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## Thermodynamics (熱力学)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

temperature (climate)

The study of the effects of work, heat and energy on a system

conserned with large scale observaitons without the consideration of molecular structure

Zeroth law: thermodynamic equilibrium and temperature
First law: work, heat, and energy
Second low: entropy

##### Symbols for buget change

Δ: finite change
δ: minutely-small change
d; instantaneous change

Ex. Q: heat quantity (specific heat) → ΔQ, δQ, dQ

## Heat engine (熱機関)

### First law of thermodynamics (熱力学の第1法則)

 = the law of conservation of energy ≡ the total energy of an isolated system is constant Mayer, Julius Robert von 1814-1878, Doctor in Germany one of the scientists who established the first law

### Reaction heat or heat of reaction (反応熱)

#### Bond energy (結合エネルギー)

Bond energy of C-H: (1661.7 KJ/mol)/4 = 415.4 KJ/mol

unit

### 温度 (temperature)

##### Celsius (摂氏)
Celsius (temperature) scale, or degree Celsius
t (°C) = T (K) - 273.16 (K)
##### Fahrenheit (華氏)
Fahrenheit (temperature) scale, or degree Fahrenheit
°F = 1.8 (= 9/5) × °C + 32 ⇔ °C = (5/9)·(°F - 32)

°F: -40___0___50__100
°C: -40_-17.8__10__37.8