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Electromagnetic spectrum (電磁スペクトル)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

electromagnetic spectrum, visible light, ultraviolet, solar radiation

Applicaiton of Electromagnetics

used electrical dynamo (or generator) and motor and invented wireless (radio) communication
Morse Samuel FB 1791-1872, USA, artist

1837 wire telegraphy (telegraph)
1838 Morse code (dot and dash)
1851 established submarine electric cable in the English Channel

Geissler Heinrich 1814-1879, Germany

invented the first cold cathode discharge tube and Geissler tube

Edison Thomas Alva 1847-1931, USA

1880? filament lamp
1880? electrical distribution force
(1882 the distance of electrical power transmission = 65 km)

Ferraris Galileo 1847-1897, Italy, technician

discovered the principle of rotating magnetic field ← applied to produce induction motor (感応電動機)

Bell Alexander Graham 1847-1922, USA borne in Scotland

1876 telephone (contributed to the education for deaf persons)

Siemens, Ernst Werner von 1816-1892 Germany

Electrician and entrepreneur (established the predecessor of Siemens Co.)
1867 improved dynamo-electric generator based on self-excited principle
1880? electrical railroad

Parsons Sir Charles Algernon 1854-1931, England

1884 developed a compact steam turbine (蒸気タービン) for generator

Rateau Auguste 1863-1930, France, technician

1898 developed Rateau turbine based on fluid mechanics

Ferrié, Gustave 1868-1932, France, army general and scientist

1914- shakedown military-type radio communication network ← contributed to the development

Deprez Marcel 1843-1918, France, physics (electrical technology)

developed long-distance power transport technique

Planté, Gaston 1834-1889, France

developed practicable lead battery

Gramme ZT 1826-1901, Belgium, electrician

invented DC (direct-current) dynamo ← paved the way for practical use

Mascart Eleuthére 1837-1908: (electric) generator
Pacinotti, Antonio 1842-1912, Italy, physics (professor and senator)

invented DC (direct-current) dynamo

Baudot JME 1845-1903, France, inventor

baud that is a unit of modulating speed of telegram, originating from his name

Gaulard Lucien 1850-1888, France

electrical transformer (or voltage inverter), and electricity distribution system

Thomson Elihu 1853-1937, Use borne in England, electrician and inventor
Steinmetz Charles Proteus 1865-1923, USA borne in Germany, electrician and inventor

theory on AC (alternate current)

Electromagnetics (電磁気学)

= electromagnetism

Circuit (回路)

Schematic symbol (回路図記号)


PIN photo

PN photo

Tunnel diode



Gunn diode


Variable capacitor

Zener diode


variable condensor

variable resitor,

Sillicon controlled

circuit Depletion type
(N channel Ver.)

Depletion type
(P channel Ver.)

Enhancement type
(N channel Ver.)

Enhancement type
(P channel Ver.)

Light amplification by
stimulated emission
of radiation diode




Inverter (NOT)

(N channel Ver.)

(P channel Ver.)


Bipolar transistor (NPN)

Bipolar transistor (PNP)

Uni-junction transistor

Insulated gate bipolar transistor

Photo transistor

Gate turn-off thyristor

TRIode AC switch

Sillicon symmetrical switch

Electromagnetic spectrum (電磁スペクトル)

Fig. The electromagnetic energy spectrum
The entire range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, most of which are not detectable by the human eye except in visible spectrum from ca 400-700 nm. Wavelengths shorter than the visible light contain large quantities of energy being harmful to living materials.

Common name_Range (nm)
X-ray_________10-1 - 101 (0.1-10)
______A______102.30 - 102.45 (200-280)
______B______102.45 - 102.50 (280-320)
______C______102.50 - 102.58 (320-380)
Visible light____102.58 - 102.8 (380-630)
Infrared_______102.8 - 105 (630-100,000)
Radio_________105 - 109 (100,000-1,000,000,000)

Einstein's relation (アインシュタインの関係式), E = photon energy

= Planck–Einstein relation, Planck's energy–frequency relation, Planck relation or Planck equation

E = = h·c/λ

h: Planck constant
ν: frequency (sec-1) = c/λ
c: speed of light (3.00 × 108 m/s or 3.00 × 1010 cm/s)
λ wavelength of light (m)

Visible light (可視光)

390 nm - 750 nm (standard human eye), used for photosynthesis
Spectrum of visible light
A rainbow, which indicates the spectrum of visible light well, at Kougarok in Seward Peninsula, Alaska, on August 11 2013

Illuminance (照度): lux (lx)
Luminous flux (光束): lumen (lm), 1 lx = 1 lm/m²
Luminous intensity (光度): 1 cd = 1 lm/sr²
Luminance (輝度): nt, 1 nt = 1 cd/m²
Photosynthecally active radiation (PAR, 光合成有効放射)

the spectral range from 400-700 nm that is used by plants in photosynthesis

Ultraviolet light, UV (紫外線)


A type of electromagnetic radiation beyond the wavelength of visible light, ranging from 180 (200) to 330 (380) nm.

UV-A (long wave, black light)

over 99% of UV on the earth surface. UV-A enhances the harmful effects of UVB,and is responsible for photosensitivity reactions. Cause of suntan.

UV-B (medium wave)

1% on the earth surface. UV-B causes sunburn and photochemical damages within cells, including DNA. Cause of sunburn.

UV-C (short wave, germicidal)

UV-C is filtered out by the ozone layer and does not reach the earth surface.

UV-absorbing compounds (UVAC) 紫外線吸収物質


UV-absorbing compound concentration


sample in the field

↓ dig up a whole or aboveground material
↓ pack into a plastic bag (or ziplock)
↓ store in a cooler with refrigerant and/or dry ice
↓ carry them back to lab. asap
↓ keep the samples in a freezer at about -70(80)°C until use
↓ freeze-dry

Leaf sample


Method 1

Leaf sample (1 cm² or known weight)

↓ add 15-ml methanol (HPLC grade)/HCl/H2O (90:1:1 volume)
↓ continuously stir and boil for 10 min.
↓ cool at room temperature for 15 min.
↓ filtrate with 90-µm mesh screens


Method 2

Leaf sample (known weight)

↓ agitate gently in the dark for 24 hr at 4°C in 1 ml methanolic extract*

* 3M HCl/H2O/MeOH = 1:3:16 (vol)

↓ centrifuge at ≈ 8000 g for > 5 min.



Absorbance is measured by a spectrophotometer. Dilution may be required.

Antocyanin compounds

Use the following equation:
(Absorbance measured at 530 nm) - 0.24 × (Absorbance measured at 653 nm)

Calibration curve is made by Cyanidin 3-glucoside (Cy-3-glc)
♦ Unit = g (mg, or µg) (determined as Cy-3-glc g)/(g leaf)

UV-B absorbing compounds

Absorbance measured at 300 nm

UV-A absorbing compounds

Absorbance measured at 350 nm

♦ Unit (UV-B and UV-B) = A/g (absorbance %/g leaf)

(Day 1993, Gould et al. 2000)


  • Day TA. 1993. Relating UV-B radiation screening effectiveness of foliage to absorbing-compound concentration and anatomical characteristics in a diverse group of plants. Oecologia 95: 542-550
  • Gould KS, Markham KR, Smith RH & Goris JJ. 2000. Functional role of anthocyanins in the leaves of Quintinia serrata A. Cunn. Journal of Experimental Botany 51: 1107-1115

Radiation physics (放射線物理学)