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(2016年11月22日更新. 修論・D論期間中は(でなくても)日々修正) [ 日本語 | English ]

英語論文を書く時の作法






有珠山 / サロベツ泥炭採掘跡
1986年, 2006年の有珠山火口原. ワタスゲ・エゾカンゾウ

[ はじめに | 導入 | 会話 ]
[ 文法 ]

[ 冠詞 | 名詞 | 動詞 | 不定詞 | 前置詞 | 形容詞 ] [ 参考 ]
 こいつらのおかげといえばおかげ。増えすぎたので、独立したページを作ってみたり。どこまでが、「はじめに」なのか分からなくなったが、とりあえず作っておこう。

ハイフォネーション (hyphenation)
 論文では気にすることはないが···
 欧文文書作成時の行末処理方法の一つ。単語を分割しハイフンを挿入すること ↔ ワードラップ (word wrap): 単語を分割せず次の行に送ること  今日日、ワープロが勝手にハイフォネーションしてくれるので、気にしてないようだけど、音節で切るという規則はあるので辞書で確認すべし。

Ex. com·pre·hen·sive

はじめに


「はじめに」以前

 論法以前の問題が多発してるので、若干のものを列挙しておくと

P. australis was likely to establish in the immediate stages between BG and MJ.
MX that had highest plant cover and immediate litter thickness
 明らかにintermediateとmoderateの間違い。少しだけ意味を考えれば、分かるのに。それとも、意味を間違えて覚えていて、それが正しいとして直さないのか。もっとひどいと意味不明で直しようもない(最近、そんなのばかり...)。

 こんなの意味分かるわけがない! 日本語だろうが英語(もどき)だろうが、これは赤をいれるのは無理!

N concentration (TN and NH4+) of Sph site as original mire showed the lower than other three sites, and Bare site showed the highest NH4+ concentration of the three sites.

 再三再四だが、日本語にして考えよ。

germinated seedlings

 「発芽した実生」って ... 発芽しない実生(または発芽していない実生)なんてあるの。'germinated'は不要。

shoots and litter sprouts ...

 リターのモヤシ、何だそれ。仮に、sproutが動詞ならsは不要だし。そうするとlitterが萌芽 ... する分けもないし。

論文を英語で書くために

[鉄則]
英語論文を読む。 使える表現はノート!
辞書を引く: Oxford, Webster等権威ある辞書 + 専門用語辞典

「日本語」をそのまま英文にすると「英語らしい文章にならない」場合 → 英文は強調点を先に述べる

条件Aを加えると反応はうまくいかなかった
→ The reaction did not progress well when A was added.

日本人が気をつけるべき用法usage
  1. 冠詞 a (an), the
  2. 前置詞
  3. 句読点 punctuation: comma (,), period (.), colon (:), semi-colon (;), hyphen (-), dash (-), apostrophe (')
  4. 副詞: 文中での位置
  5. 関係代名詞・関係副詞

 それ以外の自分が苦手とするもの。

心得 (日本語だって)

 実は、上に書いたことはNativeでも悩むのだ。下の分は、Jonに論文見てね、とメールして、直してくれた添付ファイル付メールについてたメッセージ。でもね、これらは、日本語だって、悩むでしょ。思い出すと、ワシントン大学にいる時にJonに論文見てもらったら、「ちょっと、こっち来てくれ」というから、行ったら、一対一で、文章直されてるのはいいんだが、声を出して原稿を読みながら、"... Need 'the'"とか言いながら、文章直してもらってた。で、冠詞は難しいのか、と聞いたら、"Everytimes"と返事されて、そうなのね、と思った記憶がある。結局、日本語がデタラメなら、英語もデタラメになるのは必然なのだ。

Hi Shiro,
Attached is your manuscript. I hope I have improved it -- I am sure that I made some mistakes. I am still worried about tense and commas. Please feel free to ask about anything I changed. I am sorry for when I did not understand what you were trying to say. Please feel free to send it to me again.
... 以下は、オバマ政権に関する内容なので削除 ...
Jon

 日本人が書く英語である限り、綺麗な日本語に訳せない英文は、やっぱり可笑しな英文となることの方が普通だろう。論文を書く作業中に、行き詰ったら、日本語で考えて、それを英語にしているはず。逆に言えば、日常、変な日本語を使っていると、いかなる他国語も正確に使いこなせない。日頃、正確な日本語を話す努力を怠らないことが大事である。

 上と矛盾するように感じるかもしれないが、日本人の書いたJapanese English論文の真似はしないこと。最善を尽くしても、所詮、完璧な英語にならない。外人と言ったも、英語・米語が母国語の人が書いたものを参考にすること。スペインとかフランスとかドイツとか、中国とか韓国とかの人のは、日本人の英語と同じ位に参考にしてはいけない。ちなみに、George Bushの英語は南部訛りが酷いのがよく話題となるが、ワシントン大学にいる時に、ゼミで"Interesting paper. But the English is poor."と紹介されたのは、Texas大学の人の論文であった。合州国の中でも、英語(米語)はかなり違う。

(英語)表現のポイント

小林 (2003)

  1. 長い文章は避ける (声に出して読んで見たときに息が切れてしまうなら長すぎる)
  2. 冗漫な回りくどい表現は避ける (受動態を避ける)
  3. 明快で具体的な用語を使う
  4. 力強く的確な動詞を使う
  5. 読者が誰かを念頭に置く
  6. 文章表現の向上には推敲が不可欠
  7. 多種多様な文献を読む

表現

 英語と米語はかなり違うので、意識して書くべき。少なくとも、私は英語はよく分からない。カナダで、セントレ・メートレ・カラウラーとか書いてあったが、あれはcenter, meter, colorのことかしら。論文でよく使うanalyzeはanalyseだったし。ということで、いろんな人が書いた論文を切り貼りして論文を作ると、何が起こるか想像して欲しい。例えれば、茨城弁と大阪弁と鹿児島弁をごちゃまぜにした文章ができあがることになる。自分なりの文章が書けるようでないといけない。この前、西オーストラリア大の人に論文見てもらったらfavorがfavourと直されてたのは悲しかったが。

スタイル

 スタイルについて、まず思うのは、昔は、主語に"I"とか"We"を使うのは論文らしくないとされたが、その風潮はもはやない(私の指導教官は絶対にIとかWeは使わなかった - 英語は完璧に近いので誤解なきよう)。ただし、"I"とか"We"が1ページに10箇所も出ると、さすがに五月蝿い。これは、IとかWeを主語にすると受動態文をとらなずに済むなら、文章が短くできることに一つの理由がある。同じことを言うなら短い文章の方が良いに決まってる。I, Weを主語にしなくても短い文章にできるなら、そうするべき。
 同様に、英語にも文語・口語の違いはある。これも、昔ほど厳しくはない雑誌が増えてるが、文頭が"And"とか"But"で始まる文章は、まず見ないはず(NatureとかScienceで増えてるので、これから他の雑誌でもそうなると思う)。a lot ofなんていうのも論文で見たことあるのかしら。

 涙目になる瞬間... 口語文は、発音に合わせるので、短縮形が使われることがあるというのは、中学校あたりでやったような。論文で、左の形は見たことないと思うんだけど。

don't → do not
doesn't → does not
can't → can not / cannot
その他諸々...

 文法上の時制にも、いろいろ問題があるのだが、論文を書く上での時制に注意して欲しい。原則として"Results"は過去形で書くのが筋なはず。"Discussion"は、昔は、自分の結果に関する部分は過去形、一般化された見解については現在形という使い分けが多かった。最近は、"Discussion"では、自分の結果でも一般化できる(と思わせられる)部分は現在形で書くようになりつつある。ただし、さすがに、"Results"は、未だ過去形で書くのが約束のようなもの。論文のスタイルも時代の流れで変わるから、その辺には、敏感であるべき(要するに最近の雑誌はよく読むこと)。ついでながら、"Result"と書いてる人がいるが、結果は一つしかないの...

There is no significant effect ...
 結果で、こう書かれるとしょんぼりする。There were no significant effects on ...だと思うけど。

韻律 (prosody, rhythm)


韻律は文章の流れを助ける = よい文章は一般に響きがよい: 文法 + 習慣的言い方 colloquial + 韻律
読みやすくなる / ニュアンスの違いを表現できる / 韻律により強調したい部分を強調可
  1. 意図的ではない頭韻 Ex. with bundle bans bending, rather regularly radial
  2. sの繰り返し Ex. such a sense of success
  3. sを必要としない語につける Ex. towards, forwards
  4. シラブルの反復 Ex. appropriate approach, continue to contain, protection in connection with infection
  5. 音調繰り返し Ex. found around, elaborate laboratory facilities, with respect to the effect
  6. 同根語反復 Ex. a locality located, the following procedure should be followed, except for rare exceptions
  7. 意味を変え言葉を繰り返す。Ex. a point to point out
バランス
Parallel construction: 幾つかの句が、意味、役割において似ているか比較対照される関係にあるときは、同じ形で表現する
Examples
○ in March, April, or May / in March, in April, or in May × in March, April, or in May
○ It is time not for word but for action. × It is time not for word but action.
× Let G be a group and H be a subgroup. ○ Let G be a group and let H be a subgroup. ○ Let G be a group and H a subgroup.
語順
文法というより習慣的なもの強い → 間違いではないが曖昧な文章のもと
○ The results obtained indicate the loss of … ×The obtained results indicate the loss of …
○… and A was determined by a method different from that for B
×… and A was determined by a different method from B
○ The differentiation of X induced by Y ×The induced differentiation of X by Y

導入


科学論文で用いるべきではない導入
導入語句可能な解釈
As is well knownI think
It is likely thatI have not got enough evidence
It is evident thatI think
As you know (余分)You probably do not know
It is perhaps true to sayI do not know what to think
As mentioned earlier(余分)
It is generally agreed thatSome people think
Tentative conclusionsPossibilities
All reasonable men thinkI believe
So far as we knowWe could be wrong
For obvious reasonsI have no evidence
It is not necessary to stress the factI should not need to tell you
There is no doubt thatI have convinced
The most typical exampleThe example that best suits my purpose

単純 + The end should be strong, forceful, convincing and final.

修論(等)で見られる余計な修飾

 やたら出てくるのでくどい。こんなこと書かなくても分かるように書けばいい。流れで、入れた方がよい場合は、当然あるが。

in my study / in our study / in this study / in the present study

 鬱陶しい書き方

It is suggested that ...
xxx studied ..., and revealed that ...

