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Social science (社会科学)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

The academic disciplines concerned with society and human nature
Subjects (by personal choice)
sociology, law, economics (including management), politics, human geography, history, anthropology (including archaeology and linguistics), and the other sensitive subjects

[ agroforestry ]

Sociology (社会学)

The study of social behavior or society, including its origins, development, organization, networks and institutions

Economics (経済学)

Smith Adam 1720-1790, Scotland

The Wealth of Nations (国富論) (1776) ← modern economics
← the principles of neoclassical economics (古典派経済学) ← influenced Recardo, Marx
← the price is determined only by the factors derived from supply side (output side)
← labor value theory (労働価値説): the value of goods is determined by labor quantity required for the production

Recardo D 1772-1823
Cournot A 1801-1877

marginal revolution (限界革命) = economy based on marginal concept
← value of production goods, i.e., price, is determined in the market

Walras L 1834-1910

equilibrium theory of market (economy) (市場均衡理論)

Pareto 1848-1923

heir on equilibrium theory of market ← exchange theory

Menger C 1840-1912
Walras, Pareto and Menger ← marginal utility theory (限界効用理論), proposed independently

commodity value ← measured by marginal utility

Marshall Alfred 1842-1924

Principles of Economics (1890)
proposed supply and demand, marginal utility, and costs of production
initiated neoclassical economics

Marx K 1818-1883
Jevons William Stanley 1835-1882, England

A general mathematical theory of political economy (1862)

Menger C 1840-1912
Pigou AC 1877-1959

heir of Marshall

Keynes JM 1883-1946: criticize traditional economics

= Keynesian revolution

Hicks JR 1904-1989, Samuelson PA 1915-2009

← established the fundamental concept of modern economics

Market economy (市場経済)

Def. Market (市場): a medium that allows buyers and sellers of a specific good or service to interact in order to facilitate an exchange
Def. Goods (商品): a consumable item that is useful to people but scarce in relation to its demand, so that human effort is required to obtain

↔ free goods: (ex. air ↔ CO2 trade)

Def. Market transaction (市場取引): goods, services, information, currency or any combination of these things passing from one party to another in exchange for one of these or another combination

Open-market transaction
Clsoed-market transaction

Econometrics (計量経済学)

Environmental economics (環境経済学)

≠ ecological economics
studies on the financial impact of environmental policies

Agroforestry (アグロフォレストリー)

'Agroforestry' = 'agriculture' + 'forestry' is to create sustainable landuse systems by an approach mixed with the technologies of agriculture and foerestry. One of the objectives is sustainable landuse.

Agrofrestry in Los Banos

ST1 ST2 [1] The upper layer is used for forestry, i.e., lumbers. The lower layer is for agriculture, e.g., banana cultivation (see the right). [2] Agroforestry system under construction. These two photos were taken on Mount Makiling, Los Banos, Philippines, on December 18 1997.

Taguiam & Tsuyuzaki 1998

Abstract. Agroforestry is the favored farming system farmers adopt in Bagong Silang, Makiling Forest Reserve, Philippines. It is a farming system whose origin can be traced from kaingin (swiddening), a fundamental form of agroforestry, handed down by the first batch of farmers to the present generation of farmers. Agroforestry is recognized as an age-old tool in the protection and stabilization of the ecosystem, at the same time it provides a stable source of income and basic materials to the rural folks. However, farmers in Bagong Silang refused to associate their farming system to agroforestry. From the farmers' perspective, agroforestry means reforestation that involves the sole planting of forest trees. Thus, there is a need to strengthen the dissemination of basic information on agroforestry as a farming system and as a conservation tool in order to protect the Reserve from other forms of human activity. Other sociological factors determined to influence the adoption of agroforestry include beliefs and practices, migration pattern, place of origin, occupation and income.

Key Words: agroforestry / cropping pattern / farming system / Makiling Forest Reserve / Philippines / social forestry.