(Upload on January 17 2016) [ 日本語 | English ]

Wild vegetable (山菜)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

"How are the tastes", see Japanse page
Table. Japanese and scientific names of wild vegetables, I have ever eaten, distributed in Hokkaido.
Allium victorialis ssp. platyphyllum (ギョウジャニンニク/アイヌネギ)
Amphicarpaea bracteata ssp. edgeworthii var. japonica (ヤブマメ)
Anemone flaccida (ニリンソウ/フクベラ)
ウド Aralia cordata
Aralia elata (タラノキ/タランボ))
Arctium lappa (ゴボウ)
Corydalis ambigua (エゾエンゴサク)
Erythronium japonicum (カタクリ)
Lilium cordatum var. glehnii (オオウバユリ)
Osmunda japonica (ゼンマイ)
Polygonatum odoratum var. maximowiczii (オオアマドコロ)
Polygonum sachalinense (オオイタドリ)
Rumex acetosa (スイバ)
Smilacina japonica (ユキザサ/アズキナ)
Trapa japonica (ベカンベ/ヒシ)
Matteuccia struthiopteris (クサソテツ/コゴミ)

[ wild vegetable | poisonous plant | crop ]
Plants and Plant communities in Japan, Field training on integrated environmental research (flora and fauna)


Poisonous plant (有毒植物)

= toxic plants
Toxin ()
all the chemical substances that negatiely influende the activies of livning organisms, in particular, human
Toxin (毒素)
chemical compounds produced by living organisms. Any naturally-produced poison is a toxin. Toxins are generally made of small molecules, peptides and/or proteins.
Toxoid (類毒素)

a chemical substances denatured by chemical reactions, reduced or removed the toxicity, and retained the activities as antitoxin

Evolution of protection on plants

toxins are evoluved for both defensive and offensive attacks to herbivores
→ plants possessing a property injurious to animals, including human

Touch, e.g., climbing sumac
Eating, e.g., aconite

Representatives of poisonous plants

Mandragora officinarun L., M. autumnalis Spreng., and M. caulescens Clarke (マンドラゴラ, mandrake or loveapple), Solanaceae

perennial herb, native to Mediterranean region
branched roots image man → various falk tales and beliefs root → alkaloid, fatty oil, etc.

cultivated for precious medicine (past) → pyretolysis, pain relief, emesis, purgative (high toxicity)

Hyoscyamus niger L. (ヒヨス), Solanaeae
20-80 cm high (flowering = May-September)
native to Europe, Western Asia and North Africa
seed → alkaloid

medicine as pain relief, sedation (for stomach cramps, gastric pains, kidney disease, etc. (strongly toxic)

Atropa belladonna L.(ベラドンナ), Solanaceae, belladonna
1-2 m high (flowering = June-September)
native to Europe, West Asia and Hymalayas

leaf, root: extracts are used for medicines and ingredient of manufacturing atropine sulphate that has the effect of pupillary enlargement (highly toxic)

Artemisia absinthium L.(ニガヨモギ)
perennial, 40-60 cm high (flowering = July-September)
distributed in Europe, northern America, northenr Asia, and northern Africa

no descriptions on toxity → containing absinthe, which is bitter glycoside, in the whole plant
cultivated after Rome for medicine
stems and branches → absinthe or absinth (アブサン酒), which is a strong liqueur

Colchicum autumnale L. (イヌサフラン)

Seeds and bulbs: containing colchicine, one of the alkaloids (highly toxic)

Euphorbia pekinensis Pupr. var. japonensis Makino (タカトウダイ), Euphorbiaceae
flowering = June-July
perennial, native to Japan (south to Honshu) - Korea

highly poisonous → contact = skin inflammation, sinus infection, uptake = troat upswell, blatts

Achillea alpina L. (ノコギリソウ)

containing chamazulene, etc. (essences) → pain relief, arrest of bleeding, etc. → paste the flour to affected part

Oak Nicotiana tabacum L. (タバコ), Solanaceae
perennial with 2 m high, flowering = summer
native to the tropical American Continent → widespread in temperate and tropical regions for producing cigarettes

dried leaf: nicotine and the other alkaloids → smoking (喫煙)
nicotine: nerve palsy stimulating through sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, and central nervous system, such as medulla oblongata and cerebellum
Slight = headache, vomit, etc.
Severe = vision disability, convulusion, coma, cardiac failure, etc.