 上記に似た書き方が、やたら多いのは、実は考えてないのでは、という疑惑が湧く。

究極の余計な修飾

tree height was approximately 706 cm

 樹高がおおよそ706 cm ...なら、どこまで計れば「おおよそ」ではなくなるんだろう。

冗長な表現

R. alba produced the tallest above-ground shoots → R. alba was tallest で十分だろ。確かに辞書には以下の表現は出ているが。

owing to the fact that → because
subsequent to → after
on the order of → about
in the near future → soon
at the present time → now
by means of → by
of great importance → important
in consequence of this fact → therefore
very limited numbers of → few

記憶にとどめておくべき表現

表. 長い単語方が適切である時以外は採用されるべき単語 (溝口 1976)。長い方に直されることがあるので、それなりの意味はあるはず。
望ましい望ましくない望ましい望ましくない望ましい望ましくない
doaccomplishmeetencounterchangemodification
extraadditionalexceptexceptingpartlypartially
expectanticipateshowexhibitpreventivepreventative
helpassistancebuildfabricateaboutregarding
simplesimplisticfirstfirstlyisrepresents
useapplicationsendforwardshowreveal
discoverybreakthroughguidanceguidelinesshortenedstreamlined
begincommencesuggesthypothesizelatersubsequently
aboutconcerningreputationimageenoughsufficient
guessconjecturesignindicationendterminate
soconsequentlypersonindividualuseutilize
muchconsiderablepeopleindividualsalmostvirtually
buildconstructpleasekindlyaboutapproximately
showdemonstratemethodsmethodologyoccurtake place
不必要な限定

イタリック部分は書く必要なし

absolutely perfect the actual number an actual investigation
not actually true almost unique almost perfect → imperfect
by means of → by or using a categorical denial completely surrounded
conclusive proof cylindrical in shape deliberately chosen
an essential condition facing up to they are in fact
few in number a[n] positive identification small in size
streamlined in appearance stunted in growth swampy in character
quite impossible quite obvious hard evidence
real problems realistic justification they really are
really dangerous the smallest possible minimum valid information
very necessary very relevant very true
wholly new

文法


There are numerous grammatical mistakes, especially in the use of articles (the, a) and prepositions (on, of, etc.)
 とある雑誌のレフェリーコメント。日本人が苦手とする部分が良く分かってよろしい。
これすごいな(もっとあるけど、自分が具合悪くなる)

 今年(2010年冬記す)は、最強だ。皆目分からんのが続く。

The data of their studies showed nothing was difference more than the difference of species on the effects of UV absorbing substances, i.e., there were no relationships between succession sere and UV sensitivity, given the UV sbsorbance.

  1. dataはdatumの複数なんで、wasはwere (もっとも、最近は単数扱いを認めてる雑誌も増えてるんで構わないが)。
  2. 文語的にshowedの後にはthatを入れないと。論文では、省略しない。
  3. differenceはdifferent。Nothing was differenceを訳すと、「何もないのは違わない。」、それはそうだが。
  4. 綴りは間違えてるし。
  5. あとは、分からん。よって、ポイ。
単語を並べればよいといものではない
 会話なら、それでも何とかなるものだが。
  • At high altitude severe climates ...
  • All though these treatment, the significant differences of germination pattern between D. anglica and D. rotundifolia.

対句法 parallelism

 有名なのは、Veni, vidi, vici (来た、見た、勝った) by Ceasarだろう。論文も読んでるとたくさん出てくるんだが。

文・節・句 sentence, clause, and phrase


sentence

思想が言葉で表されたもの = 主語 + 述部 (谷口 1977)
構造
  • 単文 simple sentence: 1つの「主語 + 述部」 The dog barked.
  • 重文 compound sentence: 複数の単文 A stranger knocked at the door, and the dog barked.
  • 複文 complex sentence: 従位接続詞結合 When a stranger knocked at the door, the dog barked.
  • 混文 mixed sentence: 重文/複文混じる It was getting dark, and when a stranger knocked at the door, the dog barked.
  • 省略文 elliptical sentence: (I will) See you again.
意味
  1. 平叙文 declarative sentence
    a. 肯定文 affirmative sentence
    b. 否定文 negative sentence
  2. 疑問文 interrogative sentence
  3. 命令文 imperative sentence
  4. 感嘆文 exclamatory sentence
文型 (林 1977)
  1. S + V: I cry for you.
  2. S + V + C: Life is very short.
  3. S + V + O: It took a long time.
  4. S + V + IO + DO: I can show you a better time.
  5. S + V + O + C (or OC): You made me glad.
S + V (知覚動詞 see, 使役動詞 make, have, etc.) + O + O (= 不定詞・分詞)
see + O + 原形動詞: Oが-するのを見る I saw him get off the bus. → I saw him getting off the bus.
make + O + 原形動詞: Oに-させる I can't make him understand what I mean.
make + O + p.p.: Oが-されるようにする I can’t make myself understood in English.
have + O + 原形動詞: Oに-させる(してもらう)、-される I must have him wash the car. I had a tiresome visitor come yesterday.
have + O + p.p.: Oを-させる(してもらう)、-される I must have my car washed. I had my car stolen.

節 clause

重文、複文、混文の中にある「主語 + 述部」のこと
He felt no fear (主節) since the general was brave (従節).

複文の従節 = 名詞節、形容詞節、副詞節

句 phrase

文の要素だが主語も述部も存在しないもの
構造
  1. 前置詞句 ___ I found the book on the desk.
  2. 不定詞句 ___ I should like to read that book. (目的・理由・原因など)
  3. 動名詞句 ___ I do not like smoking in the hall.
  4. 分詞句 ___ Strictly speaking, this is not correct.
機能
  1. 名詞相当句 ___ Writing a letter is my weak point.
  2. 形容詞相当句 ___ The man writing a letter is our teacher.
  3. 副詞相当句 ___ She was seated at the desk, writing a letter.
形容詞句

名詞 ← 形容詞句[限定] A stitch in time saves nine.
S + V + C(形容詞句) [叙述] Quality is of greater value than quantity. ← This is a book of greater value than that. [限定]

原因・理由の句
on account of, because of, owing to, by reason of

He was obliged to leave school on account of (because of, owing to) his poverty.
He gave up his enterprise by reason of his illness.

目的・意図の句
for the purpose of/with a view to/with a (the) view of + -ing or noun: -するために、-するように

He went to France for the purpose of studying chemistry.

for the sake of: -のために

They are ready to fight for the sake of their country.

for fear of + -ing = lest - (should)

He took off his shoes for fear of making any noise. = ··· for fear that he should make any noise.


名詞・名詞句 ⇒ 節 の関係

名詞・名詞句 → 節
S + V + one’s + 状態・性質を表すn ⇒ S + V + (that) + one be + n同族adj.

He denied his guilty. → He denied (that) he was guilty.

S + V + one’s + 動作を表す名詞 ⇒ S + V + (that) + one + n同族v.

I was informed of his failure in the attempt. → I was informed (that) he had failed in the attempt.

S + V + n. ⇒ S + V + (that) + S + n同族v.

He is sure of success. → He is sure (that) he will succeed.

S + V + one's + n. ⇒ S + V + 節 (疑問詞/感嘆詞 + one + v.)

None of the leaders realized the difficulty of the work. → None of the leaders realized how difficult the work was.

S + V + one's + n. ⇒ S + V + 節 (接続詞/疑問詞) + S + n同族v. + one

I ask Susan about the pronunciation of the word. → I ask Susan how you pronounce the word.

S + V + one's + n.n. + that + one + have

The scientist was proud of his knowledge. → The scientist was proud of the knowledge that he had.

(sentence)


複文

= 主節 + 従属接続詞
Everybody knows [that + I am poor.] [従属接続詞 + 名詞節・形容詞節・副詞節]
A) 名詞節
That clause: that = -ということ
a) 主語
That you are honest S is true. → It is true that you are honest.
b) 目的語
I S know V that you are honest O.

原則としてthat clauseは前置詞の目的語に用いない。例外: but, except, in, saveの目的語
They are exactly the same except that one speaks a little faster than the other.

c) 補語
My first impression S is V that you are honest C.
d) 同格
This is the proof that you are honest. = I am sure (of the fact) that you are honest.

if: -かどうか(ということ) Ex. I don't know if you are honest.
whether - [or not (no)]: -か否か(ということ) Ex. I don't know whether you are honest (or not).

= It - if [whether] ··· ⇒ It is not known (for me) if [whether] you are honest (or not).

lest: -することがないか(ということ)。否定的意味をもつ接続詞。続く節はshould多。Ex. I fear lest I should fail.

B) 形容詞節
= 関係詞 (関係代名詞・関係形容詞・関係副詞) + ···
接触節 contact clause = 関係詞なしの形容詞節
  1. 目的語になる関係代名詞を省く
    This is the very book I want to read.
  2. 補語になる関係代名詞を省く
    I am not the man I used to be.
  3. 関係副詞を省く
    This is the place a big dam will be built.
  4. [there (here) + be動詞]で始まる節に関係代名詞を省く
    He taught me the difference there is between culture and snobbery.
C) 副詞節
= 接続詞 + 平叙文
副詞節と主節はどちらが先になっても良い。但し、接続詞を常に従属節の先頭につける

I read this book while you were out. → While you were out, I read this book.

場所」を表す副詞節

where: (場所) Ex. The accident occurred where the road curved sharply to the left. (場合) Where there is a will there is a way. 意志のあるところに道は開ける
wherever: (強化)(譲歩)

」を表す副詞節

when: -する時に
while: -する(している)間に

(just) as: (丁度)-する時に [as = when, while]

whenever: -する時はいつも(強化), たとえいつ-しても(譲歩)
every time (= each time) ← 接続詞的に用いることもある

Every time he speaks English, he cries. 彼は英語を話す度に、泣く

once: 一度-すると(すれば、したからには) [副詞的]

Once you hesitate you are lost. 一度躊躇すれば君はもうだめだ。

now (that): 今や-してみると(したからには) [thatのない時に注意] → 「時」 + 「理由」

主節 + before: ··· してからやっと-

I (had) tired for a long time before I succeeded.
had not + p.p. + before -: ~しないうちに-した
not - till (until): ~して初めて-

We do not realize the value of health until we lose it. [強調構文 It is not until - that ~ Ex. It was not until I saw him that I was reminded of my promise.]

原因・理由」の従属(従位)接続詞
because: -だから、ゆえに[原因理由をもっとも直接的に表す

because > since > as
I like his speech because it is inspiring.
not - because ~: ~だから(といって)-ではない

I do not like his speech because it is instructive. 私は彼の演説が有益だからというので好きなのではない

not because - but because ~: ~だからではなくて-だから
partly because - partly because ~

I like his speech partly because it is inspiring, and partly because of its humor.

since: -だから、-からには(時を表すには普通、主節後に来る

It is ten years since he went to America.
Since you ask, I must tell you. 君が聞くからには、私は言わねばなるまい

as: -だから、-ので

As it is so late, we had better get a taxi. 非常に遅いので、タクシーに乗る方がよいだろう
as ~, so ···: ~であるように ··· である

As the touchstone tries gold, so gold tries men. 試金石が黄金を試すように、黄金が人を試す

A is to B as (what) C is to D: AのBに対する関係は、CがDに対する関係と同じである ⇒ 比例 A:B = C:D

Water is to fishes, as (what) air is to men.

As C is to D, so is A to B: CがDに対するように、AはBに対している

As air is to men, so is water to fishes.

