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How to write reports (レポート様式)






Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

Exam · Report


A few pointers on reports and exams
Reports [ 00 | 01 | 02 | 09·08 | 10·11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | Excellent reports | Entrance exam ]

A few pointers for the submission


The basic rules for the submission of reports on my lectures.
  1. Keep the deadline.
  2. Write in Japanese or English. When the length limited option is available, keep it. In general, one Japanese letter is equivalent to 2.5 words in English.
  3. Do not forget to indicate report title, name (often missed), affilitaiton, and studnet ID.
  4. The reports can be submitted by e-mail attachment (most preferable), printout, or handwriting. When you use word processor, the font size should be greater or equal to 12 pt. If you write by your hand, adopt such letter size.
    You shlould provide the reports made by plain text、Micro$oft Word or PDF, when you submit the reports by e-mail. You do not have to give me the printout. The subject on e-mail should indicate the title of lecture. I reply you the acceptance ASAP for the safety reasons. If you do not recieve any replies from me, please contact me.
Attention
If I deem that you make the following matter(s) in your report, I will not accept the report.
  1. finding out "copy and paste" of books, references and/or webpagess
  2. written by joint authors
  3. all the reports of which contents are identical

Queries:

Environmental conservation (reports)


  • Select one paper that contains difference and/or constradiction with the paper as indicated above.

2016


Students of which major is ecology
  1. Read the two reference papers (a and b) shown below.
    1. Walker LR, Wardle DA, Bardgett RD, Clarkson BD. 2010. The use of chronosequences in studies of ecological succession and soil development. Journal of Ecology 98: 725-736
    2. Johnson EA, Miyanishi K. 2008. Testing the assumptions of chronosequences in succession. Ecology Letters 11: 419-431
Students of which majors are not ecology
  1. Read the two reference papers shown below.。
    • Select two papers that are related to envorinmental conservation viewing from (somehow) ecology. The two papers should focus on the same or similar envorimental conservation issues but the conclusions are (somewhat) different.
All students
  1. Summarize each of the papers within 400 Japanese letters or 1,000 English words. When you summarize the papers, focus on the differences and/or contradictions in results and discussion between the two papers.
  2. Solve the differences and/or contradictions between them logically within 800 Japanese letters. To support your proposals, you should refer (a few) paper(s) written by the other authors. You should indicate the cited reference(s) based on the format of any scientific journal, because I may check the references if needed.

2015


  1. Select one paper published after 2013 in the webpage. If you can not download the pdf, please let me know. I send it to you.
  2. Select one paper that contains difference and/or constradiction with the paper as indicated above.
  3. Summarize each of the papers within 400 Japanese letters or 1,000 English words. When you summarize the papers, focus on the differences and/or contradictions in results and discussion between the two papers.
  1. Solve the differences and/or contradictions between them logically within 800 Japanese letters. To support your proposals, you should refer (a few) paper(s) written by the other authors. You should indicate the cited reference(s) based on the format of any scientific journal, because I may check the references if needed.

2014


In this term (second term, 2014), your scores are graded based on the reports. The reporting assignment is described below.

  1. Read the two reference papers shown below.
    • Titus JH, Bishop JG. 2014. Propagule limitation and competition with nitrogen-fixers limit conifer colonization during primary succession. Journal of Vegetation Science 25: 990-1003
    • Uesaka S, Tsuyuzaki S. 2004. Differential establishment and survival of species in deciduous and evergreen shrub patches and on bare ground, Mt. Koma, Hokkaido, Japan. Plant Ecology 175: 165-177
    If you can not download the pdfs, please let me know. I send it to you.
  1. Summarize each of the papers within 400 Japanese letters or 1,000 English words. When you summarize the papers, focus on the differences and/or contradictions in results and discussion between the two papers.
  2. Solve the differences and/or contradictions between them logically within 800 Japanese letters. To support your proposals, you should refer (a few) paper(s) written by the other authors. You should indicate the cited reference(s) based on the format of any scientific journal, because I may check the references if needed.

2013


In this term (second term, 2013), your scores are graded based on the reports. The reporting assignment is described below.

  1. Read the reference paper shown below. If you can not download the pdf, please let me know. I send it to you.
  2. Summarize the paper within 400 Japanese letters (equivalent to 1,000 English words). When you summarize the paper, focus on why the restorations did not succeed well.
  3. Briefly propose a technique that improves the restorations.
  4. Explain logically why you propose the technique within 800 Japanese letters. To support your proposal, you should refer (a few) paper(s) written by the other authors. You should indicate the cited reference(s) based on the format of any scientific journal, because I may check the references if needed.

