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Mammal (哺乳類)






Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

Taxonomical syllabus (分類体系)


Taxonomical syllabus (上位分類群)
Grazing
Feeding habit

Rodents, Yak
Distribution of mammals in Hokkaido (北海道)
Field trip on integrated environmental research (Fauna and flora, JPN)


Phylum Protochordata (原索動物)

Class Urochordata (尾索類)
= Tunicata (海鞘綱) tunicates
Order Ascidiacea (ホヤ)
sea-squirts, ascidians [Octanemida – Ascidacea or Thaliacea - phylogenetic relations, not determined]
Order Thaliacea (サルパ)
Order Appendicularia 尾虫 = Larvacea, Copelata
索引
Class Cephalochordata (頭索類)
= Leptocardia, lanceolets

Branchiostoma (= Amphioxus)ナメクジウオ

Phylum Vertebrata (脊椎動物)

vertebrates (chordates)
Superclass Tetrapoda (四足動物)
= quadraped (四足動物)
Class Mammalia Linnaeus, 1758 哺乳綱
= placenta (胎盤) → umbilical cord (へその緒)

(McKenna & Bell 1997) 自分が分かりやすいの
*: Extinct (絶滅)

Taxonomy of Class Mammalia (哺乳綱)


Subclass Prototheria 原哺乳類亜綱 (単孔類)

= Monotremata

Order Platypoda カモノハシ(類), platypus
Order Tachyglossa ハリモグラ(類), echidna

Subclass Theriformes 獣型亜綱 (単孔亜綱)

Infraclass Allotheria 異型下綱 (*)

Order Multituberculata 多丘歯 (*)

Suborder Cimolodonta キモロドン (*)
Suborder Gondwanatheria ゴンドワナテリウム (*)

Infraclass Triconodonta 三錘歯下綱 (*)
Infraclass Holotheria 完獣下綱

Superlegion Kuehneotheria キューネオテリウム上団 (*)
Superlegion Trechnotheria 枝獣上団

Legion Symmetrodonta 相称歯団 (*)

Order Amphidontoidea アンフィドン (*)
Order Spalacotheria スパラコテリウム (*)

Legion Cladotheria 岐獣団

Sublegion Dryolestoidea ドリオレステス亜団 (*)

Order Dryolestida ドリオレステス (*)
Order Amphitherida アンフィテリウム (*)

Sublegion Zatheria 最獣亜団

Infralegion Peramura ペラムス下団 (*)
Infralegion Tribosphenida 摩楔歯下団

Supercohort Aegialodontia アエギアロドン上区 (*)
Supercohort Theria 獣上区

Order Deltatheroida デルタテリディウム (*)
Order Asiadelphia アジアテリウム (*)

Cohort Marsupialia (Metatheria) 有袋区(後獣区), 有袋類, marsupial

Suborder Archimetatheria 古後獣

Magnorder Australidelphia 豪州袋巨目

Superorder Microbiotheria ミクロビオテリウム上目
Superorder Eometatheria 始後獣上目

Order Yalkaparidontita ヤルカパリドン目 (*)
Order Notoryctemorphia フクロモグラ形目, フクロモグラ類

Grandorder Dasyuromorphia フクロネコ大目
Grandorder Syndactyli 合指大目

Order Peramelia バンティクート, バンティクート類
Order Diprotodontia 双前歯目, ウォンバット類, カンガルー類

Magnorder Ameridelphia 米州袋巨目

Order Didelphimorphia オッポサム形, オッポサム類
Order Paucituberculata 少丘歯, ケノレステス類
Order Sparassodonta 砕歯 (*)

Cohort Placentalia (Eutheria) 有胎盤区 (真獣区), 有胎盤類

Order Bibymalagagsia マダガスカル獣目

Magnorder Xenarthra 異節巨目, 貧歯類

Order Cingulata 被甲目, アルマジロ
Order Pilosa 有毛目, アリクイ・ナマケモノ

Suborder Vermilingua 虫舌亜目
Suborder Phyllophaga 食葉亜目

Infraorder Mylodonta ミロドン下目 (*)
Infraorder Megatheria メガテリウム下目

Magnorder Epitheria 上獣巨目

Superorder Leptictida レプティクティス上目 (*)
Superorder Preptotheria 顕獣上目

Grandorder Anagalida アナガレ大目

Mirorder Macroscelidea ハネジネズミ中目, ハネジネズミ類
Mirorder Duplicidentata 重歯中目

Order Mimotonida ミモトナ目
Order Lagomorpha 兎形目, ナキウサギ類・ウサギ類

Mirorder Simplicidentata 単歯中目

Order Mixodontia 混歯目
Order Rodentia 齧歯, 齧歯類

Suborder Sciuromorpha リス形

Infraorder Theridomyomorpha テリドミス形下目
Infraorder Sciurida リス下目
Infraorder Castorimorpha ビーバー下目