It is in (with) A as in (with) B: Aの場合はBの場合と同じ

It is in studying as in eating; he who does it gets the benefit and not he who sees it done. 勉学はちょうど食事をするのと同じようなもので、実際それをする人が利益を受け、それを見ている人ではない

for: というのは-だから [前の節に対する補足的な説明として用いられる]

He was very angry, for his voice was harsh. 彼はとても怒っていた、というのは声が荒々しかったからだ。← × 声が荒々しかったから怒っていた。

inasmuch as, whereas ≈ because, since (whereasはwhileの意でも使う)
seeing (that): -であるからには

Seeing (that) he refused to help us, we need not now help him. 彼は我々を手伝うことを拒否したからには、我々は彼を手伝う必要はない

in that: 1) なぜなら, 2) -ということにおいて

1) In that you are busy, let me tell you briefly. 君は忙しいので、簡単に言おう
2) Men differ from brutes in that they can think and speak. 人は考え話すということで獣と違う

on the ground that 節 [→ on the ground of (句)]: -という理由で

He wishes to resign on the ground that his health is failing. → ··· on the ground of his failing health.

not that - but that (because) ~: a) -だからでなく、~だから, b) -という意味(こと、訳)ではなく~ということだ

Not that I am unwilling but that I have no time. 気が進まないからではなくて、時間がないからだ

what with - and (what with): -やら~やらで

What with teaching, and (what with) writing, he wore himself out.教えることや書くことで彼は疲れてしまった

for fear (that) ~ (should), lest ~ (should): -しないように、-するといけないから → should省略 = 原形動詞用いる
in case - (should): 1) -するといけないから, 2) もし-した場合には

I hid the letter for fear (that) he (should) see it. = I hid the letter so that he should not see it.
Take your raincoat in case it (should) rain.

so + adj/adv + that -: 非常に~なので-である ↔ not so + adj/adv + that - not ···: ··· しないほど-ではない

We were so tired that we fell asleep soon. We were not so tired that we could not walk on.

such + (article) + adj + noun + that -: 非常に~なので-である

This is such a difficult book that very few can understand it.
= This is so difficult a book that very few can understand it.

such + be + noun + that -: -は非常なものなので~である

Such was storm that we could not go out.

···, so that + 直接法動詞 ~: ···, それで~である

He has got well, so that he can now work.

··· (,) so that ~ may/can/will/shall: ~できるように

Let's finish this work today so that we can have a holiday tomorrow.

主語 (subject)


We (I) found → 発見の興奮を伝え、その発見を誰がしたかが明瞭となる ⇒ 1人称が良い

→ It was found that等、読者に発見者を惑わす表現 (同様the author(s), the writer(s)避ける)

無生物主語

日本語にそのまま主語として訳すと不自然なこと多
  1. [条件 -によって
  2. 手段 -すれば。
  3. 原因・理由 -なので
  4. その他 (適当な訳)

Storms make oaks take deep root. 樫の木は幾度か嵐にあうので根が深くつく。
The problem caught general attention. その問題に誰も注意をひかれた。
Nothing will make him work; the mere idea of work makes him shudder.

形式主語

○ It is warm here. ここは暖かい。

× Here is warm. × This part is warm.

○ It is colder this morning than it was yesterday.

× This morning is colder than yesterday morning.

this morningは前置詞の目的語としてのみ名詞として使う。

Cf. It snowed heavily. = We had a heavy snow.
It takes long for ... to ~: It took long for the child to be found. It did not take long for new troubles to arise.

関係詞節が主語
関係代名詞

What is done s cannot be undone. してしまったことは、やり直しができない。
Whatever you read s is laid up in your mind. 君が読んだことは皆、君の頭に蓄えられる。

関係副詞 (稀)

Where he lives s is a long way off from the town.

疑問詞節

疑問代名詞で始まる疑問詞節が文の主語

Who said so s does not concern me. ⇒ Who said so? ← 疑問詞が主語
What he really means s is not understood. ⇒ What does he really mean? ← 疑問詞が目的語

疑問副詞で始まる疑問詞節が文の主語

When and where he was born s is a mystery. ⇒ When and where was he born?

→ Itを疑問詞節の代表として先行させる

It doesn't matter which he will choose.
If the counsel is good, it matters little who gave it.

名詞


名詞 = 可算名詞 countable noun + 不可算名詞 uncountable noun
⇒ 単数・複数は必ず辞書を引いて確認。不規則変化に注意するのはお約束。

datas are not available
 datumの複数形がdataだけど、dataのさらなる複数形がdatasなのかしら。
an excess zeros
 どっちなの。

人称・単数複数
 まず始めに、気持ちは分からないでもないが、修論・D論で使う主語は"I"にする。"We"では誰々が書いたの。
 主語を単数から複数とかに直すと、そこだけを直すとんでもな者がいるが、常識として、動詞の方も正しておいて欲しいものだ。

Thus, the elevational gradient that cause gradient in air temperature, growth period, wind intensity can be ...
 博士終わってもこれだもんなー。せめて、Thus, the elevational gradient that causes gradients in air temperature, growth period and wind intensity can be ...だよね。[学位]...取り消すか。
Mean canopy radius of L. kaempferi that were ...
 もういいよね。ちなみにradiusの複数形はradii
R. alba overstory provides the safe sites for M. japonica seedling emergence, and have no inhibitive effect on ...
 節と節での人称や時制は合わせよう。
Principal stresses affecting seedling establishment changes seasonally ...
Seed-sowing experiment allow to exam all of them.
 この位にしておこうかな。といった感じだけど、直さなかった(直せなかった)ところは正しいと思ってる人もいるようだし。ほっといたら、examもそのままなのかな。困ったものだ。

単複同型
speciesは要注意
three dominat species in the post-mined peatland (Rhynchospora alba, Moliniopsis japonica, Phragmites australis) was used for ...
 主節が長くなると、そのうち主語がどれなのか分からなくなる。また、主節を短くした方が読みやすい。

可算名詞

= 普通名詞common noun + 集合名詞collective noun
普通名詞
複数形 plural form
  1. 単数 + 's'
  2. 's'音 (s, z, ch, sh, x) で終わる名詞 + 'es' (発音便宜上): 'es' 独立音節 Ex. one church, two churches; one box, two boxes.
  3. 特別複数形(個別に覚えるしかない)
    (a) 古英語が残る Ex. men (man), feet (foot) women (women), teeth (tooth), feet (foot), children (child), mice (mouse), people (person)
    (b) ラテン・ギリシア語起源(科学用語に多) Ex. stimulus (pl. –li), phenomenon (pl. –na), axis (pl. –es)

    ネイティブも間違い易い Ex. nucleus → 現在ではnucleuses, nuclei両方使用可

  4. 子音 + 'y' → 'y'を'i'にかえ、'es'をつけ、複数を作る。Ex. city, cities; lady, ladies
    母音 + 'y'は's'のみ Ex. boys, days, keys, toys (無音母音のあるmonkey, valleyも's')
  5. 'f'/'fe' → 'f'を'v'に変え、's'/'es'をつける。 Ex. leaf, leaves; wife, wives
    (例外の)例外: roof, safe (金庫), chiefは's'
  6. 語尾’o’の複数形: 単に’s’(米語傾向)  少数の英語’es’ Ex. potato, potatoes; tomato, tomatoes
    古英語起源 Ex. potato, tomato → potatoes, tomatoesと'es'で複数形を作ることがある
    仏・伊・西語起源(音楽関係多): solo, cello, piano → solos, cellos, pianosと's'で複数形

    ⇒ 米語: 複数形の綴りを's'にまとめる動き Ex. cargo, heroは両方の綴りが見られる

    「子音+o」で終わる名詞は「oes」もあるが、radio等「母音+o」で終わる名詞は全て's'
  7. 単数・複数同形
    deer, sheep, fish, squid, moose, salmon, Japanese → 群れる生き物
  8. 注意
    a) 2つのplural formをとり意味が異なるもの

    formula: formulae = 数式 / formulas = 数式・処方, index (indices) = 指数 / indexes = 索引

    b) 単数複数で意味異なる名詞:

    air 空気 ↔ airs 風采, content 満足 ↔ contents 内容

    c) 単数形がない名詞: 対で使用するもの

    trousers (英), pants (米 = ズボン、英 = 下着), scissors, pliers (ペンチ), glasses (眼鏡)
    I bought some scissors. Please would you pass me the pliers.
    I bought a pair of trousers. He bought a pair of sunglasses

集合名詞
単数は、全体を強調。複数は、構成員(物)を強調
This class is for foreign students. → The whole class were deeply impressed by his speech.
The audience was rather small. → The audience were excited by his speech.
[複数のみ] The police are investigating the case. There were several people on the street.
可算名詞 → 不可算名詞化
1) 抽象名詞化(熟語多)

a school → go to school (学習), a church → go to church (礼拝), a bed → go to bed (就寝)

2) 物質名詞化: a chicken → chicken (鶏  鶏の肉)
3) 固有名詞化(無冠詞化)

a)人名による修飾: Ex. John's book. President Eisenhower's speech.
b) 所有代名詞による修飾: his hat, my book
c) その他

Ex. uncle, father, mother = 家族・親族. Captain Smith, Professor Ogata = 職・称号. Next Sunday, last Saturday = 習慣. Contents, Introduction = 標準・掲示. Wayout 短縮を要する語句

不可算名詞

= 物質名詞 material noun + 抽象名詞abstract noun + 固有名詞proper noun
何故かよく間違えている数えられない名詞群。辞書引きなさい

advice, staff

litter: 複数になると意味が違う(辞書を引いて欲しい)。業界用語では不加算名詞と思ってよい。

on the ground surface by shade of tussock litters
shadeも嫌だけど。

composition: 「構造」とか「組成」という意味では不加算、「構成物」という意味では可算名詞として扱う。

Litter accumulation greatly influences seedbank compositions by

tolerance

The tolerances of these seasonal stresses
これは、The tolerances to these seasonal stressesとしたとしてもseasonalって何なんでしょうね。tolerancesを辞書を引くと「公差」という意味では使うらしい。

固有名詞
  1. 人・国・街路・市・町名を単独で固有名詞として使う時は無冠詞
    I live in New York City on the corner of Broadway and 76th St.
    I heard that Mr. Smith was going to Russia, England, and France.
  2. これらの固有名詞が 他の名詞を修飾する形容詞として使う時は冠詞をつける
    Mexico has a warm climate. → The Mexican climate is warm.
    Chicago is a large city. → The Chicago fire was a large one.
  3. 固有名詞が、大河・海・山脈・国等の構成員(物)として、それらを特定する機能をもつ時、定冠詞がつく
    The Mississippi River, the Ural Mountains, the Pacific Ocean, the United States, the Soviet Union, the Dominican Republic
最初の一文字を大文字にするのはお約束。

Cambridge university pressはない。Hokkaido UniversityをHokkaido universityと書いているようなもので
Toyotomi townもToyotomi Townにして欲しい。ただし、the city of Sapporoのcityのcは小文字ね。
San diegoはSan Diegoでしょ。

逆もあったりして。

Appalachian sphagnum bogと書いてるが、Sphagnumは、属名なので頭文字は大文字にし、雑誌によるが普通はイタリックにしてAppalachian Sphagnum bogとするのが正しい。

日付
日付の書き方も統一すべきでしょう

25 April 2006 vs September 17 2007
米国では日常はSept. 17, 2007と表記することが多いが、論文(公的文書)のときはそうでもないことがある(投稿規程に書いてあったりする)。

物質名詞
物質名詞: 本質が複数要求(= 絶対複数形)
Ex. air, helium, literature, news, notice, scenery, transportation, water
  1. 対で使う: scissors, spectacles, tongs, tweezers
  2. 理論上複数: a beam of protons, a group of crystals, data, distribution of eddy currents, X-rays
  3. 集合概念: contents, goods, suburbs
単複同形: 特に必要がない限り単数で用いる Ex. apparatus, news, series, means (方法), works (工場)
群集名詞: 複数形で扱う Ex. mankind, The cattle are grazing.
抽象名詞
常に単数 → 定冠詞つけない
··· にも~する have the (Abs.n.) to ~, be (Adjective) enough to ~
Will you have the goodness to lend me the book? = Will you be good enough to lend me the book?
不可算名詞の可算名詞化
物質名詞の可算名詞化 (論文ではやらない)

種類を表すhe is good critic - of cheep wines
作(製)品・個々のものをさす how many papers do you takes? 新聞, Three coffees, please コーヒー3杯

固有名詞の可算名詞化

のような人 He is a Newton of our day.
という人 There is a Mr. Ito wants to see you.
という製品・特産 She bought a hover at supermarket.

