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Fungal taxonomy (菌類分類学)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

  │      │                    Yeast
 Insect   │                      │
parasites │                      │
  │      │       EUASCOMYCETAE  │    │              │
  │      │ Molds  │  │  │    │    │              │
  ├───┴────┴─┴─┴──┘    ├─ Mushrooms  │
Ascomycota                        Basidiomycota         │
  └──────────────────┘            Plants
                  │                ┌──Rhodophyta──┘
              CONJUAGTING         PROTIST       ANCESTORS
                  │                │
Fig. Phylogeny of kingdom Fungi (Margulis 1974)

1983 ___ fungi vs bacteria
Genus __ 5000 vs 200
Species _ 45000 vs 1200


Kingdom Eumycota (菌類, fungi)

Division Eumycota (Mycobionta) 真菌門

≈ fungi + molds + yeasts

Subdivision Mastigomycotina 鞭毛菌亜門(類)

Vegetative organ: monocecullar or mycelial, developing mobile spores or gametes
Swarmer (遊走細胞) at certain stages
1. planogametic conjugation (運動性配偶子接合)

isogamous (同形配偶)
anisogamous (異形同配偶) (adj. anisogamous): referring to gamets that cosistently differ in size, the larger designated "female" and the smaller "male"

physiological anisogamy: isogamy with physiological differences between the uniting isogametes


2. gametangial contact (配偶子単結合)
3. gametangial conjugation (配偶子接合)
4. spermatization (不動精子による受精)
5. somatogamy (体細胞接合)

Division Chytridiomycota ツボカビ

Class Chytridiomycetes ツボカビ
Class Oomycetes 卵菌
Class Blastocladiales (厚膜嚢菌)
⇒ separated to Division Blastocladiomycota
Blastocladiaceae (コウマクノウキン)
Allomyces E. J. Butler (カワリミズカビ) Blastocladia Reinsch (コウマクノウキン): B. emersonii
Catenariaceae (フシフクロカビ)
Coelomomycetaceae (ボウフラキン)

Division Zygomycota 接合菌

(= Subdivision Zygomycotina 接合菌亜門, 接合菌類)
Class Zygomycetes 接合菌綱
Order Mucorales (ケカビ)
Mucoraceae (ケカビ)

Division Ascomycota 子嚢菌

Division Basidiomycota 担子菌

Agaricales (ハラタケ)
Tricholomataceae キシメジ
Armillaria ナラタケ

(Division Glomeromycota グロムス菌)

Division Basidiomycota (担子菌)

Subdivision Basidiomycotina 担子菌亜門(担子菌類)

Life cycle (生活環)
Haplobiontic A life cycle_Haplobiontic B________Haplobiontic C
Fig. Life cycle of sexually reproducing fungi
Fig. Life cycle of Agaricus sp. (mushroom)
Table. Saccardo's spore groups (Saccardo 1899) → Saccardo's system

(Phyllum Microsporidia 微胞子虫門)

Phyllum Deutromycets 不完全菌, mitosporic fungi

sexual reproduction is not observed → vegetative reproduction by conidia

Species in Deutromycets are classified into any phyla based on molecular phylogenetic analysis

Table. Saccardo's spore groups (Saccardo 1899)
SporesName covering 1 and 21: Spores hyaline or bright (Hyalo-)2: Spores dark (Phaeo-)
A1-celled (and not E, F, or G)AmerosporaeHyalosporaePhaeosporae
C2 or more cross septaPhragmosporaeHyalophragmaePhaeophragmae
FSpirally coiledHelioosporare
GStar-like in formStaurosporae

Fungi01 Fungi02 Fungi03
[1] Amanita hemibapha ( Br.) Sacc. at Kofu-en, South Ward, Sapporo, on June 30 2009. [2] Pycnoporus coccineus, on a log tree along a trail at Mount Namsan in Seoul City, Korea, on September 13 2012. [3] Amanita muscaria (L.) Lam. at Upper Chatanika Camp Site, Alaska, USA, on August 11 2010. Back: at the campus of Hokkaido University on October 7 2014.
Fungi04 Fungi05 Fungi06
[4] Hericium erinaceum (Bull.) Persoon at a street tree, N20/W3, North Ward, Sapporo, on October 8 2013. [5] Trichaptum biforme (Fr.) Ryvarden in a Hokkaido University Campus on September 11 2013. [6] Coprinellus micaceus (Bull.) Vilgalys, Hopple et Jacq. Johnson at the base of an old Ulmus davidiana tree in the campus of Hokkaido University on June 21 2014.
Fungi07 Fungi08 Fungi09
[7] Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers. on Shiroyama nature road in Kagoshima City, southern Kyushu, on March 20 2015. (fairy ring) [8] Coriolus versicolor (L.) QAuel. (syn. Trametes versicolor (L.) Lloyd) in Tsukiura Forset Park near the Toya Lake Experimental Station of Hokkaido University on September 15 2015. [9] Aleuria aurantia (Pers.) Fuckel in the Furano Experimental Forest of the University of Tokyo, central Hokkaido, on June 28 2017
Fungi10 Fungi11 Fungi12
[10] Pholiota terrestris Overholts (poisonous) on a lawn in the campus of Hokkaido University, Sapporo, on November 13 2017. [11] Fuscoporia obliqua (Ach. ex Pers.) Aoshima (カバノアナタケ) sample stored in the Uryu Experimental Forest, northern Japan, on June 28 2018. [12] Piptoporus betulinus (Bull.) P. Karst. (カンバタケ) grown on a stump of brich near the backyard of Japanese archery training hall, Hokkaido University, on September 8 2018.
Fungi13 Fungi14 Fungi15
[13] Gerronema fibula (Bull.) Singer (ヒナノヒガサ) on a lawn in front of Sarobetsu Wetland Center on August 27 2018. [14] Laccaria amethystina (Huds.) Cooke (ウラムラサキ) near the parking lot of Mount Koma, southern Hokkaido, on July 9 2018. [15] Perenniporia fraxinea (Bull.) Ryvarden (ベッコウタケ) at the base of a large cherry tree on a bank along Sophia Street, Chiyoda Ward, Tokyo, on October 19 2018.