Suborder Myomorpha ネズミ(形)亜目

Infraorder Myodonta 鼠歯下目
Infraorder Glirimorpha ヤマネ形下目
Infraorder Geomorpha ホリネズミ形下目

Suborder Anomaluromorpha ウロコオリス亜目
Suborder Sciuravida スキウラブス亜目
Suborder Hystricognatha ヤマアラシ顎亜目

Infraorder Hystricognathi ヤマアラシ顎下目

Parvorder Bathyergomorphi デバネズミ小目
Parvorder Caviida テンジクネズミ小目

Grandorder Ferae 広獣大目

Order Cimolesta キモレステス目

fox

Suborder Didelphodonta ディデルフォドゥス (*)
Suborder Apatotheria 幻獣 (*)
Suborder Taeniodonta 紐獣 (*)
Suborder Tillodonta 裂歯 (*)
Suborder Pantolesta パントレステス (*)
Suborder Pantodonta 汎歯 (*)
Suborder Pholidota 鱗甲(有鱗)
Suborder Ernanodonta エルナノドン (*)

Order Credonta 肉歯目
Order Carnivora 食肉 (食肉類)

Suborder Feliformia ネコ型
Suborder Caniformia イヌ型

Infraorder Cynoidea イヌ下目
Infraorder Arctoideea クマ下目

Parvorder Ursida クマ小目
Parvorder Mustelida イタチ小目

Grandorder Lipothyphla 無盲腸大目 (Insectivora 食虫大目) (食虫類)

Order Chrysochloridea キンモグラ目
Order Erinaceomorpha ハリネズミ形目
Order Soricomorpha トガリネズミ形目

Grandorder Archonta 主獣大目

Order Chiroptera 翼手目

Suborder Megachiroptera 大翼手目
Suborder Microchiroptera 小翼手目

Infraorder Yinochiroptera 陰翼手下目
Infraorder Yangochiroptera 陽翼手下目

Order Primates 霊長目 (霊長類)

Suborder Dermoptera 皮翼亜目
Suborder Euprimates 真霊長亜目

Infraorder Strepsirrhini 曲鼻下目
Infraorder Haplorhini 直鼻下目

Parvorder Transiformes メガネザル型小目
Parvorder Anthropoidea 真猿小目

Order Scandentia 登木目

Grandorder Ungulata 有蹄大目 (有蹄類)

Order Tubulidentata 管歯目
Order Dinocerata 恐角目 (*)

Mirorder Eparctocyona 上アルクトキオン中目

Order Procreodi 前肉歯目 (*)
Order Condylarthra 顆節目 (*)
Order Arctostylopida アルクトスティロプス目 (*)
Order Cete 類鯨目

Deer fox

Suborder Acreodi 無肉歯亜目 (*)
Suborder Cetacea 鯨亜目

Infraorder Archaeoceti 古鯨下目 (*)
Infraorder Autoceta 正鯨下目

Parvorder Mysticeti ヒゲクジラ小目
Parvorder Odontoceti ハクジラ小目

Order Artiodactyla 偶蹄目

Suborder Suiformes 猪型亜目
Suborder Tylopoda 核脚亜目
Suborder Ruminantia 反芻亜目

Mirorder Meridiungulata 牛蹄中目 (*)

Order Litopterna 滑距目 (*)
Order Notoungulata 南蹄目 (*)

Suborder Notioprogonia 南祖亜目 (*)
Suborder Toxodonta トクソドン亜目 (*)
Suborder Typotheria ティポテリウム亜目 (*)
Suborder Hegetotheria ヘゲトテリウム亜目 (*)

Order Astrapotheria 雷獣目 (*)
Order Xenungulata 異蹄目 (*)
Order Pyrotheria 火獣目 (*)