不可算名詞 → 半可算名詞化
不可算名詞が複数はないが冠詞 a をとる場合

knowledge 知識 → a good knowledge
memory 記憶 → a short memory


名詞化

-ment: [v → n]
  1. [u] the state, condition, or degree of − 状態、条件、程度 Ex. disappointment
  2. [u] the act, process, or art of − 行為、過程、技法 Ex. measurement, movement
  3. [c] a means, agency, instrument of −手段、機関、道具 Ex. a adornment, a escapement
  4. [c] product or case of −製品、一例 Ex. a improvement, a pavement
-ion
  1. [u] the state or condition of − 状態、条件 Ex. elation = euphoria
  2. [u] the action (act) of − 行為 Ex. translation, condemnation, correction (修正すること)
  3. [c] the product of or result of − 製品,結果物 Ex. a conscription, a correction (修正物)
  4. [c] a case of − 1例 Ex. a ramification, a observations
-ence
  1. v → n [u] state, quality, degree of being −状態、質、程度 Ex. excellence
  2. v → n [u] action, act of − 行為、作業 Ex. conference (会議すること)
  3. v → n [c] case, instance of − 1例、例 Ex. a conference 会議
-ing
  1. v → n[U] the action of- 行為、作業、過程
    She hates swimming. No Parking (on a notice), talking, digging
  2. v → n[U; C] something used for, or used for making- 原料、材料
    10 yards of shirting, a silk lining
  3. v → n [C] a product or result of- 結果物、生産物
    to spend one's earnings, a beautiful painting
  4. v → n [C] a case or something that does - 1例
    to hold a meeting, a covering for her head

純粋可算名詞(不可算表現)
Ex. tube → tubing, machine → machinery, act → action (1回の行動 = actのこともある)
純粋不可算名詞(可算表現)
Ex. information → a bit of information, equipment, knowledge, evidence, advice, encouragement, assistance, help, health, dependence, precipitation

代名詞 pronoun


人称代名詞 personal pronoun

Itの特別用法

Ex. It is a sunny day. (天気・天候のit)

It ... that: 強調構文 → 論文英語では多用避ける

疑問代名詞 interrogative pronoun

= who, what, which, etc.
疑問代名詞 + to不定詞: -すべきか

I don't know what to answer.
I am at a loss when and how to begin and where to end.
I can't decide whether to go or not.

慣用構文
what about: -はどんな様子か、-はいかが

What about playing golf tomorrow?

what if: 1) -としたらどうしようか、2) -としても何のことはない (what though)

What if my father should not consent?
What if you fail this time? What though we are poor?

I'll tell you what (it is). 実は、あのね(いい話がある)

I'll tell you what (it is). I'm going to marry next month.

指示代名詞 demonstrative pronoun

this (these), that (those)

不定代名詞 indefinite pronoun

everybody, someday

関係詞

= 関係代名詞 + 関係副詞 + 関係形容詞

× post-mined site in our study where has been abandoned over 30 years shows ... (似たようなのが、他にもたくさん)

 これら3種は、混同してほしくない(なぜ混同するかの方が知りたいが)。先行詞を確認すれば、こういう間違いは消せる。関係代名詞は、省略できると習うが、論文英語では省略しないと記憶してよい。
公式: 前置詞 + 関係代名詞 = 関係副詞
 と考えると分かりやすいか。ただし、前者は固い英語らしくニュアンスは変わるだろう。

関係代名詞 relative pronoun

the fact that -: -という事実[同格] (fact, news, report, conclusion, knowledge, idea, belief, view, opinion, etc.)

The report came in that a riot broke out in Detroit.
We are all equal in this, that [thisと同格] we all have the twenty-four hours in the day.

the question whether -: -か(···どうか)という疑問 (doubt, etc.)

I did not answer to the question whether I love her or not.

冠詞 (article)


 ということで、冠詞は永遠に謎になるのだが。少なくとも、受験英語の常識位は、ねー。なんんために、中学・高校(・そして大学)と英語をやってきたんだか。

a hierarchical bayesian model ↔ an HBM (発音すれば分かる)
same → the same (ほぼ確実にtheがいる)

語感三態
Tigers are dangerous animals.
何頭かの虎が恐ろしい目をして現れる。複数形は、やはり複数を連想しa tigerより危険性がリアルになる。原則、複数形で一般を表す表現は最も日常会話的。日常的フィーリングを持つ表現

rain in Spain: 最も一般的表現: Rain tends to fall only very lightly in south central Spain.

A tiger is a dangerous animal.
1頭の虎が(世界の全て虎を代表し)恐ろしい目をして現れて来る。”a tiger”は、世界に数多くいる虎(複数)の中の1頭という意味。不定冠詞だから、どの一頭か特定せず、一応代表となる一頭である

a rain in Spain: ある種の一例: There was a nice, soft rain last night.

The tiger is a dangerous animal.
動物図鑑等での虎の挿絵の説明に最適。定冠詞で一般を表す表現は、改まった感じ、書き言葉的。講義・説教で頻繁に使う。日常会話では、少々硬い

the rain in Spain: 他と違うものとして限定: The rain in England has been rather colder, but the rain in Spain was unexpectedly warm.

不可算(物質・抽象)名詞の冠詞
(1) 名詞がある不特定の量または質を示すとき、冠詞は使わない

Gold is an important metal. Honesty is always the best policy.

(2) 特定の量または質を示すとき、冠詞"the"が先行する

The gold in this ring is very old. The honesty of Mr. Smith is above question.

定冠詞 the (that)

  1. 一度話題となった
  2. 種類一般
  3. 抽象名詞
  4. 序数に
  5. 特定固有名詞に
⇒ 限定

不定冠詞 a, an (one)

  1. 1つ
  2. 種類一般
    A dog is a faithful animal. (どの犬も ···) → The dog is ··· と置いてもよい
  3. ~につき, ~毎に
    some, aboutとして数詞の前に添える Ex. a fine years, a sixty miles, Butter is \380 a pound.
  4. 普通名詞化した物質名詞・抽象名詞に
    固有名詞の前
    1. 同名の場所・人がたくさんある場合 He is an American (an Englishman).
    2. 家族・宗教・党派の一員 He is a democrat (a Buddhist).
    3. 固有名詞が普通名詞に転用された場合 He owns two Van Goughs and a Picasso.
1) A book is on the table.
2) The book which I am reading is very interesting.

1) 不定冠詞がbookの前に使われ、特定の本を指さず一般的な本である
2) 特定の本を指定し、その前に定冠詞を付け他の全ての本から from all other books 区別する

(1) 定冠詞は、単数名詞と同様に複数名詞も修飾

The book which is on the table belongs to me.
The books which are on the table belong to me.

(2) 不定冠詞 (a or an)は複数では用いない

= 複数名詞を一般的に使う時、冠詞は使わない
There is a book on the table. (No particular book).
There are books on the table. (No particular books).
There are many books and several magazines on the table.

Temperature (温度)
結構、曲者
  1. at a low temperature - 低い温度では不定冠詞
  2. 日々の温度の平均変化では温度は限定されない → 冠詞不用
    the average daily change of temperatures - 限定された温度

    the distillation temperature was, the melting temperature was, the reaction temperature was

  3. water begins to boil at a temperature of 100°C – 習慣的にa

動詞 (verb)


= be動詞 (be verb) + 一般動詞 (general verb) + 助動詞 (auxiliary verb)

法 mode

= 動詞の形態
直説法: 確実と思って述べる
仮定法: 確実ではないと思って述べる
命令法: 他人に対する禁止・命令

自動詞 (intransitive verb, vi)

目的語ない → 受身形有り得ない
⇒ 自動詞は受身にできない(できるわけがない)(子供の参考書より)

誤: Plot cover and litter depth were differed between sites

なぜ受身。さらに、sitesって何。depthはthicknessが正しいはず。

誤: P. australis were appeared only in open habitats

主語は単数だし、appearは自動詞だし

例外: vi + prep. (prep.はそのままの位置)

They laughed at me for that. → I was laughed at for that.
A car ran over a dog. → A dog was run over by a car.

distributeは受身でしか使わないと思っておいてよい
不完全自動詞
1) Sの状態 (be)

be, seem, stay, keep, smell, feel, sound, read, remain, number, measure, weigh, look, coincide

2) Sの変化 (become)

become, grow, go, turn, get, fell, prove

通常受身としない動詞: belong, prove. be concerned withの形でconcernは用いる

進行形を作れない動詞
a) 知覚: see, hear, smell, feel, taste
b) 心理: like, love, hate, wish, hope, forget
c) 状態: consist, belong, depend, resemble
d) be, have, seem, appear, remain, process
例外 He is being cheerful today. いつもと違って...(一時的状態)。I am always forgetting dates. 動作反復

他動詞 transitive verb (vt)

invade (vt)

Woody plants can invade bare areas. × Woody plants can invade to bare areas.

態 voice
能動態と受動態 active and passive voice
We will give a dinner party on Monday. ↔ A dinner party will be given by us on Monday.
Father is writing a letter. ↔ A letter is being written by father.
Everybody knows my name. ↔ My name is known to everybody.
They sell salt by the pound. ↔ Salt is sold by the pound (by us). [主語 = 一般的人物 → 受動態で省略]
Who painted the portrait? ↔ By whom was the portrait painted? (or Whom was the portrait painted by? 口語)
The children laughed at me. ↔ I was laughed at by the children. [群動詞] Ex. take care of, be ill of
Cf. Somebody stole my watch. ↔ I had my watch stolen (by somebody). [have ≈ suffer]
[S + V + IO + DO]
He gave his son a) a book b). ↔ a) His son was given a book by him. b) A book was given (to) his son by him.
受身のみ使用の決まり文句(能動態は使えるが不自然): 主として感情を表わすもの

I am delighted to meet you. I am pleased to meet you. I'd be fascinated. I am interested in this book.
慣用的: made of (or from)*, known to, surprised at, covered with, interested in
* make: be made from = 原料が形を変えた製品, be made of: 材料がそのままの形
-からなる These bridges are made of steel.

自動詞と他動詞

vivt
sit (座る) ↔ seat (座らせる), set (据える)
fall (倒れる) ↔ fell (倒す)
rise (上がる/起きる) ↔ raise (上げる), rouse (起こす)
lie (横たわる) ↔ lay (横たえる)

誤りやすい自動詞・他動詞
aim (vi, vt): 狙う

vi. He aims at the target with a gun. ← aim at: 着眼する、目的とする
vt. A burglar aimed his pistol at the master. (武器を-に向ける)

appear (vi)

each pit appearing on the crystal surface

mess (vi, vt):

vi. 食事する(together)
vt. 1) (仕事・計画など)を台無しにする, 目茶目茶にする(up). 2) (部屋など)を散らかす (up).


