree stratum is arranged by man
Agricultural landscapesPredominantly arranged by manStrongly influenced by man (soil often fertilized and drained; vegetation with ruderals, neophytes, and garden escapes)Arable fields, sown grasslands, parks, conifer forests

Landscape heterogeneity (景観異質性)

Closeness of heterogenous landsccapes supports the conservation of species, in particular, for species behave in large ranges

Table. Wildlife using more than one type of landscape element. Source; Risser et al (1984) and others
SpeciesLandscape elementsReference
Elk and deerForest, shrubland, and grassland-90% of use occurs within 200 m on both sides of forested edgeThomas et al. 1979
Ruffed grouseForest-equal proportions of four stand size classes, all intersecting at a common point to provide feeding (mature stand), breeding (pole stand), and roosting (regeneration stand) habitatGullion 1977
PheasantAgricultural land-10 to 25% of land in hay crops that provide nesting and roosting coverJoselyn et al. 1968; Warner 1981
Canvasback, Redhead duck, Mallard duck, Canada gooseAgricultural land, grassland, and open water-agricultural residue and forage for feeding geese and mallards; fingernail clams and aquatic vegetation for feeding canvasbacks and redheads All species require terrestrial and aquatic habitatsBellrose et al. 1979
Black bearUplands and lowlands-acorns from upland oaks in summer and fall; acorns from lowland oaks in winter and springLanders et al. 1979

Evaluation of landscape heterogeneity

Expanded from diversity index proposed by Shannon & Weaver (1949)
Region Streams/ Homes Dirt  Paved Woods Pastures Croplands
       reivers        roads roads
A        18       1    24     1     90     49        0
B        12       0    24     2     87     41        4

A χ² statistical test cannot be used to test the differences between these two sets of frequencies, because some are too small. Therefore, we compare the individual frequencies directly. For example, the contingency table for the presence or absence of streams and rivers in the 128 segments along each line is as follows:
    Region                        A     B     Total
    Streams and rivers present    18    12     30
    Streams and rivers absent    110   116    226
    Total                        128   128    256

The probability P of obtaining the results, when only 30 (that is, 12) of the 256 segments have streams or rivers, is

P = (30!226!128!128!)/(256!18!12!110!116!) = 0.079

The sum of this probability P and the probabilities of more extreme differences in streams and rivers between the two lines is 17%, well above the 5% statistical threshold. This means that these two lines do not differ significantly in the frequencies of streams and rivers present. We may therefore conclude that, based on streams and rivers only, the two lines are in the same landscape. The same calculation is made for each type of element. It then appears that the clearest difference between the two lines results from the croplands, for which the probability is only 6%. Thus, one can say that these two lines are in the same landscape, but that the croplands present in Nant 4 represent a significant difference between the two lines.

Landscape patch (景観パッチ)

Patch structure of landscape

Patches: size, distribution, shape, age, density

Type: disturbance, remnant, and environmental resource patches + introduced patch (artificial)

Fig. Species immigration and extinction in patches of different origins. The square is an area of matrix containing a circle patch. Shading indicates an area being disturbed. The solid arrow is immigration and the dashed arrow is extinction. The thickness of an arrow is proportional to the estimated rate of immigration or extinction.

Measures of patch characteristics in a matrix

The following measures proposed by different authors should be used with appropriate caution, since their dependability and generality in describing ecological patterns are as yet unclear.
Shape of a patch

Di = P/(P/2√),

where Di is an index of the shape of patch i; P is the perimeter of the patch; and A is the area of the patch (Patton 1975; Game 1980; Bowen and Burgess 1981; Haggett et al. 1977).
Isolation of a patch

ri = 1/n·Σn=1j=ndij,

where rj is an index of the isolation of patch i; n is the number of neighboring patches considered; Σ is the sum of; and dij is the distance between patch i and any neighboring patch j (King 1969; Bowen & Burgess 1981).
Accessibility of a patch

ai = Σn=1j=ndij,

where ai is an index of the accessibility of patch i; dij is the distance along a linkage (e.g., a forest corridor or hedgerow) between patch i and any of the n neighboring patches j (Lowe & Moryadas 1975; Bowen & Burgess 1981).
Interaction among patches

Ij = Σn=1j=n(Aj/dj2),

where Ij is the degree of interaction of patch i with n neighboring patches; A is the area of any neighboring patch j; and d, is the distance between the edges of patch i and any patch j (Whitcomb et al. 1981; MacClintock et al. 1977).
Isolation of patches

D = Σ(σx2 + σy2),

where D is an index of the isolation of all patches present. Patches are located on a grid with x and y coordinates. The average location and the variance for all patches are calculated for the y coordinate. σx2 and σy2 are the variances on the x and y coordinates, respectively. This equation is based on the "standard distance index" (Lowe & Moryadas 1975; Bowen & Burgess 1981).
Dispersion of patches

Rc = 2dc(λ/π),

where Rc is an index of dispersion; dc is the average distance from a patch (its center or centroid) to its nearest neighboring patch; and λ is the average density of patches. Here Rc = 1 with randomly distributed patches; Rc < 1 for aggregated patches; and Rc > 1 (up to a maximum of 2.149) for regularly distributed patches. This equation is a measure of aggregation (Clark & Evans 1954, 1979; Pielou 1977).