Mirorder Altungulata 高蹄中目

Order Perrisodactyla 奇蹄目

Suborder Hippomorpha ウマ形亜目
Suborder Ceratomorpha 有角亜目

Infraorder Selenida 月獣下目
Infraorder Tapiromorpha バク形亜目

Order Uranotheria 天獣目

Suborder Hyracoidea イワダヌキ亜目
Suborder Embrithopoda 重脚亜目 (*)
Suborder Tethytheria テチス獣亜目

Infraorder Sirenia カイギュウ下目
Infraorder Behemota 壮獣下目

Parvorder Desmostylia 束柱小目 (*)
Parvorder Proboschidea 長鼻小目

Particular (各論)


[ Taxonomy | Ecology ]

Rodents (Rodentia, 齧歯類)


Characterized by endless-growing incisors

Taxonomy

Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Eutheria > Euarchontoglires > Rodentia

Rodentia (Bowdich 1821)
Sciuromorpha リス
Aplodontiidae (mountain beaver) ヤマビーバー
SS Gliridae, also Myoxidae and Muscardinidae (dormice) ヤマネ
Sciuridae (リス squirrels, including chipmunks, prairie dogs, and marmots) リス
Sciurus lis Temminc et Schlegel (ニホンリス)*, S. vulgaris L.キタリス(エゾリス)+
Tamias sibiricus (Laxmann)シマリス(エゾリス chipmunk + northern European Russia - Siberia - Cnina - Korea - Hokkaido
Pteromys momonga Temminck et Schlegel (モモンガ, P. volans (L.)エゾモモンガ, Petaurista leucogenys (Temminck) ムササビ flying squirrel
Spermophilus ジリス ground squirrel: S. saturatus (Cascade golden-mantled squirrel, Mount St. Helens)
Castorimorpha ビーバー
Castoridae (beavers): Castor (C. canadensis アメリカビーバー, C. fiber ヨーロッパビーバー)
Geomyidae (ホリネズミ) pocket or true gophers
Dikkomys! early Miocene, North America, Thomomys セイブホリネズミ western pocket gophers (9 species, T. talpoides, MSH), Geomysトウブホリネズミ eastern pocket gophers (5), Orthogeomys タルトゥーサホリネズミ taltuzas (10), Zygogeomys ミチョアカンホリネズミ tuza (1), Pappogeomys アルコーンホリネズミ alcorn's and buller's pocket gophers (9), Cratogeomys キガオホリネズミ yellow-faced and mexican pocket gophers
Zapodidae, jumping mice
Heteromyidae (ポケットネズミ) kangaroo rats and kangaroo mice
Gliridae ヤマネ: Glirulus japonicus (Schinz) ヤマネ*
Myomorpha ネズミ
= Superfamily Myomorpha (ネズミ): about 1,000 spp
Dipodidae (トビネズミ) jerboas and jumping mice
Calomyscidae (mouse-like hamsters)
Cricetidae (hamsters, New World rats and mice, voles) キヌゲネズミ
Muridae (ネズミ) true mice and rats, gerbils, spiny mice, crested rat: 1326 species in 281 genera
Subfamily Arvicolinae (ハタネズミ, 26/143)