動詞の書き換え
動詞を動詞句に書き換える時、分の構造(単文・重文・複文)は書き換えない(谷口 1977)
__動詞 ⇒ 動詞句
1. S + V + O ⇒ S + be + adj. + prep. + O

a) I doubt his success. ⇒ I am doubtful of his success.
b) Success depends upon a single moment. ⇒ Success is dependent upon a single moment.
c) The case distressed me. ⇒ The case was distressing to me.

2. S + V ⇒ S + have + v.同形n.

a) He talked with her. ⇒ He had a talk with her.
b) He kicked at the dog. ⇒ He gave a kick at the dog.

3. S + V + (+O) ⇒ S + be + v.-er + (+ of + O)

a) He speaks English well. ⇒ He is a good speaker of English (or good English speaker).

汎用動詞
hope

a) to 原形 「~を望む」
b) that 「~を望む」「~であろうと思う」 ⇔ I am afraid, I fear
c) for + n.pron
d) I hope so. (肯定) I hope not. (否定)

助動詞 (auxiliary verb)


Can the report be true? → Is it possible that the report is true?
You shall go. ≈ I will let (or make) you go.(or I will send you.)
would
would rather ~ (than ···) / would sooner ~ (than ···) / would as soon ~ as ~: (···よりも)むしろ~したい [現在]

I would sooner stay at home than go out in the rain.
had better: ~する方がよい [現在] You had better go now before it is too late. (≈ would rather)

命令文 (imperative sentence)


受身
V + O ⇔ Let + O + be + pp.

Do it now. ↔ Let it be done now. (谷口 1977)

自制 (tense)


話法において重要
時間的関係: 述語(主に動詞)で言及する出来事 → 主に発話時点からみて現在・過去・未来のどれに当たるか

基本時制
現在形 present tense_____過去形 past tense__未来形 future tense
完了時制 perfect tense
現在完了 present per._____過去完了_________未来完了
現在完了進行形_________過去完了進行形____未来完了進行形
進行形 progressive
現在進行形 present pro.___過去進行形_______未来進行形

時制の一致 sequence of tenses

I think he is sick. 私は彼が病気だと思う
I think he was sick. 私は彼が病気だったと思う
I thought he was sick. 私は彼が病気だと思った
I thought he had been sick. 私は彼が病気だったと思った

完了形

yet: 疑問文 もう(so far), 否定文 まだ ··· ない (now)
already: 疑問文 もう...か (thus early?), 否定文 もうすでに (by this time)
just now → 現在完了には使わない

不定詞 (infinitive)


 不定詞の後には動詞の原型が来るのが約束なはず。

誤: To detected seed dry mass, ...
 edはどう見ても...。こういうの、受身にするのか、edはずすのか迷う時があるから嫌だ。

1) 名詞的用法
I would hate to miss the train.
a) 主語: to + 原形動詞 = It (形式主語) – to + 原形動詞 (真の主語) → 動名詞で置き換えられる場合多
To control oneself is difficult. → It is difficult to control oneself. / It would be difficult to control oneself.
To see is to believe.
b) 目的語 Ex. for + O + to-: Oが-すること[名詞的]、Oが-する(ための/に)[副詞的]
名詞: It is difficult for me to master English.  For me to master English is difficult.
副詞: This is just the book for you to read. He stepped aside for us to pass.
2) 副詞的用法
I am happy just to know she loves me.
「結果」
only to-: 結局は~するにすぎなかった

I gave him a piece of friendly advice only to displease him. ··· 結局は怒らせてしまった。

never to -: 決して~しないことになる

He went to Brazil never to return. 彼はブラジルに行ったきり帰って来なかった。

to one’s [grief/joy/cost, etc.]

To our grief the ship never returned. 悲しいことに、その船は帰らなかった。
He found to his cost that it is dangerous to drive too fast. 彼があまりにも速く運転するのは危険であることを身にしみて知った。

3) 形容詞的用法
It is time to say good night.
「目的」
to -, in order to -, so as to -: -するために、-するように → 否定: (in order) not to -, so as not to –

注意: so ~ as to - → 結果
He went early so as to get a good seat. 彼は良い席を取るために早く行った。[目的]
He went so early as to get a good seat. 彼はとても早く出たので良い席をとれた。[結果]

「程度」
too ~ to -, too ~ not to -, too ~ for (person, obj.) to ~

He is too tired to work any longer. = He is so tired that he can not work any longer.
The situation is too complicated for me to understand.

enough ~ to –: 十分~なので-する

He is now strong enough to leave his bed. ≈ He is now so strong that he can leave his bed.

enough toの方が限定的で「~するに(足りる)だけ」というニュアンスの違いがある

He had enough money to pay for the drinks.

so ~ as to-: ~なので-する, -するほど~である

He was so curious as to open the box.
→ 多くの場合enough ~ to-と交換できる
注: so as to-とは違う

(林 1977)

不定詞句 vs 名詞節
I hope to be a doctor. ↔

I hope (that) I shall be a doctor.

I expect him to do his duty. ↔

I expect that he will do his duty.

I told my son to keep the room clean. ↔

I told my son that he must keep the room clean.

I believe him to have been trustworthy. ↔

I believe that he was trustworthy.

It is necessary to refrain from smoking in the hall. ↔

It is necessary that everyone (should) refrain from smoking in the hall.

It is natural for her to get angry. ↔

It is natural that she (should) get angry.

I think it natural for her to get angry. ↔

I think it natural that she (should) get angry.

She is said to have been a beauty when young. ↔

It is said that she was a beauty when young.

He seems to be studious. ↔

It seems that he is studious.

不定詞句 vs 形容詞節
There is no water to drink. ↔

There is no water that one can drink.

He was the first (man) to come. ↔

He was the first man that came.

I made a promise to do it. ↔

I made a promise that I would do it.

不定詞句 vs 副詞節
You must take care (in order) not to offend her. ↔

You must take care that you may not offend her.

He was sorry to hear of your disappointment. ↔

He was sorry that (when) he heard of your disappointment.

He left his home never to return. ↔

He left his home and never returned.

I got up so early as to be in time for the train. ↔

I got up so early that I was (could be) in time for the train.

You are old enough to understand such things. ↔

You are so old that you (can) understand such things.

This book is too difficult for you to understand. ↔

This book is so difficult that you cannot understand it.

They would be surprised to receive an invitation. ↔

They would be surprised if they should (or were to) receive an invitation.

(谷口 1977)

be to -
  1. 予定(-はずだ): Father is to arrive at London tomorrow morning.
  2. 義務(-べきだ): You are not to write a letter in red ink.
  3. 可能(-できる): Not a sound was to be heard in the house.
  4. 運命(-することになる): The poet was never to see his country again.
  5. 意図(-するつもりだ): If we are to get along well, we must understand each other better.
to begin with (まず始めに), strange to say (奇妙なことに)

To begin with, I should like to ask you a few questions.
Strange to say, no one has ever seen the master of this house.

原形不定詞
= toのない不定詞
知覚動詞、使役動詞のときに用いられる Ex. Don't make me cry.
名詞を修飾
He is not a man to do anything by halves. → He is not a man who does anything by halves.
I have nothing to do today except a few letters to write. → I have nothing that is to be done ···
I have an appointment to see the dentist this afternoon. → I have an appointment that I should see ···

動名詞 (gerund)


動名詞 = 動詞 + ing - 名詞・動詞の2性質を持つ準動詞 ⇒ 主語・補語・目的語となりうる

Dying is as natural as living.

目的語(O)

being + p.p.: -されること Ex. I don’t like being asked to make a speech.
insist on + ~ing: ~することを主張する、ぜい-するという Ex. The doctor insists on my sleeping enough.
on + ~ing: ~すると、するとたんに(as soon as)

On hearing the news (= as soon as he heard the news), he turned people.
Cf. I am aware of his having left the room. 彼は私が部屋を出たのを知っている

S + V (find) + O (it) + C + ~ing ⇒ be + adj (p.p.) + prep. + ~ing: ~することを ··· している

I found it pleasant walking along the beach. 浜辺を散歩することは気持ちがよい

特殊形
There is no + 動名詞 ≈ It is not possible (or impossible) to 不定詞
There is no accounting for tastes. ↔ It is impossible to account for tastes.
慣用句
of one’s own + -ing: 自分で-した He showed me a picture of his own painting.
feel like + -ing: -したい気がする I don’t feel like dining out his evening.
make a point of + -ing: 必ず-するように努める He makes a point of attending such meeting.
worth (while) + -ing: -する価値がある What is worth doing at all is worth doing well.
It is no use + -ing: -しても無駄だ It is no use crying over spilt milk.
can not help + ~ing (= can not but + 原形動詞): ~せざるをえない

I can't help pitying such a man. We cannot but admire his bravery.

目的語 (object)


形式目的語 S + V + O (= it)[形式目的語] + O + to-: -することを ··· に(と)

We found it difficult to keep pace with our guide. × We found to keep pace with our guide difficult.
Don't take it into your head to kill two birds with one stone.

O = that節(that clause)
vt + that-clause: -ということを ··· する Ex. We noticed that the wind was increasing.
except that-clause: -ということを除いて Ex. I know nothing about him except that he is a player.
S + V + O (it) [= 形式目的語] + C + that-clause [真の目的語]

I think it proper that you should refuse his offer.

see (to it) that-clause: -するように取り計らう(注意する)、確かに-する

I will see (to it) that everything is ready.

take it for granted that-clause: -を当然のことと思う、もちろん-だと思う

Some people take it for granted that what is old is better than what is new.

be + adj. + that-clause: 目的語が名詞(動名詞)の場合には前置詞が入るがthat-clauseでは不要
be + adj.(感情) + that-clause: ~して、~したので-だ

We are all anxious that your should return. ← We are all anxious for your return.

O = 関係詞節
what = that which, what (little) money = all the money that → I hesitated to say what I thought to be right. I gave the boy what (little) money I had with me.
when = the time when → He told me when he was least busy.
who(m)ever = anyone who(m) → You may go with who(m)ever you like.
where = the place (direction, etc.) where → He looked to where the sound came from.
whatever measures = any measure that → Take whatever measures you consider best.
O = 疑問詞節
疑問代名詞
I want to know who is to marry her.
It depends upon what occupation you will follow.
I am not sure (about) which is better.
I have no idea (as to) why he has been arrested.
疑問副詞
The teacher asked us where we had been.
Don't worry about how much you will be paid.
O = whether (if)節
S + V + (+O) + O (=whether -): (-に)~かどうかを ··· する

I s don't know v whether (if) you have grasped my idea o.
(s) Ask v him o whether (if) he is coming on Sunday o.

be + adj. (+ prep.) + whether -: ~かどうかを ··· している

He is doubtful (about) whether he can afford a car.

補語 (complement)


主格補語 (C)
名詞・代名詞の他に形容詞・分詞・動名詞・不定詞・形容詞句等がくる
準動詞・形容詞(句)

Ex. Most of them remained silent all the time. To read well is to become one with your author. This matter is of considerable importance.