Barriers and edge

Any distinctive habitat not "ISLANDY", e.g., water (sea, fresh), deserts, land
Urban lots → grasses/compositae
Oceanic islands → orchids, lower plants

Barrier and edge Barriers are not domestic: dispersal (wind, animal, self, gravity etc.), disharmony
Colonization = (distance + island size + barrier)dt

Extinction = chance / lower habitat complexity / lack of refuge / competition / succession / lack of rescue

Equilibrium: colonization = extinction

breaching barriers / disharmony

Relaxation: persistence and stability

Landscape analysis (景観分析)

Patternization (or patterning of classification)

For the recognition of landscape patterns, we classify landscapes based on similarities or dissimilarities.

natural region (自然地域): topography, climate, population density = landscape
social region (社会地域): economic unit (経済単位)

Landscape change (景観変化)

Transition matrix (トランジッションマトリックス)

Spatio-temporal change → diversity, abundance, age distribution, size distribution, etc. → expressed by matrix model
Leslie matrix

Lnt = nt+1
nt = Ltno
Lnt = λnt

Ex. To show how this transition matrix works, we will start with an area that contains 1000 hectares in pasture and 1000 hectares in cultivation. After one year, the area in pasture will be

______________________Pastures in the__Cultivated fields in
______________________following year___the following year
Pastures, in the first year________87.5%____12.5%
Cultivated fields, in the first year__50%______50%

(87.5% × 1000 ha) + (50% × 1000 ha) = 875 + 500 = 1375 ha

and the area of cultivated fields will be

(12.5% × 1000 ha) + (50% × 1000 ha) = 125 + 500 = 625 ha

At the end of the second year, the areas are

(87.5% × 1375) + (50% × 625) = 1516 ha in pasture, and
(12.5% × 1375) + (50% × 625) = 484 ha in cultivation

After the third year, the areas are

(87.5% × 1516) + (50% × 484) = 1568 ha in pasture, and
(12.5% × 1516) + (50% × 484) = 432 ha in cultivation

Continuing these calculations for several years gives the following:

1568 - 1588 - 1596 - 1598 - 1599 - 1600 - 1600 ha in pasture
432 - 412 - 404 - 402 - 401 - 400 - 400 ha in cultivation


Figure. Change in three hypothetical landscapes using the same transition matrix, but beginning with different proportions of landscape elements. Landscape a begins with 19 times as much cultivation as pasture; b with equal proportions of the two, and c with 9 times as much pasture as cultivation.

Satoyama (里山)

semi-natural environments comprised of human activities and diverse ecosystems such as (secondary) forests, wetlands including rivers, farmlands, and grasslands, in particular, distributed in East Asia

(Takeuchi et al. 2003)

「Whisper, Whisper Little Stream」 (Chibuka 2002)

Unit ecosystem

Forest (森林)

Wetland (湿原)

To protect biodiversity, link between ecosystems is important. Due to urbanization and/or farm retirement, the area of Satoyama is decreasing.

Landscape planning (景観計画学)

Def. Landscape architecture is the art of arranging land so as to adapt it most conveniently, economically and gracefully to any of the varied wants of civilization (Cleveland HWS, 1973)

Landscape architecture (総合景観) =

Landscape architecture (建築景観) +
Landscape engineering (土木景観) +
Landscape gardening (造園景観)

(Glasson 1974)

Regional planning (地域計画)

Regionalism (Odum WH)

regionalism as science
regionalism as frontier のregionalism as governmental avenue or technique
regionalism as motive or objective
rural community + urban community = social community


1989 "Tomorrow: A peaceful path to the reform"

Howard's garden city (e.g., Letchworth, Welwyn)
Properties (basic principles)

= self-contained + balanced community
Urban → Social city (assumed 200,000 people) → Country

Social city: central city for community of garden cities

present metropolis development: public housing corporation → public welfare, construction, agricultural community, trade-industry

1945 Distribution of industrial act
1946 New towns act
1947 Town and country planning act

the foundation of modern town and country planning in UK

1990 Town and country planning act for England and Wales
1997 Town and country planning (Scotland) act
2004 Planning and compulsory purchase act
2008 Planning act 2011 Localism act

Netherlands (Polder planning)

Total planning:
  1. economic planning - social economic council (→ labor-management consultations)
  2. physical planning - landuse plans on land reclamation, residence, etc.
  3. social planning - New town (community)
early polder planning Amsterdam, Noord Holland, Zuid Holland Zwiderzee polder
  1. Wieringermeer - short-period (1 yr) - planed based on past floods
  2. Delta-planning: land reclamation in northeastern region and Flevoland
mid-and long-term planning: planed based on the potential future floods → lead by numerical economics

Criteria to conduct land reclamation (in general): benefit/cost > 1 → do reclamation

→ introduced to Japan (Hachiro-gata) = case of failure

2.5 ha (4700 houses) → 10 ha (910 houses) → [acreage reduction] → 15 ha (7.5 ha rice field, 7.5 ha crop field)
The governmental deal failed in the regional planning because of the over-optimistic foresight, although larger-scaled land ownership than the average was selling point

The former West Germany

Social and economic structure of West Germany
(economic association / labor association) + regionality
Local system of West Germany

↓ Prefecture ⇔ ↓ Land
Municipality _→ Commission

Land has the domestic legislative, administrative and justice authorities Municipality is the most fundamental local governments and is guaranteed to be strong self-government

Tennessee Valley (テネシー峡谷)

1933 Tennessee Valley Authority (テネシー峡谷開発公社, TVA)

The first regional development plan worldwide

1962: Ronald Reagan fired by General Electric for criticizing TVA

Major ideas (controversial)
• comprehensive planning, including navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing and economic development
• grass-roots democracy
• regional authority
• avoiding monopoly

Regional landscape planning (地域景観計画)

local planning + local planning + local planning ≠ regional planning - changes in dimensions