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Scientists (科学者)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

[ Ecologist | Taxonomist | References ]


(s.l.) A person who is one engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge.
(s.s.) A scientist is an individual who uses the (natural) scientific method. University professors are not always scientists.


Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (born in Berlin, Prussia, 1769-1859), ggeographer, naturalist and explorer
→ botanical geography (influencing Darwin), firstly proposed the continents were eonce joined

1799-1804: traveling Latin America

Gottlob König
1779-1849, German
forestry scientist

von Salisch, Heinrich (フォン・ザーリッシュ)

1846-1920, born in Jeschütz (now Ujeździec)
1885 Forstästhetik (Forest aesthetics, 森林美学)

1902 2nd edition (translated into English in 2008)
1911 3rd edition

Tatewaki M (舘脇 操)

Hiromu OKADA (岡田 弘)



Family Doctor of Mt. Usu

Mr. Okada started researching the prediction of eruptions on the day before the eruption of 1977. Stationed at the Usu Volcano Observatory from 1981 to 2001, he predicted the eruption of 2000 and successfully organized the early evacuation with zero casualties through coordinated community efforts. He was known as the “Family Doctor of Mt. Usu” and also as a major proponent for the registration of Mt. Usu as a Global Geopark.

(Plant community) Ecologist (植物群集生態学者)

A brief history of plant ecology viewing from ecologists

  • Warming, Eugenius (nickname = Eugen) (1841-1924)
    Warming E & Vahl M. 1909. Oecology of Plants - an introduction to the study of plant-communities. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 422 pp. (2nd edn 1925). [first book on plant ecology]
  • Schimper, Andreas Franz Wilhelm (1856-1901)
    a botanist and phytogeographer →
    Schimper AFW. 1903. Plant geography upon a physiological basis. (Lubrecht & Cramer Ltd; Translated and Reprinted edition, June 1960)
    beginning of plant physiological ecology (ecophysiology)
  • Raunkiaer, Christen Christensen (eponymous) (1860-1938)
    1907 lifeform classification
  • Tansley, Arthur George (1871-1955)
    founded British Ecological Society
  • Clements, Frederic Edward (1874-1945)
  • Gleason, Henry Allen (1882-1975): Individualistic (or continuum) concept of plant associations
    -. 1917. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 43:463-481. -. 1926. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 53:1-20. -. 1939. Amer. Midl. Nat. 21:92-110
    Gleason did not disagree with the concept of plant "communities," per se: "Granted, of the actual existence of definable units of vegetation there is no doubt that these units have describable structure, that they appear, maintain themselves, and eventually disappear are observable facts."
    Rather, he argued that: "vegetation, in its broader aspects, is composed of a number of plant individuals. The development and maintenance of vegetation is therefore merely the resultant of the development and maintenance of the component individuals ... according to this view, the phenomena of vegetation depend completely upon the phenomena of the individual"
  • Turesson, Goete Wilhelm (1982-1970)
    heritability of traits in plant species, common garden approaches, ecotypes
  • Braun-Blanquet, Josias (1884-1980)
    phytosociology (vegetation analysis and classification)
  • Stebbins, George Ledyard (1906-2000)
    comprehensive analyses of population and geographic variation in plants
  • Billings, William Dwight (1910-1997)
    ecophysiology (gas exchange, water potential, temperature, etc.)
  • Grant, Verne (1917-2007)
    Grant V. 1971. Plant Speciation. Columbia University Press
    pollination systems as reproductive isolation mechanisms
  • Whittaker, Robert Hardin (ホイッタカー) (1920-1980)
1970 - present: Allozyme studies in plant ecological genetics.
  • Harper John Lander (1925-)
    Harper, J.L. 1977. Population Biology of Plants. Academic Press (Reprint edn. 1981)
    Begon, M., Harper, J.L. & Townsend, C.R. 1996. Ecology. Individuals, populations and communities. (3rd edn.). Blackwell Science, London
1960-1974 International Biological Program (IBP)
1975-: scale from molecular techniques to biogeochemistry
1985-: DNA-based genetic markers in plant ecological genetics
1990-: PCR-based genetic marker techniques
1998-: quantitative trait locus mapping emerges as a revolutionary method for studying selection
2000-: plants rule at ESA meetings

renewed focus on mechanisms that control distribution and abundance of plants

Tatewaki Misao (舘脇 操), 1899.9.8-1976.7.18
  • ---, Ito K, Tohyama M. 1965. Phytosociological study on the forest of Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis Gordon). Research Bulletins of the College Experiment Forests, Hokkaido University 29: 1-176