名詞節

Ex. The most important thing is that you learn to observe accurately. The question is whether he is willing to work or not. What puzzled me most was how I should please the children. That is just what I want.

目的補語(O.C.)
句・節

Please make yourself at home.
We found grandfather in good health.
He has made me what I am. 私が今日あるのは彼のおかげです。
What has made Japan what it is? 何が現在の日本を作ったのか。(what it is = 今日の日本)

分詞

現在分詞/過去分詞 ⇒ 名詞を修飾

現在分詞 → 名詞 A rolling stone gathers no moss.
過去分詞 → 名詞 A watched pot never boils.

名詞 + 分詞
分詞自身が修飾語を持つ場合と口調

A man continually complaining is never listened to.
A word spoken is an arrow let fly.

分詞構文 participial construction

時・理由・原因・条件・譲歩・付帯状況・結果等
分詞句 + 主節 ↔ 従節 + 主節 (主節と従節のSは同じ)

Not knowing what to say, he remained silent. ↔ As he did not know what to say, he remained silent.
Some books, not (being) read carefully, will do more harm than good. ↔ Some books, if they are not read carefully, will do more harm than good.
Having finished it, you may go. ↔ When you have finished it, you may go.

分詞句 + 主節 ↔ 従節 + 主節 (主節と従節のSは異なる)

Night coming on, we went home. ↔ As night came on, we went home.
The moon having risen, I opened the window. ↔ When the moon had risen, I opened the window.

成句
generally (← adj.) speaking: 一般的に言えば Ex. Generally speaking, girls can speak French better than boys.
judging from: -から判断すると Ex. Judging from his accent, he must be an American.
talking of: -の話といえば Ex. Talking of pictures, have you seen his recent works?

連結詞 (connective)


= 接続詞 conjunction + 関係詞 relative + 前置詞 preposition

接続詞 (conjunction)


1) 等位接続詞

and, but, or, etc.

Ex. You and I love memories. ≈ I and you love memories. ニュアンスの違い

or
2つ以上の選択すべき語・句・節を同格的に結合
肯定・疑問文: または、あるいは、··· か ···か

動詞は近い方の主語に一致 Mr. Barker or Mr. Hillary is suitable for the position.
Which do you like better, apples or oranges? Will you be there or not? "Shall we go by bus or train?" "By bus." (比較 "Shall we go by bus or train?" - "No, let's take a taxi."
two or three miles, an inch or more
Rain or shine, I walk to school every day. 晴雨に関わらず、私は毎日歩いて学校に行く。

either (副詞)と用いて: ··· かまたは ··· か
3つ以上の選択に用い: ··· か ··· か ··· か (用法: 最後のor以外は省略可)

any Tom, (or) Dick, or Harry (トムでも, ディックでも, あるいはハリーでも) = だれでも = 猫も杓子も
Music or painting or reading will give you some peace of mind.

否定文で: ··· も ··· も(ない)

She doesn't smoke or drink. I have no brothers or sisters.

選択の意が弱まり数等の不正確なことを示し: ··· かそこら, ··· あたり

a mile or so ほぼ1マイル. there or thereabout(s) どこかその辺. for some reason or other 何らかの理由で. A day or two are needed. 一両日を要する. He is ill or something. 彼は病気か何かだ.

命令文等の後で用い: さもないと

Study hard, or (else) you'll fail. 一生懸命勉強しなさい、さもないと落第しますよ。
Don't be too long, or you'll miss the train. あまりぐずぐずしないように、でないと電車に遅れる。
They must have liked the hotel, or they wouldn't have stayed so long. 彼らは、そのホテルが気に入っていたのでなければ、あんなに長くは滞在しなかっただろう。

概してコンマの後で類義語(句)・説明語(句)を導いて: 即ち、言い換えれば

the culinary art, or the art of cookery 割烹術、即ち料理法.

訂正語(句)・コメント等を導いて: いや ···, あるいは(むしろ)

He is rich, or (at least) he appears to be (rich). 彼は金持ちか、いや、(少なくとも)そう見える。
I've met him somewhere. Or have I? どこかで彼に会ったことがある、いや、そう(だった)かな。

2) 従位接続詞

when, that, if, etc.
A + as well as B = not only B but (also) A

He has money as well as power. = He has not only power but (also) money.

As soon as + S + V + 節 = No sooner + 助動詞 + S + V + than + 節 = Scarcely (Hardly, or Barely) + 助動詞 + S + V + 節

As soon as he had seen (saw) a policeman, he ran away. = No sooner had he seen a policeman than he ran away.
As soon as he (had) stepped onto the platform, he was arrested. = Scarcely had he stepped onto the platform, he was arrested.

主節 + but (that) + 直説法肯定節 = 主節 + if + 仮定法否定節

She would have fallen but (that) I caught her. = She would have fallen if I hadn't caught her.

主節 + lest + S + (should) + V = 主節 + so that + S + might not + V

They took refuge lest the flood should burst on them. = They took refuge so that the flood might (or should, would) not burst on them.
that/so that/in order that + S + may/can/will/shall ~: -するために、-できるように(口語はthat省略もある)

目的・意図を表す副詞節
Most people eat so that they may live, but a few seem to live that they may eat.
He gave up drinking in order that he might save money.

as, like, the way, how: -のように、-のとおりに [様態]

Do in Rome as the Romans do.
The students read the poem like their teacher.
Use your knife and fork the way I do.
Spend your money how you please. Do it how you like.

unless 従節 + 主節 = If 否定詞 + 主節

Unless you work harder, you will never pass the examination. = If you do not work harder, you will never pass the examination.

従節 [(Al)though (Even if) + S + V + (any + n.)] + 主節

= 従節 [疑問詞 -ever + 語 + S + V] + 主節
Even if you (may) choose either (or any of them), it must be one once for all. = Whichever you (may) choose, it must be done once for all.
Although he makes any excuses, I don't believe him. = Whatever excuses he may make (makes), I don't believe him.
Though you are rich, you must work. = However rich you may be, you must work.

whatever = no matter what
however = no matter how
whoever = no matter who, etc.

while = whereas: -のに、-だけれども、ところが一方

While some people like summer, others prefer winter.
Whereas water is liquid, ice is solid.

主節 vs 従節
従節 [(Al)Though + S + be + C] + 主節 = 従節 [C + as (or though) + S + be] + 主節

Although he was tired, he did not give up his plan. = Tired as (or though) he was, he did not give up his plan.

接続詞代用語

Once (adv.) + S + V~ + 主節 ← When once (or if once, as soon as)

Once the job is finished, we’ll have nothing to worry about. = When once (If once, As soon as) the job is finished, we’ll have nothing to worry about.

The + 比較級 + S + V~ + the + 比較級 + S + V~ ← (According) As

The hotter it is, the harder you will find it to live here. = (According) As it is hotter, you will find it harder to live here.

The (very) moment + S + V + 主節 ← As soon as + S + V + 主節

The (very) moment I left home, it began to rain. = As soon as I left home, it began to rain.

動詞(仮定法) + S + ~ + 主節 ← If (or Though) + S + V(仮定法)~ + 主節

Had you not arrived in time, I might have been drowned. = If you had not arrived in time, I might have been drowned.

動詞(仮定法) + S + C + 主節 ← No matter how (or What, etc.) + C + S + be, 主節

Be it ever so humble, home is home. = No matter how humble it may be, home is home.

動詞(命令法) + O + C + 主節 ← No matter how (or What, etc.) + C + S + be + 主節

Let a man be ever so rich, he should not live an idle life. = No matter how rich a man may be, he should not live an idle life.

関係詞 (relative)


限定用法
The book which (that) you lent me is very interesting.
Nothing is profitable which is dishonest.
All is well that ends well.
Shakespeare is the greatest dramatist that has ever lived.
I remember the day when I first attended his lecture. [day (time, age, etc.) + when: -する日(時・時代等)]
Let's find a place where we can have a quiet talk. [place (home, etc.) + where: -する所(家等)]
There is no good reason why we should fear the future. [reason + why: -する理由]
名詞 + 前置詞 + 関係詞
That is the house in which we used to live.
Is that the man to whom you have often referred?
Look at the high mountain the top of which (= whose top) is white with snow.
継続用法(非限定用法)
He lent me a book, which interested me very much. = He lent me a book, and it interested me very much.
I was about to reply, when he cut in. [-, when (= and then): -すると、そのとき(それから)-]
At last we found a poor inn, where we stayed all night. [-, where (= and there): -して、そこで~]
名詞 + 前置詞 + 関係詞
We came to a stream, over which there was no bridge.
He wrote many delightful books, some of which you will read when you are older.

関係代名詞: who, what, which

be + adj. + that-clause [o]: -ということを···している

adj. = anxious, aware, careful, certain, confident, conscious, ignorant, sure, etc.
I was aware that he was poor.
= I was aware of his poverty.
= I was aware of his being poor.

be + adj.(感情) + that-clause: -して、-したので···だ

adj. = annoyed, disappointed, glad, pleased, sorry, surprised, etc.
We are all anxious that you should return.
= We are all anxious for your return.

as (関係代名詞)

such (~) as ···: ···のような

Habits are easily formed – especially such as are bad.
I will send you such books as will interest you.

the same ~ as ···: ···と同じ(ような)~

He would after today never be the same man as he was before.

前文を受けるas: そしてそれは、~だが

He comes from the north, as we know from his accent.

文頭のas: ~のような、~だが

As is often the case with him, he has been late this morning.

but [関係代名詞] ≈ that - not

否定語 + but: -でないものはない
There is no tree but bears some fruit. 実のならない木はない
(There is) Nobody but loves his own country. 自国を愛さない人はいない

関係形容詞 relative adjective

whose, which

関係副詞 relative adverb

where, when

前置詞 (preposition)


 今更だけど、前置詞って何。前置詞とは、名詞の前に置く言葉。常に「前置詞」 + 「名詞(あるいは名詞相当の言葉)の形で表れる。

In totally, ... / In concluding, ... というのはありえない。

 (当然だけど)前置詞が変わると意味が変わるので、十分に確認して欲しいものだ。
それ以前

On S. virgaurea showed low cover in post-mined site, ...
 関係代名詞の部分に書くべきか。ともあれ、主語がない。Onをとるのか、あるいは、showedの前にthatが入るのか、分からない。関係代名詞は省略しないのが論文のお約束だし。

よくある公式: 前置詞 + 名詞 = 副詞
 以下の形は言い換え可 - どちらでもいい場合もあるということ(流れでどちらが適切かは決まる)

In general = Generally / In particular = Particularly / In short = Shortly

 もしかして、totalとかgeneralとかが形容詞だと思ってるのだろうか(むしろ、そう考えた方がよいという説もあるけど、それは意味不明な文章への道となる)。ただし、意味が違うのが、(自分がよく使う) in total ≠ totallyということで。
先行動詞・形容詞と一緒に熟語のように知れば語順も覚えられる
Ex. 同じ、似る (same, similar, identical) ⇒ same as: 同じく, similar to: 似る, identical to or with: 全く同じ A was identical with B in biological reaction. The method used here was identical to that used by A.
of
1) of + noun 「形容詞句」
2) 「関係・主題」: hear of. -の事を(消息)を聞く. think of: -を思いつく
3) 「起源・原因・理由」

die of cancer: 癌で死ぬ (die of: 病気が原因で死ぬ) cf. die from: 負傷・不注意・事故が原因で死ぬ
Most of the climbers died of starvation.

with
理由 Ex. He has been in bed with cold for a week. 彼は風邪のためここ1週間寝ている。
after
時 → past
at
at will 意のままに, at leisure 暇で, at choice 好き勝手に
in
時 → future
材料: write in ink; in a loud voice. Cf. in question: 問題の、当該の
by
by all means: ぜひとも, by any means: どうにかして

Ex. You must try to keep your word by all means. She escaped that danger by a hair's breadth. I'll accomplish my purpose by any means.

for
for a moment: 暫くの間(=for a while), for a change: 気分転換に, for a time: 暫くは

He hesitated for a moment. Let's go somewhere for a change. With the decline and fall of Rome the fine arts seemed to have been lost for a time.

from
··· の中から The chairman will be choose from among the members.
原因・理由 Ex. They act from unselfish motivates.

