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(Upload on January 22 2019) [ 日本語 | English ]

Meteorology (気象学)






Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

[ climatology | disaster ]

Applications
Weather forecasting
Biological meteorology (生物気象学)

Agricultural meteorology (農業気象学)

Hydrometeorology
Maritime meteorology, etc.
eclipse
at Sapporo an eclispe seen on October 8 2014
索引

[ ultraviolet ]

Solar radiation or insolation (日射)


energy input → changing with latitudes and seasons

Atmosphere (大気)


Beaufort scale of wind force (ビューフォート風力階級)
an empirical measure showing wind speed (at 10 m above the sea surface) to observed conditions

Ex. Beaufort number. description: wind speed, kt/m·s-1 (wave height, m): sea conditions; land conditions

  1. Calm (静穏): < 1/0.5 (0);
    sea like a mirror
    smoke rises vertically
  2. Light air (至軽風): 1-3/0.5-1.5 (0-0.3):
    ripples with appearance of scales are formed, without foam crests
    direction shown by smoke drift but not by wind vanes
  3. Light breeze (軽風): 4-6/1.6-3.3 (0.3-0.6)
    small wavelets still short but more pronounced; crests have a glassy appearance but do not break
    wind felt on face; leaves rustle; wind vane moved by wind
  4. Gentle breeze (軟風): 7-10/3.4-5.5 (0.6-1.2)
    large wavelets; crests begin to break; foam of glassy appearance; perhaps scattered white horses
    leaves and small twigs in constant motion; light flags extended
  5. Moderate breeze (和風): 11-16/5.5-7.9 (1-2)
    small waves becoming longer; fairly frequent white horses
    raises dust and loose paper; small branches moved
  6. Fresh breeze (疾風): 17-21/8-10.7 (2-3)
    moderate waves taking a more pronounced long form; many white horses are formed; chance of some spray
    small trees in leaf begin to sway; crested wavelets form on inland waters
  7. Strong breeze (雄風): 22-27/10.8-13.8 (3-4)
    large waves begin to form; the white foam crests are more extensive everywhere; probably some spray
    large branches in motion; whistling heard in telegraph wires; umbrellas used with difficulty
  8. High wind, moderate gale, near gale (強風): 28-33/13.9-17.1 (4-5.5)
    sea heaps up and white foam from breaking waves begins to be blown in streaks along the direction of the wind; spindrift begins to be seen
    whole trees in motion; inconvenience felt when walking against the wind
  9. Gale, fresh gale (疾強風): 34-40/17.2-20.7 (5.5-7.5)
    moderately high waves of greater length; edges of crests break into spindrift; foam is blown in well-marked streaks along the direction of the wind
    twigs break off trees; generally impedes progress
  10. Strong/severe gale (大強風): 41-47/20.8-24.4 (7-10)
    high waves; dense streaks of foam along the direction of the wind; sea begins to roll; spray affects visibility
    slight structural damage (chimney pots and slates removed)
  11. Storm, whole gale (暴風): 48-55/24.5-28.4 (9/12.5)
    very high waves with long overhanging crests; resulting foam in great patches is blown in dense white streaks along the direction of the wind; on the whole the surface of the sea takes on a white appearance; rolling of the sea becomes heavy; visibility affected
    seldom experienced inland; trees uprooted; considerable structural damage
  12. Violent storm (烈風): 56-63/28.5-32.6 (11.5-16)
    exceptionally high waves; small- and medium-sized ships might be for a long time lost to view behind the waves; sea is covered with long white patches of foam; everywhere the edges of the wave crests are blown into foam; visibility affected
    very rarely experienced; accompanied by widespread damage
  13. Hurricane force (颶風): ≥64/≥32.7 (≥14)
    the air is filled with foam and spray; sea is completely white with driving spray; visibility very seriously affected
    devastation
*: wind speed codes are somehow different between regions or researches (⇒ Japan). The units (単位) are also different.
Wind direction (風向)
wind
Fig. Compass rose (meteorological compass) wind
Fig. Connection of Beaufort force, Fujita scale and Mach number.

V = 1.87081.5 mpg = 0.836B1.5 m/s
V = 141(F + 2)1.5 mph = 6.30 (F + 2)1.5 m/s
V = (742 + 1.3t)M mph = (331 + 0.6t)M m/s

Cloud ()


Def. A visible mass of liquid droplets or frozen crystals made of water or various chemicals suspended in the atmosphere (→ aerosols) above the surface of a planetary body
Clouds Clouds
Clouds Clouds
Toolik

Cloud classification

cirro-: curl of hair, high
alto-: mid
strato-: layer
nimbo-: rain, precipitation
cumulo-: heap

Aerosol (エアロゾル)


Natural aerosol = cloud, volcanic ash, (fire smoke - sometimes anthropogenic), etc. Anthropogenic aerosol = factory emission, veichle exhaust, etc.
ENSO → El niño, inducing severe wildfire (in southeastern Asia)
Aerosol optcal thickness (AOT) or depth (ADT)

Precipitation (降水)


Pan evaporation
A measurement that combines or integrates the effects of several climatic elements, such as temperature, humidity, rain fall, drought dispersion, solar radiation and wind
pan

Application: agriculture - to know how much water the crops need

Weather (天気)


the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy

Forecast (天気予報)


the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a future time and a given location
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