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Hokkaido University Short-Term Exchange Program (HUSTEP)
Introduction to Environmental Earth Science (Beadroll)




Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

International Student Center

I am the instructor in charge after 2009.

Contents

[ 2001 | 2002 | 2003 | 2007 | 2008 | 2009 | 2010·2011 | 2012-2018 | References ]

2012-2018


Syllabus

Instructors:
Shiro Tsuyuzaki, Sohiko Kameyama, Hitoshi Suzuki, Shunitz Tanaka, Toshikazu Kawaguchi
Course Category
Course offered by Graduate School of Environmental Science
Course Format: Lecture (+ small discussion, field trip, etc.)
Credit: 2
Course Goals
The objectives of this course are to learn several crucial issues in the global environments and to enhance ability of providing a possible resolution to the issues.
Understanding of:
  1. global warming and ocean ecosystems
  2. environmental changes and animal diversities
  3. plants and plant ecosystems in Japan
  4. environmental pollution and remediation
  5. nanotechnology for environmental sciences
Course Outline
  1. Introduction (guidance)
  2. Earth system and global warming
  3. The roles of the oceans and carbon cycles
  4. Marine feedback systems on global warming
  5. Impact of environmental changes on geographic distributions of animals
  6. Impact of environmental changes on genetic diversities
  7. Impact of humans on biodiversity
  8. Temporal and spatial patterns on ecosystems in Japan with reference to global warming
  9. Strolling across the campus to see the real examples of ecosystems (flexible depending on the weather)
  10. Nanotechnology for environmental science
  11. Biosensor for medical diagnosis and food analysis
  12. Gas sensor for environmental monitoring
  13. Past and present on environmental pollution in Japan
  14. Case studies of pollution in China, Indonesia and Mongolia
  15. Remediation technologies for water and soil

2010·2011


Syllabus

Instructors:
Shiro Tsuyuzaki, Jun Hirokawa, Yutaka Watanabe, Kazuhiro Toyoda, Hitoshi Suzuki
Course Category
Course offered by Graduate School of Environmental Science
Year: 2011
Semester/Quarter: 1st Semester
Course Format: Lecture in English
Credit: 2
Keywords
global warming, atmosphere, oceans, plants, animals, ecological disturbance, paleoclimatology, radioactive waste disposal
Course Description
The objectives of this course are to learn several crucial issues in the global environment and to enhance ability of providing a possible resolution to the issues.
Course Goals
Understanding of causes and effects of global warming. Understanding of plants in Hokkaido and the threats to plant communities. Understanding of past history of the earth and distribution of animals. Understanding of ongoing ozone depletion and air pollution.
Course Outline
  1. Introduction (S Tsuyuzaki)
  2. Climatic change and civilization (K Toyoda)
  3. Global warming and paleoclimatic changes (K Toyoda)
  4. Nuclear power generation and underground disposal of the radioactive waste (K Toyoda)
  5. Earth system and global warming (Y Watanabe)
  6. The roles of the oceans and carbon cycles (Y Watanabe)
  7. Marine feedback systems on global warming (Y Watanabe)
  8. Stratospheric ozone depletion (J Hirokawa)
  9. Tropospheric air pollution (J Hirokawa)
  10. Atmospheric chemistry and climate change (J Hirokawa)
  11. Strolling across the campus to see the real examples of ecosystems (schedule may change depending on the weather) (S Tsuyuzaki)
  12. Characteristics of temporal and spatial patterns on ecosystems in Japan with reference to global warming (S Tsuyuzaki)
  13. Impact of environmental changes on geographic distributions of animals (H Suzuki)
  14. Impact of environmental changes on genetic diversities (H Suzuki)
  15. Impact of humans on biodiversity (H Suzuki)
Textbook

To be announced

Grading Policy

Grading will be based on class participation and short papers.