間違えやすい前置詞の使い方

of / with

out of the question: 問題外で、不可能で ⇔ out of question: 疑いもなく

to / at

to the utmost: 極度に、極力 ⇔ at the utmost: せいぜい、たかだか

前置詞と接続詞が同形
after, before, for, since
The game was played after [prep] our dinner. = The game was played after [conj] we had had dinner.
They praised her for her honesty. = They praised her, for she was honest.
Though it rained, we went on an excursion. = In spite of the rain, we went on an excursion.
If it were not (or Had not been) for air and water, no living things could exist. = But for air and water, no living thing could exist.
I felt a pity when I saw these helpless people. = I felt a pity at the sight of these helpless people.
Cf. hear - at the news of, think - at the thought of

形容


[ 形容詞 | 形容詞と副詞 | 形容詞的用法 ]
形態分類学でよく使う形容詞
[ 形態 || 味覚・臭覚 ]

dissolved pots = 分解されたポット(既に分解してる) → degradable pots = 分解性ポット(これから分解する)

形容詞 (adjective)


(主として)名詞を修飾。つまり名詞の状態を説明する。じゃ、副詞は。

Ex: great difference, extra-ordinal sex ratio

形容詞を並べる順序(原則だから...)
  1. 冠詞や人称代名詞・名詞の所有格
  2. 数量
  3. 主観的な判断
  4. 大小
  5. 新旧(齢)
  6. 材料や出所
 だが、これ全部並べたら、日本語だってうるさかろ。英語だって同じ。
限定用法 attributive use
述語用法 predicative use
数量形容詞
語順
Streptomycin and five other antibodies were ~
~ after two more hours incubation ...
This is the same watch that I lost. この時計は私のなくしたその時計である
This is the same watch as I lost. この時計は私のなくしたのと同じの時計である
数量関係
可算 ↔ 不可算

few: 少ない (殆どない) ↔ little: 少ない (殆どない)
a few: 少しはある ↔ a little: 少しはある
not a few = many ↔ not a little = much

one < a few < several < many

a few ⇔ none, several ⇔ one, many ⇔ few
much of 大いに > anything of 少しは > little of あまり~ない > something of 幾らか(幾分)~ > nothing of 少しも~ない

Cf. a lot of, a large number of, a great deal of, plenty of

not the least: 少なからぬ、かなりの(非常な) ...
not in the least: 少しも~でない ≈ not at all

There was not the least danger before us.
This book is not in the least interesting to me.

no small = great (Ex. His death is no small loss to the literary world.)
little (特に文頭で) = not at all (Ex. Little did we expect him to resign.) times, fold - volume (dilution)
times: 仕事を何回かrepeatする時
fold: 数量を何倍かにする時 or 何倍かに薄める時
volume: 何倍かの量の液体を加えるとき

~ and the cells were extracted five times.
The compound was added four times, in 3-hour intervals, to ~
The final fraction represented about a 130-fold purification with ca 30% recovery.
The filtrate was diluted 3-fold with water ~
The 1 ml of the supernatant, 3 volumes of ethanol was added.
ATN: This compound inhibited the growth of ~ in 1:25000 dilutions.

cm2: square centimeter, mm3: cubic millimeter, cm-1: reciprocal centimeter
each, every, all
each: 各々, every: どれも → どちらも多数のうち1つをさし、常に単数扱い

Each student (Each of the students) has a book. 生徒はめいめいが1冊ずつ本を持っている
Every student (Every one of the students) has a book. どの生徒も一人残らず1冊ずつ本を持っている

every (比較なし)
可算単数名詞を伴って無冠詞(冠詞は用いないが所有格代名詞は用いられる)
どの···もみな, ことごとくの, すべての

多くのものについて個々に見てこれを総括する → all や個別的な each より意味強い
I looked in every room. どの部屋もことごとくのぞき込んだ [!] every ··· → 単数構文 ↔ all ··· 複数構文 Ex. I looked in all the rooms.
Every word of it is false. その一語一語ことごとく偽りだ.
I've lost every other umbrella but this one この傘以外すべての傘をなくしてしまった
→ しばしば副詞句として用いる

every day [week, year] 毎日 [週, 年].
every day [week, year] or two 1, 2日 [週, 年]ごとに.
every mornin [afternoon, night] 毎朝 [午後, 晩].
at every step 一歩ごとに.

→ [後に"序数+単数名詞"または"基数(または few など) + 複数名詞"] ··· おきに, ··· ごとに

every second week 1週間おきに.
every fifth day = every five days 5日ごとに, 4日おきに
every few days [years] 数日 [数年]ごとに
Every third person has a car. 3人にひとりは車を持っている
In the United States there is a census every ten years. 米国では10年ごとに人口調査がある
He picked up every last bean on the floor. 彼は床にあった豆を一つ残さず拾った
every now and then [again] = every once in a while [way] 時々, 時折
in every other line 1行おきに every other day 隔日(に), 1日おきに

[not を伴って部分否定] → ことごとく ··· とは限らない

Not every man can be an artist. だれでも芸術家になれるものとは限らない.

[抽象名詞を伴って] 可能な限りの, あらゆる, 十分な

He showed me every kindness. 彼は私にほんとにいろいろ親切にしてくれた.
I have every confidence in him. 私は彼に全幅の信頼を寄せている.
I have every reason to believe (that) he's innocent. 彼が無実であると信じる理由が私には十分ある.

関係形容詞 (relative adjective)

what/who/which/when/wher(e)/how/ + ever = no matter what/who/which/when/where/how
it is no matter what/···/how の頭部省略

Whatever he says, the rumor is true. (= No matter what he says, ···) 彼がどう言おうと噂は本当だ [副詞節]
Whatever he says is true. (= Anything that he says ···) 彼の言うことはなんでも本当だ。[名詞節]

come what may = whatever may come

Come what may, we must stick to our post. 何が来ようと我々は自分の持ち場を離れてはならない

be it ever so ~ = however ~ it may be

Be it ever so humble, there is no place like home. どんなに貧しくても家に勝る場所はない

let a man be ever so ~ = however ~ a man may be

Let a man be ever so rich, he ought not to be proud. (人は)どんなに金持ちでも得意になってはいけない

形容詞と副詞


 形容詞は名詞にかかるし、副詞は...。辞書引いてない証拠だよなー、こういう間違いは。
The number of seedlings was not significant different between centers and flats.
In two dense vegetated sites, the seedbank in litter
 これは形容詞にかかるなら副詞にする。
... and seasonally fluctuations of seed density were ...
 これは名詞にかかるので形容詞にする。
R. alba seedlings showed significant high growth
 明らかに同じ人間の3回目の書き直しの文より。
 日本語でも起こりうる不明瞭な文章が以下の例。形容詞・副詞は、これに注意する必要が常にある。
... introduced herbs and trees ...
 これは、introducedがherbsだけにかかるのか、herbs and treesにかかるのかが分からない。直訳すると、「導入草本と木本植物」なので、「導入された草本と(導入された)木本植物」の括弧の中が省略された文章なのかどうかは不明となり、2つの解釈ができる。前者の意味で使いたければ、とりあえずの解決策は、
introduced-herbs and treesとして導入草本を1単語にしてしまうか、
trees and introduced herbsとしてintroducedをtreesにかからないようにする。
Each
 これも、しつこく中学あたりでやると思うんだけど、eachの後は単数だよねー。悲しい位、間違えてる。
In the each large plot, I set up 25 small plots (0.8 × 0.8m) with spacing 1m between the each small plots.
なんで、前は正しいのに、後ろは間違えるんだか、理由が知りたい。ついでながら、1mは1_m。

疑問副詞 interrogative adverb

why, where, when, how

関係副詞 relative adverb

why, where, when, how

比較 comparison


⇒ 形容詞・副詞: 大部分は-er, -est / more, mostをつけ比較級・最上級を作る

1. 原級

as - as ···: ···と同じ位-だ He is as intelligent as you (are).
Her face turned white as a sheet. ← as white asの前のasを省略
as much (many) as: -と同じだけの程度(分量・数) You may take as many books as you like.
as much (many): 同量(同数) Ex. I thought as much. 大体その程度のことと思った。 I made five mistakes in as many lines. 私は5行のうちに5つの誤りをした
as (like) so many: さながら-のように The girls were dancing like so many butterflies.
so much (many): → 具体的数量を言わない
These men work so many hours for so much money. この人達は金がいくらで、いく時間で働く
as ~ as any: 世にも稀な~、かつてない~ Ex. He is as great a statesman as any.
as - as ever = the + 最上級 + that ever = as (関係代名詞) + ever + V: 世にも稀な~、かつてない~
He is as great a statesman as ever lived. = He is the greatest statesman that ever lived.
as + adj. + as ever: あいかわらず- He is as poor as ever.
more than ever: 従来より更に He hated mathematics more than ever.
as - as can be: ありえるだけ → 大変~ (exceedingly) Ex. as safe as anything すごく安全な
as good as -: -と同じ Ex. He is as good as dead. 死人状態だった Cf. as busy as bee
not so (or as) - as ···: ···ほど~でない He is not so (as) intelligent as she is.
not so much A as B = not A so much as B: AよりはむしろB
He is not so much a thinker as a man of action. = He is not a thinker so much as a action.
not so much as -: -すらない He did not so much as say goodbye to us.
without so much as -: -すらなし(せず)に He went away without so much as saying goodbye to us.
as far as, so far as, in so far as (insofar as): -する限りでは / as (so) far as: -まで(も) [距離・程度]

So far as I know, he has nothing to do with the matter.
He went so far as to say that it was a scandal.

as (so) long as: -する限り、-するなら [制限・条件]

As long as we live, we have something to do. So long as you apologize I am satisfied.

否定語 + so (or as) - as ···: ···ほど-なものはない ← 最上級の否定文と同じ意味

No book is so interesting as this. = This is the most interesting book. = No book is more interesting than this.
There is nothing so interesting as history.