2012


The reporting assignment is described below.

  1. Read the two reference papers (a) and (b), shown below.
    1. Fox JW. (in press) The intermediate disturbance hypothesis should be abandoned. TREE. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2012.08.014
    2. Mayor SJ, Cahill Jr JF, He F, Solymos P & Boutin S. 2012. Regional boreal biodiversity peaks at intermediate human disturbance. Nature Communications 3: 1142 | DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2145
    If you can not download these pdfs, please let me know. I send them to you.
  2. Summarize each of the two papers within 400 Japanese letters (equivalent to 1000 English words). So the total is less than 800 letters. When you summarize the papers, consider the focuses for the following discussion.
  3. Summarize the conflict(s) between the two papers with less than 400 Japanese letters.
  4. Vote the paper that you conclude it is more plausible and supportable. Here, just write the author name(s).
  5. Explain logically why you advocate the paper within 800 Japanese letters. To support your conclusion(s), you are able to refer (a few) paper(s) written by the other authors. You should indicate the cited reference(s) based on the format of any scientific journal, because I may check the references if I need.

2008·2009


The score will be graded based on the results of reports described below.

All attendance must answer the relevant question.

Select question 1 or 2, and answer it.

Question 1

Submit your report that indicates the evidences on faults and corrects the faults, as follows.
Select one reference paper that I have published to write your report, and summarize the content where you will show the faults.
If you write your report in English, the other paper written by Tsuyuzaki after 2005 is acceptable.
Summarize a (few) paper(s), that you read, to demonstrate why the sentences summarized in #1 are inccorrect.
Show how the differences and/or conflicts are found between #1 and #2.
Conclude how the faults should be corrected.
Show the references you used in the tail end, followed by scientific format.

(Remarks)
The number of references must be less than 4.
Do not include any figures and tables.
Reject the conclusion 'no faults'.

Question 2

Visit websites managed by Tsuyuzaki. Select a couple of pages that are related the this lecture (in the broad sense), and correct the mistakes. You may point out typographical and/or grammatical erros. However, grade will be higher if you point out logical errors.

Write the name of website(s).
Example: http://hosho.ees.hokudai.ac.jp/~tsuyu/top/lecture/envcons.html

Copy the part(s) that you want to correct.

Explain why that is incorrect.

Show the amendment.

2002


How to write the term paper is explained in Japanese on that page, because all the students who take this course are Japanese in this term.

2001


This year a few quizzes were provided every talk.

Quiz

October 9 2001

1) Show an example of "ecotone" and explain why you think that is an ecotone. B
2) What plant community do you image if you were in Australia or Africa? Explain why do you say that is plant community.

October 16 2001

1) Find out one environmental gradient that determines plant community pattern. Explain how you consider that gradient affects the pattern.
2) Let's imagine you are now on a hot lava in Hawaii! What plants can you see? Explain why you think so. B

October 23 2001

Part 1.
Select one environmental factor that greatly influences plant community structure. Then, explain how large scale is the most related to the factor and why the scale is related to the factor. A
Part 2.
1) Let's find out a plant community that makes belowground competition more than aboveground competition! Explain why you think the belowground competition is heavier. B
2) Find out any herbivores in the field. How do they affect the plant growth?

October 30 2001

1) If you have not enough money, how do you create the most diverse ecosystem? A
2) Let' s find out the ecosystem that is regulated by 'intermediate hypothesis'. Explain what and how the factor regulates the ecosystem.

November 6 2001

1) How can you apply "diamond graph" on your research?
2) Show the case study on plant community damaged by human impact. Do you think if the natural revegetation is possible? Explain why?

November 13 2001

1) Cluster analysis is not used for community ecology only. Show one example of cluster analysis that is applied to analyze in the other research areas. Explain the results.
2) Tell the merits of cluster analysis by divisive method. Show the case study. B

November 20 2001

1) Report the difference between DCA (or CA) and PCA. Explain when we should apply PCA rather than DCA. B
2) Research the history of skislope development in the other prefectures, or countries. Summarize what problems are the common. Say your opinion on the problems.

November 27 2001

1) Ordination is often used for social science. Show one example of that. Then, explain how the result is.
2) Report any bug in software you are handling. How do you try to eliminate the bug?