Class Time, Dates and Location

14:45-16:15, Monday, D103-GSES


April 12 2010 · April 18 2011

Guidance

What is environmental science?
Climate in Japan: temperature and precipitation
Sakura front (cherry blossom front)

Equation for predicting the date of cherry blossom
Changes in date of cherry blossom may change animal behavior

Vegetation map in the world (and self-introduction)
Question: Find out the common characteristics of the five species.

Trillium kamtschaticum Pall. (Liliaceae)

= Emblem of Hokkaido University

Corydalis ambigua Cham. et Schlecht. (Papaveraceae)
Anemone raddeana Regel (Ranunculaceae)
Scopolia japonica Maxim. (Solanaceae)
Gagea lutea (L.) Ker-Gawl. (Liliaceae)

Vegetation map in Japan

Deciduous and evergreen forests

Spring ephemerals
Introduction of instructors
Supplements (for field trip)

__________________________

Memorandum for the next week (27 June)

We will stroll across the campus to see the real examples of plants and ecosystems if the weather is not so bad.

  1. Meet here (Rm# D103) at 14:45!
  2. Prepare your protective armors (i.e., clothes and shoes) to battle against grasslands and forests, but you do not need heavy-armed ones.
  3. When we are walking, you do not have to remember all of plants. I hope you rememeber a few, though. Please mention seed dispersal types (wind, anmial, gravity, etc.) and habitat prefernces that will be discussed in the next lecture.

June 7 2010 · June 27 2011

• Field trip: see the flora list and map

It was cloudy. No problem for the trip.

Field equipment

June 14 2010 · July 4 2011

Predator avoidance
Number of exotic species in Japan

Route map

Precipitation

Dorso-ventral structure in Japan

Snow

Straight and dwarf forms of trees

Skislope vegetation

IPCC 2007
procedure on skislope establishment
problems (not only natural but also living problems)
Miscanthus sinensis: may be keystone species on skislopes in Japan

Summary
Human disturbance and exotic plants

Numbers of native vascular plants in Japan and Hokkaido
Number of alien plants estimated in Japan

Seed dispersal

Changes in the distribution of plant communities by global warming
Migration pace on plant communities with reference to seed dispersal types

Vertical distribution

Mixed forest

Routes of plant immigration for 2 million years

Disturbances

Scale, frequency, and intensity
Intermediate hypothesis (or theory)
Look at the campus
Flood - disturbance-maintained plant communities

2009


April 13 2009

Guidance

May 25 2009

Question: Find out the common characteristics of the five species.

Trillium kamtschaticum Pall. (Liliaceae)

= Emblem of Hokkaido University

Corydalis ambigua Cham. et Schlecht. (Papaveraceae)
Anemone raddeana Regel
Scopolia japonica Maxim.
Gagea lutea (L.) Ker-Gawl.

Vegetation map in Japan

Deciduous and evergreen forests

Spring ephemerals
Climate in Japan: temperature and precipitation
Temperature

Sakura front (cherry blossom front)
Equation for predicting the date of cherry blossom
Changes in date of cherry blossom may change animal behavior
Distribution of fern species (evergreen and summer-green ferns)
Japan Sea front vs Pacific Ocean front - differences in temperature and precipitation

Precipitation

Dorso-ventral structure in Japan

Snow

Straight and dwarf forms of trees
Life form on Sasa (dwarf bamboo) group

Skislope vegetation

IPCC 2007
procedure on skislope establishment
problems (not only natural but also living problems)
Miscanthus sinensis: may be keystone species on skislopes in Japan

Summary
Human disturbance and exotic plants

Numbers of native vascular plants in Japan and Hokkaido
Number of alien plants estimated in Japan

Poisonous plants - for field trip
Aconitum japonicum, Rhus ambigua, Urtica platyphylla and phylogenetically-closed species

June 1 2008

• Field trip: see the flora list

Field equipment

June 8 2008

Seed dispersal

Changes in the distribution of plant communities by global warming
Migration pace on plant communities with reference to seed dispersal types

Vertical distribution

Alpine ecosystem: snowbed and fellfield
Subalpine ecosystem, or Pinus pumila
Mixed forest

Routes of plant immigration for 2 million years

Disturbances

Scale, frequency, and intensity
Intermediate hypothesis (or theory)
Look at the campus
Flood - disturbance-maintained plant communities

Skip!