Wegener, Alfred Lothar (1880-1930, ヴェゲナー/ウェゲナー)

Germany: Meteorologist, geophysicist and polar researcher
1912: the theory of continental drift

not widely accepted until the 1950s
supported by plate tectonics

  • Wegener A. 1912. Die Entstehung der Kontinente. Geologische Rundschau 3: 276–292 (in German)
  • Wegener A. 1929. Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane (4 ed.). Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Akt. Ges (in German) [Wegener A. 1966. The origin of continents and oceans. Dover, New York]
Fossil patterns across continents (Gondwana)

Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1744.08.01–1829.12.18, ラマルク)

France: proposed use-and-disuse theory
1778 Flore françoise, ou, Description succincte de toutes les plantes qui croissent naturellement en France

1795 2nd edn, 1805 3rd edn

1809 Philosophie Zoologique
1815–22 Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres

Lamarckian evolution (Lamarckism or lamarckian theory)

Darwin, Charles Robert (1809.02.12-1882.04.19, ダーウィン)

England: naturalist, evolutionist and geologist
1859 On the origin of speies by means of natural selection
1844 Geological observations on the volcanic islands, visited during the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle
1868 The variation of animals and plants under domestication
1871 The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex
1872 The expression of the emotions in man and animals

Clements Frederic Edward (1874-1945, クレメンツ)

described vegegtation associations and formations in North America, patterns and processes of succession (遷移), species as environmental indicators, climax community concept
  • ---. 1907. Plant physiology and ecology. Cornell University Library. 332 pp.
  • ---. 1916. Plant Succession: an analysis of the development of vegetation. Carnegie Institue of Washington (DC). 512 pp.
  • ---. 1928. Plant succession and indicators. H. W. Wilson Company, NY. 570 pp.
  • Weaver JE, ---. 1938. Plant ecology. McGraw-Hill, NY. 601 pp.
On vegetation and autogenic succession: Vegetation is the sum total of plants covering an area ... vegetation is more than the mere grouping of individual plants. It is the result of the interactions of numerous factors. The effects of the plants upon the place in which they live and their influence upon each other are especially significant
On vegetation as a 'superorganism': ... a study of vegetation reveals that it is an organic entity and that, like an organism, each part is interdependent upon every other part ... the development of vegetation consists of a number of closely related all organisms, vegetation arises, develops, matures, reproduces, and may eventually die ... vegetation, like all organisms, not only undergoes development but also possesses structure.
On climax vegetation and climate: "Depending upon climate, composition or structure varies (e.g., grassland, forest, tundra); these large units are formations or biome (バイオーム). The climax formation is not merely the response to a particular climate, but is at the same time the expression and indication of this climate.
Plant formations (植物共同体, 群落)

proposed by Clements ≠ an organic entity.

Ex. Fagus, Abies, Picea, tundra

  initiation - selection -  construction -  terminating
               initiating   continuing      stabilizing
               progress     process or      process or
               or initial   ecesis cause    climatic cause
  ↑           ↑
  seed         germinating

Raunkiaer, Christen Christensen (1860.03.29-1938.03.11)

A Danish botanist and plant ecologist, being famous by the proposal of life-form concept
A professor in botany at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and the director of the Copenhagen Botanical Garden (1911-1923)
  • Raunkiaer C. 1907. Planterigets Livsformer ogderes Betydning for Geografien. Copenhargen
  • Raunkiaer C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical geography. Oxford University Press, Oxford. (This translation contains the papers of Raunkiaer from 1903)

ter Braak CJF (1954-)