Myopus schisticolor (モリネズミ wood lemming), Lagurus lagurus (ステップレミング, steppe lemming), Aschizomys ヤチネズミ (A. niigatae ニイガタヤチネズミ*, A. anderson トウホクヤチネズミ*, A. imaizumii ワカヤマヤチネズミ*), Eotheromys カゲネズミ (E. kageus カゲネズミ*, E. smithi スミスカゲネズミ*), Diplothrix legata ケナガネズミ, Clethrionomys ヤチネズミ (C. rufocanus bedfordiae エゾヤチネズミ → the type C. rufocanus タイリクヤチネズミ), Microtus ハタネズミ (M. grestis キタハタハタネズミ field vole = Atlantic-Lake Baikal, M. montebelli ハタネズミ, M. montanus montane vole = MSH), Ondatra マスクラット muskrat, Phenacomys heather vole, Dicrostonyx クビワレミング (D. groenlandicus, Collared Lemming - alpine tundra, NE Dawson), Lemmus レミング (true) lemming., L. lemmus North Europe. L. sibiricus (Kerr)シベリアレミング Siberia (Kolyma)-Alaska, L. trimucronatus brown lemming: tundra (eastern Siberia - northwestern Canada), Synaptomys ヌマレミング (S. borealis (Richardson), northern bog lemming: boreal bog (Alaska-Canada, rare)
Calomyscinae (カンガルーハムスター): 1/6
Subfamily Cricetinae (キヌゲネズミ, often established family = Cricetidae, 7/18)
Cricetulus (C. griseus チャイニーズハムスター/モンゴルキヌゲネズミ, C. migratorius アルメニアンハムスター /タビキヌゲネズミ), Phodopus (Phodopus sungorus ジャンガリアンハムスター/ヒメキヌゲネズミ, P. sungorus ロシアンハムスター, P. roborovski ロボロフスキーハムスター), Mesocricetus (M. auratus シリアンハムスター/ゴールデンハムスター, M. brandti ブラントハムスター), Tscherskia triton トリトンハムスター/キヌゲネズミ
Cricetomyinae (アフリカオニネズミ): 3/6
Dendromurinae (キノボリマウス): 8/23
Subfamily Gerbillinae (アレチネズミ), established Gerbillidae: 14/110
スナアレチネズミ, インドオオアレチネズミ
Lophiomyinae (タテガミネズミ): 1/1
Subfamily Murinae (ネズミ) mouse, rat, 122/529
Cricetus, hamster
Mesocricetus, golden hamster
Rattus (ネズミ), rats: R. norvegicus Berkenhout 1769 (ドブネズミ/シロネズミ/ダイコクネズミ), albus = farmed breed, albino type, 2n = 42
Mus (ハツカネズミ), M. musculus (ハツカネズミ, 二十日鼠), house mouse, M. caroli オキナワハツカネズミ, M. platythrix ヒラゲハツカネズミ
Apodemus (A. speciosus アカネズミ*, A. argenteus ヒメネズミ*), Micromys (M. minutus カヤネズミ, M. montebelli ヤチネズミ*, A.s sylvaticus ヨーロッパモリネズミ, A. agrarius セスジネズミ), Millaradia ミラルディア, Tokudaia トゲネズミ
house mouse Myospalacinae (モグラネズミ): 1/7
Mystromyinae (オジロハムスターモドキ): 1/1
Nesomyinae (アシナガマウス): 7/14
Otomyinae (カローネズミ): 2/14
Petromyscinae (イワマウス): 2/5
Platacanthomyinae (トゲヤマネ): 2/3
Rhizomyinae (タケネズミ): 3/13
Spalacinae (メクラネズミ): 2/8
Subfamily Sigmodontinae (Hesperomyinae)アメリカネズミ (79/423)
Peromyscus (P. maniculatus シカシロアシネズミ deer mouse, widespread in the North America, vector and carrier of hantaviruses. P. leucopus シロアシマウス), Sigmodon, cotton rat. Neotoma, wood rat, pack rat and trade rat ウッドラット. Calomys カロミス/ヨルマウス
Subfamily Zapodinae (トビハツカネズミ): Zapus (トビハツカネズミ), north America - Asia, 3 species (Z. trinotatus, Mount St. Helens)