Regeneration on fallen logs

Wetlands
Volcanoes

Volcanic succession - climax
Succession on Mount Usu

Let's talk about ...
  • Q Global warming increases number of exotic species in Japan, or not?
  • Q If yes (or no), tell why and how?
    [global warming does not means temperature increase only.]
  • Q We can not avoid 'global warming' in the present state. Shall we accept exotic species or not?
  • Q Do we have any ways to restrict the invasion of exotic species?
    [clipping, herbicides, habitat manipulation, or the other techniques?]
    + consider global scale (economy, etc.)
  • Q What shall we do for this problem?

August 3 2009

  1. Brief summary
  2. Questionnaire
  3. Short exam

2008


June 9, 2008

Question: Find out the common characteristics of the five species.

Trillium kamtschaticum Pall. (Liliaceae)

= Emblem of Hokkaido University

Corydalis ambigua Cham. et Schlecht. (Papaveraceae)
Anemone raddeana Regel
Scopolia japonica Maxim.
Gagea lutea (L.) Ker-Gawl.

Vegetation map in Japan

Deciduous and evergreen forests

Spring ephemerals
Climate in Japan: temperature and precipitation
Temperature

Sakura front (cherry blossom front)
Equation for predicting the date of cherry blossom
Changes in date of cherry blossom may change animal behavior
Distribution of fern species (evergreen and summer-green ferns)
Japan Sea front vs Pacific Ocean front - differences in temperature and precipitation

Precipitation

Dorso-ventral structure in Japan

Snow

Straight and dwarf forms of trees
Life form on Sasa (dwarf bamboo) group

Skislope vegetation

IPCC 2007
procedure on skislope establishment
problems (not only natural but also living problems)
Miscanthus sinensis: may be keystone species on skislopes in Japan

Summary
Human disturbance and exotic plants

Numbers of native vascular plants in Japan and Hokkaido
Number of alien plants estimated in Japan

Poisonous plants - for field trip
Aconitum japonicum, Rhus ambigua, Urtica platyphylla and phylogenetically-closed species

June 16, 2008

• Field trip: see the flora list

Field equipment

June 23, 2008

Seed dispersal

Changes in the distribution of plant communities by global warming
Migration pace on plant communities with reference to seed dispersal types

Vertical distribution

Alpine ecosystem: snowbed and fellfield
Subalpine ecosystem, or Pinus pumila
Mixed forest

Routes of plant immigration for 2 million years

Disturbances

Scale, frequency, and intensity
Intermediate hypothesis (or theory)
Look at the campus
Flood - disturbance-maintained plant communities
Regeneration on fallen logs

Wetlands
Volcanoes

Volcanic succession - climax
Succession on Mount Usu

Let's talk about ...
  • Q Global warming increases number of exotic species in Japan, or not?
  • Q If yes (or no), tell why and how?
    [global warming does not means temperature increase only.]
  • Q We can not avoid 'global warming' in the present state. Shall we accept exotic species or not?
  • Q Do we have any ways to restrict the invasion of exotic species?
    [clipping, herbicides, habitat manipulation, or the other techniques?]
    + consider global scale (economy, etc.)
  • Q What shall we do for this problem?
Examination

2007


  1. Characteristics of temporal and spatial patterns on ecosystems in Japan.
  2. Strolling across the campus to see the real examples of ecosystems. (The schedule may be changed, if the weather is terrible.)
  3. Effects of disturbances on ecosystems in Hokkaido
  4. Problems on biological conservation and restoration with various scales, i.e, from trampling to global warming