  • Jongman RHG, ter Braak CJF, van Tongeren OFR. 1995. Data analysis in community and landscape ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. pp. 299
  • ter Braak CJF. 1986. Canonical correspondence analysis: a new eigenvector technique for multivariate direct gradient analysis. Ecology 67: 1167-1179.
  • ter Braak CJF, Looman CWN. 1986. Weighted averaging, logistic regression and the Gaussian response model. Vegetatio 65: 3-11.
  • ter Braak CJF. 1987. The analysis of vegetation-environment relationships by canonical correspondence analysis. Vegetatio 69: 69-77.
  • ter Braak CJF, Gremmen NJM 1987. Ecological amplitudes of plant species and the internal consistency of Ellenberg's indicator values for moisture. Vegetatio 69: 79-87.
  • ter Braak CJF. 1988. Partial canonical correspondence analysis. pp. 551-558. in: Bock HH (ed.). Classification and related methods of data analysis. North Holland, Amsterdam.
  • ter Braak CJF. 1988. Canoco-a FORTRAN program for canonical community ordination by partial detrended canonical correspondence analysis, principal component analysis and redundancy analysis. TNO Institute of Applied Computer Science, Wageningen.
  • ter Braak CJF, Smilauer P. 2002. CANOCO reference manual and CanoDraw for Windows user's guide. Software for canonical community ordination (version 4.5). Microcomputer Power, Ithaca, NY

Botanist (植物学者)

Taxonomist (分類学者)

Carl von Linnaeus (Linne)

Naturalist (taxonomist), Sweden (Father of modern classification)

Born: May 23 1707 in southern Sweden
Died: January 10 1778 in Hammarby

artificial taxonomy → Darwin: natural taxonomy
1735 Systema Natureæ (System of nature, 自然の体系)
1737 Genera Plantarum (植物属誌): 935 genera
1738 Classes Plantarum (classes of plants) (植物の綱)
1751 Phylosophia Botanica (植物哲学)
1753 Species Plantarum (1st edn) (植物種誌)

Principle of priority is effective after this publicaiton (names propobsed before this publication are not accepted)

1764 Genera Plantarum (6nd edn): 1239 genera

Bentham, George, CMG FRS

1800-1884, UK
  • Bentham G, Hookker JD. 1862-1883. Genera Plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita. vols 3. L Reeve & Co., London

Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton

1817-1911, UK
1844-1847 Flora Antarctica
1851-1853 Flora Novae Zelandiae
1855 Flora Indica
1860 Flora Tasmanica
1872-1897 Flora of British India


Engler, Heinrich Gustav Adolf

Engler, Adolf
Plant taxonomist, German

Born: March 2 1844. Sagan, Prussia
Died: October 10 1930. Berlin, Germany

1924 Engler-Glig: Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien 9/10 Aufl.

1936 Engler-Diales: Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien 11 Aufl.

1954 Melchior H und Wedermann E: Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien 12 Aufl.

New Engler's Syllbus

Mendel, Gregor Johann (メンデル)

July 20 1822 - January 6 1884, Austrian
the founder of the modern science of genetics (heredity)

1856-1863: pea plant experiments
→ the laws of Mendelian inheritance

Philosopher (哲学者)

Schopenhauer Arthur (ショーペンハウアー)

1788-1860, German
1939 On the Freedom of the Will
1840 On the Basis of Morality
1851 Parerga and Paralipomena

Kant Immanuel (カント)

1724-1804, German
Modern philosophy

Transcendental idealism
Critical philosophy
Synthetic a priori
Noumenon Sapere aude

Categorical imperative
Hypothetical imperative
"Kingdom of Ends"
The understanding–reason distinction
The abstract–concrete distinction
The primacy of the practical
Nebular hypothesis

Kierkegaard Soeren Aabye (キルケゴール)

1813-55, Denmark

Nietzsche Friedrich Wilhelm (ニーチェ)

1844-1900, German
Apollonian and Dionysian
The "slave revolt" in morals
Death of God and nihilism
Will to power
Eternal return

Sartre Jean Paul (サルトル)

1905-1980, French
existentialism and phenomenology

→ influencing sociology, critical theory, post-colonial theory and literary studies

World War II

1943: Being and Nothingness
1946: Existentialism and Humanism