Nesomyidae (climbing mice, rock mice, white-tailed rat, Malagasy rats and mice)
Platacanthomyidae (spiny dormice)
Spalacidae (mole rats, bamboo rats, and zokors)
Anomaluromorpha ウロコオリス
Anomaluridae (scaly-tailed squirrels)
Pedetidae (springhares)
Hystricognathiヤマアラシ
Hystricomorpha ヤマアラシ, porcupine
Diatomyidae, incertae sedis (Laotian rock rat)
Ctenodactylidae (gundis)
Bathyergidae (African mole rats)
Hystricidae (Old World porcupines)
Petromuridae (dassie rat)
Thryonomyidae (cane rats)
Heptaxodontidae (giant hutias)
Abrocomidae (chinchilla rats)
Capromyidae (hutias)
Caviidae (テンジクネズミ cavies, including guinea pigs and the capybara)
Chinchillidae (chinchillas and viscachas)
Ctenomyidae (tuco-tucos)
Dasyproctidae (agoutis)
Dinomyidae (pacaranas)
Echimyidae (spiny rats)
Erethizontidae (New World porcupines)
Myocastoridae (nutria)
Octodontidae (octodonts)

Ecology

Mount Usu

Rodent densities were estimated on Mount Usu, northern Japan, 17 years after the 1977-1978 volcanic eruptions. The summit area was completely deforested by the eruptions, and was covered with thick tephra. When the survey was performed, two plant communities developed. One was a forest dominated by Populus maximowiczii, and another was a grassland with a canopy of the large perennial, Polygonum sachalinense. In each plant community, we estimated the abundance of rodents by Sherman traps. The abundance was 5 Clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae/100 traps/night in the grassland, and 0 in the forest. This implied that a generalist, C. rufocanus bedfordiae became established in the grassland, probably because of plant community structure, including litter deposits, rather than food resources. The results compared with those from Mount St. Helens suggested that rodent immigration was greatly determined by the scales of eruptions and recovery patterns of plant communities. (Iire & Tsuyuzaki 2007)

Toolik lake

Rodent Rodent
At Toolik Lake Research Station on August 8 2009. Three marmot species are in Alaska: hoary marmot (Marmota caligata), Alaska marmot (M. broweri), and woodchuck (M. monax).

Order Artiodactyla (偶蹄, ウシ)


sheep
Domestic sheep on a meadow in
Hokkaido University on September
30 2015

Sheep (ヒツジ)

Dall Sheep (Ovis dalli dalli)
Dall Sheep inhabit the mountain ranges of Alaska. They are found in relatively dry country and frequent a special combination of open alpine ridges, meadows, and steep slopes with extremely rugged "escape terrain" in the immediate vicinity. They use the ridges, meadows, and steep slopes for feeding and resting. When danger approaches they flee to the rocks and crags to elude pursuers. They are generally high country animals but sometimes occur in rocky gorges below timberline in Alaska.

Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport
Natural History Collection

Domestic sheep (Ovis aries)

Yak (ヤク)

Definition
Function: noun
Inflected Form(s): plural yaks also yak
Etymology: Tibetan gyagk
Date: 1795
a large long-haired wild or domesticated ox (Bos grunniens syn. B. mutus) of Tibet and adjacent elevated parts of central Asia

Yak on Ruoergai marsh

zone 1. Landscape where vegetation zonation was surveyed in Ruoergai grassy marshland (wetland, 湿原). I used black/white films, becauase b/w photos were usual for publishing scientific papers.


Yak2 Yak3 Effect of yak on vegetation
Fig. 1. Total or mean number of species in relation to coverage degree. Total number of species is shown by solid line, and mean number of species per quadrat is shown by interrupted lines with standard deviation drawn from vertical bar. Same letters shown above stars within circles indicate non-significant difference (t-test, p < 0.05). The difference of total number of species on cover categories is not significant (χ² test, p < 0.05) (Tsuyuzaki & Tsujii 1990).
2. Landscape on yak-grazing area. You can see yurts, i.e., Tibetan tents, scattered over a large area. Brown areas are becoming (semi-)bareground.
3. Close to yak-grazing area, we understand denudation well. The organisms laying down in the center of photo are yak, one of the cow species. So dangerous!

Carnivora (食肉目)


wolf

Canidae (dog, イヌ)

Wolf (Canis lupus)
The wolf occurs throughout Alaska. Their range includes about 85% of Alaska's 586,000 mi². Wolves are adaptable and exist in a wide variety of habitats extending from the rain forests of the Southeast Panhandle to the arctic tundra along the Beaufort Sea. Although the distribution of wolves has remained relatively constant in recent times, their abundance has varied considerably as prey availability, diseases, and harvests have influenced their numbers.

Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport, Natural History Collection

Felidae (true cats, ネコ)

    Miacis ─── Dinictis ──┬── Panthera (big cats)
                     │        ├── Felis (little cats)
                     │        └── Acinonyx (cheetah)
                     └─────── Sabre-tooth
    35 (Oligocene)   25 (Miocene)     7 (million years ago)

Fig. Phylogeny

white tiger
Panthera, Oken 1816 (ヒョウ)
P. tigris (tiger)
P. leo (lion)
P. onca (jaguar)
P. pardus (leopard)
P. uncia (snow leopard)

Ursidae (bear, クマ)

Brown Bear (Ursus arctos)
Brown bears occur throughout Alaska except on the islands south of Frederick Sound in Southeastern Alaska, the islands west of Unimak in the Aleutian Chain, and the islands of the Bering Sea. The term "brown bear" is commonly used to refer to the members of this species found in coastal areas where salmon is the primary food resource. Brown bears found inland and in northern habitats are often called "grizzlies."

Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport
Natural History Collection

Bear Bear

Grazing (放牧)


Herbivores (in particular vertebrates) feed on plants. The effects of grazing on vegetatiion are positive, negative, or neutral.

Negative effects: often observed when over-grazingg occurs. The grazing leads soil erosion, water pollution, and lowering diversity.
Positive effects: Intermediate disturbance hypothesis predicts that moderate grazing supports high biodiversity.

Enclosure experiment


Enclosure1 Enclosure2 To investigate the effects of grazing on vegetation, enclosure experiments are often conducted.
[1] around Toolik Lake, Alaska, on August 8 2009. [2] in Nakajima Island (中島) enclosed by Toya Lake on July 21 2005. This enclosure is established for estimating the effects of deer grazing on vegetation. Clear differences between the inside and outside. (Tsuyuzaki & Takahashi 2007)

Feeding habit (食性)


Feeding habits classfied by food types
→ the classification is applied for not only mammals but also all the animals

Carnivore (肉食動物, s.l.)

terrestrial large vertebrates and invertebrates (predation and scavenging) → carnivorous (肉食性)

meat eaters, generally requiring live foods

have a short intestinal tract, and a relatively large stomach designed to hold an entire fish. Their digestive system lacks the ability to digest vegetable matter, so even though they might eat plants, they cannot derive nutrients from them as other fish do. Because they will chase down and eat other fish in the aquarium, carnivores are not suitable for a community tank.

Carnivorous plant (食虫植物)

carnivore (s.s.): terrestrial vertebrates
piscivore: fish
lepidophagy: fish scales insectivore (食虫動物): insect → insectivorous (食虫性)

myrmecophagy: ants and/or termites

molluscivore: molluscs
sanguinivore (hematophagy): blood
spongivore: sponges
ophiophagy: snakes

Herbivore (草食動物, s.l.)

eating plants → herbivorous (草食性) are on the opposite end of the dietary food chain from carnivores. Although herbivores can sometimes be seen eating live foods, the proper diet for an herbivore consists of plants, algae, and fruits.
They have no true stomach; instead they possess a specialized intestine that is capable of breaking down plant matter. Their teeth are flat, which allows them to grind food before swallowing it. Because they lack a stomach for holding large volumes of food, the herbivore must eat frequently - at least several times per day. Because herbivores require frequent feedings of vegetables and fruits, they are often not the best choice for a community tank.
Any heterotrophic organism that feeds (consumes) exclusively on plant matter.

graminivore: grasses (s.l., i.e., including sedges, rushes, etc.)
folivore: leaves

adjective: -rous

palynivore: pollen
nectarivore: nectars
mucivore: sap
frugivore: fruits
granivore: seeds
xylophagy: wood

mycovore: fungi
bacterivore: bacteria

Omnivore (雑食動物)

eating any food (or animals, plants, fungi, etc.) → omnivorous (雑食性)
none of above (eating non-living or decaying food)
eat a variety of meat and vegetable matter. Although omnivores can and will eat vegetable matter, they cannot digest some types of grains and plants. Their teeth and digestive tract possesses some of the traits of both the carnivore and the herbivore.
Omnivores are the easiest of all fish to feed, as they eat flake foods as well as live foods, and everything in between. For that reason, omnivores are an excellent choice for a community tank.

scavenger: carrion
coprophagy (糞食): faces → coprophagous (食糞性)
limnivore: soils, muds, etc.
detritivore: decompsed substances, such as litter


Plants damaged by herbivores on Mount Koma (渡島駒ヶ岳)
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[Left] sharp feeding trace by hare. Photo taken on April 28 2005 by Miyuki Matsuda. [Center] the stem bark of Larix kaempferi (カラマツ) is completely removed by mouse or rat. On April 28 2005, by Miyuki Matsuda. [Right] the most dangerous omnivore on Mount Koma. On April 28 2005, by M. Akasaka
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