May 28, 2007

plant community

flora

Mount Koma
Flora on Mount Koma
The characteristics of flora

vegetation physiognomy

strata
forest floor

distribution correlated with environment

photosynthesis
toposequence

scale

scale-depencent environmental factor
biome

temperature vs precipitation

Japan: location, latitude and altitude
climate and plant community patterns in Japan

cherry blossom (Sakura) front, rainy seasons
equation to predict cherry blossom
distribution of fern species (evergreen and summer-green ferns)

warmth index
Japan Sea front vs Pacific Ocean front - differences in temperature and precipitation
snow depth

distribution of Camellia with reference to snow depth
plant forms in relation to snow depth
distribution of Sasa (dwarf bamboo)

front-end

Part 1. Tree
Betula platyphylla var. japonica, Populus maximowiczii, Picea yezoensis, Abies sachalinensis, Alnus japonica

June 4 2007

Part 2. Herb

Phragmites communis, Drosera rotundifolia, Sphagnum spp., Anaphalis margaritacea, Polygonum sachalinense

plant community and landscape on skislopes
procedure on skislope establishment
problems (not only natural but also living problems)
IPCC 2007
restoration ecology

Miscanthus sinensis: may be keystone species on skislopes in Japan

seed dispersal

seed dispersal and succession
changes in the distribution of plant communities by global warming
migration pace on plant communities with reference to seed dispersal types

vertical distribution

alpine ecosystem: snowbed and fellfield
subalpine ecosystem, or Pinus pumila
mixed forest

routes of plant immigration for 2 million years

human disturbance and exotic plants

number of native vascular plants in Japan and Hokkaido
number of alien plants estimated in Japan

Poisonous plants - for field trip
Aconitum japonicum, Rhus ambigua, Urtica platyphylla and phylogenetically-closed species

June 11 2007

• Field trip

June 18 2007

Schedule
  1. additional remarks: disturbances
  2. talking about disturbances, including global warming and exotic species
  3. short examination, if we have enough time Definitely complicated
disturbances

scale, frequency, and intensity
intermediate hypothesis (or theory)
look at the campus
flood - disturbance-maintained plant communities
regeneration on fallen logs

wetlands
volcanoes

volcanic succession - climax
succession on Mount Usu

as a bonus

spring ephemerals
emblem of Hokkaido University
symbols of Hokkaido Government

Summary

  1. determinants on ecosystems differ with scale
  2. disturbances maintain various ecosystems. Ex. Intermediate hypothesis
  3. succession is related to various abiotic and biotic factors

spatial and temporal changes in ecosystems

Let's talk about ...
Examination

2003


May 12 2003

Front-end

Part 1. Tree
Betula platyphylla var. japonica, Populus maximowiczii, Picea yezoensis, Abies sachalinensis, Alnus japonica
Part 2. Herb
Phragmites communis, Drosera rotundifolia, Sphagnum spp., Anaphalis margaritacea, Polygonum sachalinense, Miscanthus sinensis

Plant community

Flora, vegetation physiognomy, distribution correlated with environment
Stratification: canopy - subcanopy - herb layer - ground surface
Biome: temperature and precipitation
Remote sensing

Plant community in Japan

Climate in Japan
Sakura front (cherry blossom front)
Warmth index
Distribution of fern species (evergreen and summer-green ferns)
Japan Sea front vs Pacific Ocean front - differences in temperature and precipitation
Snow depth

May 19 2003

Verticl distribution on plant communities

Case: Mount Yotei (Ezo-Fuji)
Alpine zone
Subalpine zone (Pinus pumila zone)
Mixed forest zone
Cool temperate zone

Plant community in Hokkaido

Soil type: relationships bewteen volcanic activity and the distribution of plant communities
(Pan-)mixed forest
Forest fire and slope direction

Disturbance: Natural and human disturbances

Scale, frequency, and intensity
Intermediate hypothesis (or theory)
How to measure?
Look at the campus