Lactuca virosa L. (トゲハニガナ, 菊萵苣 きくぢさ), great lettuce (chn = 萵苣(わきょ) → 毒萵苣 = L. villosa)
annual, flowering = July-September
native to central and southern Europe, and northern Africa

emulsion containing in the whole plants = lactucarium: antitussive, hypnogenesis, pain reliever (past) → high drug toxicity (not used in the present)
↔ lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

Illicium religiosum Zucc. (シキミ), Illiciaceae

star-shaped fruit containing strong poison
→ emesis, diarrhea, breathing disorder, etc. after feeding (occasionally death)
anisatin (C15H20O8), neo-anisatin, etc.

Strychnos nux-vomica L. (マチン, strychine), Loganiaceae
evergreen tree ≈ 10 m high
native between India and tropical northern Australia

containing strychnine, one of the alkaloids
→ minute amount = stimulant ↔ mass administration (deadly poison) = rigidity and twitch, etc.

Helleborus niger L. (ヘリボー/ クリスマスローズ, Black Hellebore/ Christmas Rose), Ranunculaceae
evergreen perennial, flowering = December-February
native to Europe

Deadly poisons containing the whole plant → emesis, diarrhea, and/or irregular heartbeat after dosing
strong nauseant and cardiotonic (past)

Anacardium occidentale L. (カシュー, cashew), Anacardiaceae
evergreen tree
native to West India - Central American Continent

Bark containing tannin, fresh seed: anacardic acids
→ irritated skin
cashew nut shell liquid → crude material of cashew paint, cashew apple (edible)

Many more!

Poisonous plants distributed in Hokkaido
Actaea asiatica (ルイヨウショウマ)
Conium maculatum (ドクニンジン)
Chelidonium majus var. asiaticum (クサノオウ)
Datura metel (チョウセンアサガオ)
Disporum sessile (ホウチャクソウ)
Papaver somniferum (ケシ opium poppy)
Phryma leptostachya (ハエドクソウ)
Phytolacca esculenta (ヤマゴボウ)
Ranunculus japonicus (ウマノアシガタ)
Scoparia japonica (ハシリドコロ)
Solanum nigrum (イヌホオズキ)
Veratrum spp. (シュロソウ属, バイケイソウ)
Xanthium occidentale (オオオナモミ)
The three major poisonous plants of Japan (日本三大有毒植物)
These three species are distributed in Hokkaido.

Oriental medicine (漢方)

Buzzing or tinnitus (耳鳴り)

Crop (作物)

Plants and fungi grown to be harvested for economic purposes, such as food, fodder, and fuel.
  • Avena sativa L. (エンバク, oat)
  • Colocynthis citrullus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Naka) (スイカ, 西瓜, water melon, agushi or egusi) in Cucurbitaceae, commonly cultivated in Ghana
  • Glycine max (L.) Merr. ssp. max (ダイズ, 大豆, soybean) → Glycine soja (ツルマメ): the original strain
  • Hordeum vulgare L. (オオムギ, s.l.)
  • Lactuca sativa L. (チシャ/レタス)
  • Panicum miliaceum L. (キビ, 黍, millet or common millet) in Poaceae, commonly cultivated in Ghana
  • Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (ササゲ, 六角豆, black-eyed pea or California black-eyed pea) in Fabaeae, commonly cultivated in Ghana
Table. Optimal pH (pH that is best for plant growth)
pH: plants
5.0-5.5: rice, oat, sweet potato, water melon, sunchoke, tea
5.5-6.5: corn, buckwheat, tobacco, radish, lily, Japanese yam
5.5-7.0: wheat, carrot, turnip, burdock, aroid, tomato, egg plant
6.0-7.5: rye, soybean, azuki bean, green onion, white clover, sunflower
6.5-8.5: barley, spinach, potato, astragalus, onion


High-yield plant
High-yield vegetable, HYV