December 4 2001

1) Show one example of GIS analysis. Explain why it is interesting for you.
2) Consider when you make a reservation area. Based on the island biogeography theory, please explain how you make it. B

December 11 2001

What is the largest disturbance in Hokkaido? Indicate one and explain why you think that is the largest. A

January 15 2002

1) What is 'biotope'? Is this a kind of 'restoration ecology'? Answer. Then, explain why you think so. B
2) How many exotic species do you see in the campus? List them up, as many as you can. Then, explain why they can establish there.

January 22 2002

Part 1.
Summarize the characteristics of primary succession, based on:
1) changes in life form spectra with time.
2) successional pace.
Part 2.
1) Let's find out more than five examples of long-lived seeds recorded previously using textbooks and/or papers! Show what characteristics are common to see the seeds.
2) Find out an area where the high seed mortality may occur. Show the example, and explain why the mortality is high and what species can survive in the area. B

January 29 2002

1. Consider the most abundant seedbank. Where do we find out it? Explain why you think so.
2. Point out three advantageous on the monitoring of long-term permanent plots. B
3. Let's find out nurse plants in coastal sand dunes, such as Ishikari Coast. Explain what species are the nurse plants and how they behave.
4. Summarize the relationships between plants and fungi. When and where we can observe the mutualism and parasitism, and why. A

How to write the paper for evaluation (2001)

Explained in Japanese

In the winter semester of 2001, a paper for evaluation is given to you instead of a writing examination, as follows:
1. Select "three" quizes that you answer.
2. Summrize the answers within one page for each quiz.
3. Indicate the references you read.

The challenge to answer the difficult quizes indicated by "A" (most difficult) and "B" (difficult) in quiz section will be scored higher.

Attention for exam in 2001
  1. The references should be indicated in the last paragraph of your paper.
  2. You are required to hand in your papers by ____.

How to write the paper for evaluation (2000)


In the winter of 2000, a paper for evaluation is given to you instead of a writing examination, as follows:
1. In the lecture, I did not introduce some items shown by "!" in the contents above. Select one item and summarize it based on a couple of references, i.e., scientific papers and/or textbooks.
The scientific papers must be originated from: Nature, Science, American Naturalist, Ecology, Ecological Applications, Ecological Monographs, Journal of Ecology, Journal of Applied Ecology, Journal of Vegetation Science, Plant Ecology, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, and Biological Conservation. (All of those journals have kept in the GSEES library.) Papers must be new!!! This means the papers must be published after 1995.
2. After the summary, write your opinion on the paper.
I have seen a few papars that express "I just agree all!!!" This kind of opinion is not scored. You should propose "constructive suggestion". There are no restrictions of number of pages. However, it is desirable and fine that the explanation should be concise and to the point.

More than five years have passed ...

Entrance examination (院試)


Ecology: Division "Be ambitious", Master Course (Aug 2014)

Question 1. Answer the questions (1) and (2).
(1) Answer the questions (A) and (B).
(A) Describe each of the five ecological terms (i) to (v).

(i) biomagnification
(ii) climax
(iii) guild
(iv) net primary production
(v) seed bank

(B) Answer the questions (i) to (iv) based on the text.
Because the volcanism became extremely high under the sea near (i)Iceland (N63°) in 1963, a newly-emerged island, of which area was more than 3,000 ha, was born. The volcanism ceased on the island by 1967. (ii)Plants had already established on the island in 1965 before the volcanism terminated. Although number of plant species is increasing until now, (iii)the number will not increase and have peaked in time. After nest building by birds was confirmed in 2003, (iv)the plant community structure altered drastically through various bird activities.
(i) Mark down one of the major terrestrial biomes. Then, describe the characteristics of climate, lifeform, diversity and productivity in the biome.
(ii) Show one taxon or species group and explain why the taxon or group establishes.
(iii) Explain why such a pattern occurs based on the theory of island biogeography. Set "immigration rate" and "extinction rate" in the answer.
(iv) Show the two reasons, and explain each of them.