Flood - disturbance-maintained plant communities

Human disturbance and exotic plants

Poisonous plants - for field trip
Aconitum japonicum Thunb., Rhus vernicifiua Stokes., Utrica thunbergiana Sieb. et Zucc. and phylogenetically-closed species

Plant community and landscape on skislopes

Procedure on skislope establishment
Problems (not only natural but also living problems)

... continuing to June 2, 2003

May 26 2003

• Field trip

June 2 2003

... continued from May 19, 2003

Miscanthus sinensis Anderss (Poaceae) might be keystone species on skislopes
On restoration

Wetland in Hokkaido

Bog and fen
Wetland plants
Tussock
Sphagnum (peat moss)

Succession (case of volcanoes)

Sakurajima Island
Miyake Island
Mount Usu
- find out what are common patterns in plant succession
Seed dispersal and succession

As a bonus

Spring ephemerals
Emblem of Hokkaido University
Symbols of Hokkaido Government

Summary

  1. Determinants on ecosystems differ with scale.
  2. Disturbances maintain various ecosystems. Ex. Intermediate hypothesis
  3. Succession is related to various abiotic and biotic factors

Spatial and temporal changes in ecosystems

Examination report

2002


May 20 2002

Plant community

Flora, vegetation physiognomy, distribution correlated with environment
Stratification: canopy - subcanopy - herb layer - ground surface
Biome: temperature and precipitation
Remote sensing

Plant community in Japan

Climate in Japan
Sakura front (cherry blossom front)
Warmth index
Distribution of fern species (evergreen and summer-green ferns)
Japan Sea front vs Pacific Ocean front - differences in temperature and precipitation
Snow depth
Zonation (horizontal and vertical distribution of plant communities)

Poisonous plants - for field trip

Aconitum japonicum Thunb., Rhus vernicifiua Stokes., Utrica thunbergiana Sieb. et Zucc. and phylogenetically-closed species

Plant community in Hokkaido

Soil type: effect of volcanic activity
Pan-mixed forest
Forest fire and slope direction

May 27 2002

• Field trip

June 3 2002

Disturbance: Natural and human disturbances

Scale, frequency, and intensity
Intermediate hypothesis
How to measure?
Look at the campus
Flood - disturbance-maintained plant communities
Gap dynamics
Restoration ecology

Human disturbance and exotic plants

Landscape on skislopes
Problems (not only natural but also living problems)

Wetland

Bog and fen
Tussock
Sphagnum (peat moss)

Succession (case of volcanoes)

Sakurajima Island
Miyake Island

As a bonus

Spring ephemerals
Emblem of Hokkaido University
Symbols of Hokkaido Government

2001


Spatial patterns of plant communities

Introduction to plant community ecology

Types of plant communities
Spatial and temporal scale

Relationship between climate and plant community - viewing from global to regional scales

Plant community patterns with global scale

Temperature and precipitation
Biome (e.g., tropical forest, tundra, desert)
Vegetation map made by remote sensing

Latitude and altitude

Trade wind and westerlies
Location of Japan

Plant community patterns in Japan

Japan Sea front vs Pacific Ocean front - differences in temperature and precipitation

Zonation (horizontal and vertical distribution of plant communities)
Cherry blossom (Sakura) front, rainy seasons

Distribution of fern species (evergreen and summer-green ferns)
Soil types
Distribution of volcanoes

Snow depth

Distribution of Camellia with reference to snow depth
Plant forms in relation to snow depth
Distribution of Sasa (dwarf bamboo)

Plant community patterns in Hokkaido

Forest fire and slope direction
Pan-mixed forest
Tephratrophic mire

Disturbances

Natural and human disturbances

Flood - disturbance-maintained plant communities
Soil erosion
Ski slope

Temporal pattern: community dynamics and succession. How do plant community structures change with time?

Succession

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