Env.Sci: Division "Be ambitious", Master Course (Aug 2013)

Question 1.Answer the questions (1) to (5), based on the following sentences.
(i)Biodiversity has been obviously decreasing. The direct factors of decreasing biodiversity is summarized into four categories: the first crisis owing to human activities including landuse, the second crisis occurring in (ii)satoyama (village forest), the third crisis induced by (iii)exotic species and chemical substances, and the forth crisis is so-called as "the crisis of (iv)global warming" by increasing greenhouse effect gas. We are now finding out ways out of global warming, by promoting (v)afforestation and other efforts.
(1) On the underlined term (i), write the three levels.
(2) On the underlined section (ii), explain why the high biodiversity was maintained.
(3) On the underlined section (iii), show each of the animals and plants on Japanese river reservations in English, Japanese or scientific names.
(4) On the underlined section (iv), the effect is conspicuous in the alpine zones of terrestrial regions. Explain the reason(s).
(5) On the underlined section (v), it has the effects of weakening global warming. In addition, it is expected that biodiversity is conserved. Show an example of the effects, and explain the reason(s).

Ecology: Division "Be ambitious", Master Course (Aug 2013)

Question 1. Answer the questions (1) and (2).
(1) Describe each of the five ecological words (a) to (e).

(a) life table
(b) density dependence
(c) competitive exclusion rule
(d) ecotone
(e) acid rain

(2) Answer the questions (a) to (c) related to ecological succession, based on the figure.

exam
Fig 1.Pattern diagram on xeric primary succession in temperate and cool temperate regions.

(a) Explain why seed plants do not establish on bareground in the early stages of succession.
(b) Explain the mechanisms of successional changes from sun-tree forest to shade-tree forest.
(c) There are three hypotheses on succession – facilitation, inhibition and tolerance. Select one hypothesis that explains most on the successional sere shown in Figure 1. Explain why you select the hypothesis.


Ecology: Division "Be ambitious", Master Course (Aug 2012)

Question 1. Answer the questions (1) and (2).
(1) Describe each of the five ecological words (a) to (e).

(a) fitness
(b) field capacity
(c) temperature coefficient (Q10)
(d) rhizosphere
(e) allelopathy

(2) Dr. Gause observed the fluctuations of numbers of individuals on two Paramecium species in an aquarium as shown in the figure below. A single feed was supplied into the aquarium sufficiently during the experiment. Answer the questions (a) to (c), based on the figure.

exam
Fig 1.Daily fluctuations of numbers of individuals on two Paramecium species, P. aurelia and P. caudatum (Gause 1934).

(a) The two species increased the numbers of individuals from 5th to 8th days. Explain why the increases occurred.
(b) P. caudatum decreased the number of individuals after 8th day, and finally became extinct. Explain ‘Gause’s law’ based on these results.
(c) There have been few reports that the patterns of population dynamics in the nature are interpreted by Gause’s law. Explain the reason(s).


Ecology: Division "Be ambitious", Master Course (Mar 2012)

Question 2. Read the following text, and answer the questions (1) to (8).
It is questionable that (i)ecosystem (ii)diversity is expressed by (iii)an indicator, such as diversity index, when ecosystem conservation is studied. The following species are considered to contribute the conservation of biological diversity directly through the conservation of the species.
  1. Ecological indicator species: Species that represents the functional group of the specific habitats and environments. For example, roundleaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) is the indicator species of (iv)bog.
  2. __________(a): Key species to maintain the community. If the species is lost from the community, the community is not persistent. (v)Elephant in African (vi)savanna is such species.
  3. __________(b): Species that requires a large area for the inhabitation. When the species is conserved, many other species are resultantly assured to be conserved.
  4. Flagship species: Species that is chosen for attractiveness and/or distinctiveness to conserve the specific habitats for the public at large.
  5. (vii)Vulnerable species: Species that is categorized into be in rare and/or endangered stages. By conserving the favorable ecosystem for the species, the habitats for many species are provided. Conservation International has assigned Japan to one of the __________(c) in 2005, because of many vulnerable species.
  1. Fill in the blanks (a) to (c) using the most suitable word.
  2. Define the underlined portion (i).
  3. On the underlined portion (ii), the diversity is often classified into three types: α, β, and γ diversity. Explain each of the three diversity types in around three lines.
  4. On the underlined portion (iii), explain the reasons in around three lines.
  5. On the underlined portion (iv), explain the characteristics of environments and floras in bog as compared with these in fen in around five lines.
  6. On the underlined portion (v), how does the ecosystem change when the species is removed? Explain the predicted changes in around four lines.
  7. On the underlined portion (vi), explain the characteristics and productivity of the ecosystem in around four lines.
  8. The method to select species shown by the underlined portion (vii), population vulnerability analysis (PVA) may be applied. Explain the basic principle of PVA in around 6 lines.
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