2. 比較級

[重要] 比較されるものは必ず同じ種類のもの
○ His monthly salary is higher than that of a Prime Minister.
× His monthly salary is higher than a Prime Minister.
no more X than Y = not X any more than Y: XでないのはちょうどYでないのと同じ

A whale is no more a fish than a horse is. = A whale is not a fish any more than a horse is.

not more X than Y: YほどXではない ⇒ more thanをnotで否定しただけ → no more X than Yと混同しない

He is not more industrious than you (are). = He is less industrious than you (are). 彼は君ほど勤勉でない。
↔ He is no more industrious than you. = He is not industrious any more than you. 彼は君と同じく勤勉でない。

まとめると:
no more than = only, as few (little) as

This dictionary contains no more than 20000 words. この辞書には2万語しかない。

not more than = at most

This dictionary contains not more than 20000 words. この辞書には(多くても)2万語以上はない。

no less than = as many (much) as

This dictionary contains no less than 20000 words. この辞書には20000語もある。

not less than = at least

This dictionary contains not less than 20000 words. この辞書には少なくとも20000語ある。

much (still) more [肯定的] まして、いわんや-である ↔ much (still )less [否定的] まして、いわんや~ない

Every one has a right to enjoy his liberty, still more his life. 人は皆、自由を享ける権利があり、まして、自分の生命はなおさらである。

It is not wise to live on today's income and much less on that of tomorrow. 今日の収入で生活することは件名ではなく、まして明日の収入を当てにするのはなおさらである。
still more ≈ to say nothing of, not to speak of

He knows Latin and Greek, much more modern languages.
He knows Latin and Greek, to say nothing of modern languages.

否定語 + 比較級 + than -: -ほど···なものはない

Nothing is more precious than time, yet nothing is less valued (普通省略 than time). 時間ほど貴重なものはないが、それほど重んじられないものもない。

= Nothing is so precious as time, ··· = Time is the most precious thing of all, ···

There is no human possession more valuable than friendship.

No book is more amusing than this.
= No book is so amusing as this. = This is the most amusing book of all.

Nowhere (副詞) on earth can there be found a greater spectacle than this.

= Nowhere on earth can there be found so great a spectacle as this.
= This is the greatest spectacle that can (ever) be found on earth.

the + 比較級 [従節], the + 比較級 [主節]: ~すればするほど、ますます···する

The higher the ape goes, the more he shows tail. 猿は高く登れば登るだけ、ますます尻尾を見せる。
according as ~: ~するにつれて、~に応じて

According as (In proportion as) the demand increases, prices go up.

(all) the + 比較級 for 名詞(相当語句) / (all) the better (more, etc.), because (as) S + V

~のために(~であるから)、いっそう(かえって)···
We enjoyed our meal all the more because we were all hungry.

[none the less / not ··· the less] for ~ / because ~ / as ~: ~からといって···に変わりはない。~だがやはり···する

He has some faults, but I love him because none the less.
I don't love him the less because he has some faults. 彼に幾らか欠陥があっても、好きなことに代わりはない。

more often than not 大抵、しばしば(≈ very often) More often than not he comes late for a date. 奴は大抵遅刻だ。
more than all とりわけ Cf. more than ready 待ちくたびれた
prefer A to B: BよりAを好む ← thanよりtoを用いるのが普通

He preferred walking to riding. [例外: to不定詞ではthanが普通 He preferred to walk rather than to ride.]

3. 最上級

[重要] 形容詞 → 必ず the ··· ⇔ 副詞 → (the)
at (the) 最上級 Ex. at (the) most せいぜい(いくら多くても), at (the) least 少なくとも

A man lives with a few familiar ideas, two or three at most.

Joke Two old classmates met for the first time in years. "So you've gotten yourself married," marveled one. "I remember when you swore you wouldn't marry the best man in the world." "Well," answered the other, "I didn't." → 1. 私は、あなたが世の中で最も良い男とでさえ結婚しないと誓った時を覚えているわ。2. 私は、あなたが世の中で最も良い男とは結婚しないと誓った時を覚えているわ。(話者は1のつもり、聞き手は2のつもり)

最上級の強調に用いられる熟語: under the sun, in the world, on the globe, etc.

原級 ⇔ 最上級
I have never read so interesting book as this. ≈ This book is the most interesting book (that ) I have ever read.
No (other) boy in this class is so tall as John. ≈ John is the tallest boy in this class.
原級 ⇔ 比較級
It is not so cold as it was yesterday. ≈ It is less cold than it was yesterday.
He is as bad as beggar. ≈ He is no better than a beggar.
(You and I are mad but) I am not so mad as you. ≈ I am not more mad than you.
You are not mad, nor am I. (or Neither you nor I am mad.) ≈ I am no more mad than you.
He is not so much a poet as a novelist. ≈ He is a novelist rather than a poet. 比較級 ⇔ 最上級
He is greater than any other English poet. ≈ Hi is the greatest of all English poets.
I have never seen a picture more amusing than this. ≈ This is the most amusing picture that I have ever seen.
Nothing is more precious than time. ≈ Time is the most precious thing.

形容詞的用法


名詞

名詞の形容詞化
名詞に-edをつけて形容詞として使用 Ex. landed, winged, seeded
形容詞的用法
 名詞の複数形は形容詞的用法はできない。便利な用法なので知っておくのはよいが、それに相当する形容詞があれば、それを使うべき。例外もあるが

detecting the processes of plants establishment after disturbance is important
succession sere
 これは、successional sereが正しいだろう

誤解を呼ぶ書き方
stem number(s): 「幹の番号」と「幹の数」という意味の両方の解釈が可能
→ なので、木の数と言いたいのならnumber(s) of stemsとする

数字

数字は正確さに貢献する
文頭の数字は単語で書く。1-9 (or 12)までは単語で書く (雑誌によっては数字となりつつある)
基数
数を表すもとになる数。十進法では1から9までの整数
序数
物事の順序を示す数詞。「第1」「2番目」等
⇒ 基数・序数はハイフンで繋がれるべき

Ex. 基数: twenty-one, 序数: twenty-first, one-hundred-and-first

2つの数字を並べて書くときは数字だけ、単語だけで用いるべきではない

○ two 50 W lumps, × 2 50 W lumps, × two fifty watt lumps

小数桁数は有効数字に関係 = 慎重に! → 5, 5.0, 5.00は実験精度が異なる
0以上1以下の数字は小数点の前に0を置くべき → ○ 0.5, × .5

about, more, lessなどの語を小数とともに用いてはいけない

辞典, 植物分類学, 植物形態学, ラテン語・ギリシア語

記載で使う形容詞 (Adjectives for taxonomical description)


形態


位置
exterior (adj.) 外部の, (n.) 外側 ⇔ (adj.) interior (n.) 内側
形状
annulate (adj.) 環のある
aqueous (adj.) 水のような, 水性の
calcarate (adj.) 距(蹴爪)がある (Biol.)
colliculae, colliculate (adj.) 低く丸い隆起に覆われた (covered with small, rounded or hill-like elevations
crested, cristate (adj.) 鶏冠がある

Japanese crested ibis, Nipponia nippon, was once seen all over Japan.

coronal (adj.) 王冠の, コロナの (Astro.)
corniculate (adj.) 小角状の
cucullate, cucullated (adj.) 僧帽を被った, 僧帽に似た, 僧帽状の
cupuliform (adj.) カップ状の (Anat.) (nearly hemispherical, cup-shaped)
curling (adj.) 巻き毛の
cymbiform (adj.) (包頴等が)ボート形(舟形)の (Bot.)
dichotomous (adj.) 二分する, 二又に

dichotomous branches 二又分枝
dichotomous keys 2分法(形態分類で通常用いられるキー)

flattened (adj.) 扁平な, ぺちゃんこになった

have a slightly flattened top 上がわずかに平たくなっている (flat-topped 先が扁平な)

foveolate, foveolated (adj.) 窩(小さな穴)のある
gladiate (adj.) 剣状の (Bot.) → ensiform (adj.) 剣状突起の
gracile (adj.) ほっそりとして優美な, すらりとした
grooved (adj.) 溝がある
honeycomb (adj.) ハチの巣(ハニカム)状の (honeycombed (adj.) ハチの巣状の, 穴だらけになった)
helmeted (adj.) ヘルメットを被った
horned (adj.) 角状の/角のある ⇔ hornless 角のない)
imbricate (adj, vi, vt) 瓦(鱗)状(に重なった) (adv. -ly)
knotted (adj.) 節・瘤のある (knotty (adj.) 節のある)
laminar (adj.) 薄板(ラミネート)状の(でできている)。(物) 層流の
navicular (adj.) (骨等が)船(ボート)の様な形の, 舟状の, 舟状骨の (Anat.)
pandurate, panduriform (adj.) 瓢箪(バイオリン)形の (= fiddle-shaped)
pectinate, pectinated (adj.) (鋸歯等が)櫛状の
peltate (adj.) (葉柄が葉身に対し)盾着の (Bot.) Ex. ハス葉の様に葉身中央下部に葉柄が付く
prominent (adj.) (周囲より)高くなった、突き出した
scalloped (adj.) (ホタテガイの縁の様に)波を打った
striated (adj.) 筋(線・縞・溝)のある, 線状の
turgid (adj.) 膨らんだ, 腫れ上がった
uncinate (adj.) 鉤状の (Biol.)
undivided (adj.) 分割されない(されていない), 未分裂の
warty (adj.) 疣のある, 疣だらけの, 疣状の
2-D
2-dimension
3-D
3-dimension
球体の spheric, -cal (回転楕円体状の spheroidal)

球形のglobose (adj. 球形のglobular, 片面やや平な球形globose-depressed, 球状腎臓形 globose-reniform)
半球hemisphere (adj. –の hemispheric(al))
卵体の ovoid (↔ 倒卵体 obovoid)
レンズ形の(レンズ状の) lenticular
棍棒状 clavate
円錐体(形) conic (adj. 円錐形の conical) (↔ 倒円錐形obconic, turbinate)
円筒(円柱) cylinder (adj. 円筒状のcylindric, cylindrical, cylindro. 円柱状のcolumnar) (やや円柱形semiterete)

連玉状円筒形の torose: 間隔を置いて窄まりのある段々になった円柱形 (torulose: 間隔が細かい)
やや先細りの円筒形 terete

洋梨形 pyriform

錘状(adj. 錘状のsubulate, Bot/Zoo)
三角形 triangle (adj. -の triangular, deltoid), tetrahedron 四面体(adj. –の tetrahedral)
四角形(方形) quadrate (adj. –の quadrangular)
五角形pentagon (adj. -のpentagonal)

弓 arch (adj. 弓型のarcuate, 弓なりに曲がった/アーチ形の arched)
漏斗 funnel (adj. 漏斗形の funnelform)
紡錘形の fusiform
披針体 lanceoloid (↔ 倒披針体 oblanceoloid) 凸形(の) convex, gibbous (for plant) 両凸面の biconvex 凹形(の) concave, emarginated (for plant) (僅かに凹形の retuse)
ピラミッド型pyramidal (↔ 逆ピラミッド型obpyramidal)
(根等が)数珠形の moniliform

形容(質)

粉状 mealy

粉を生じる farinose
粉になる(粉・埃だらけの) pulverulent
白い粉で覆われた/淡い青緑の glaucous
ぬか状の/ふけが多い furfuraceous

粒状 granular (小さな粒々で構成された tuberculate)
不ぞろいに unequally
丈夫・がっしりした sturdy, 堅い rigid
もろい(脆弱な) brittle
クリーム状の creamy
繊維質の fibrous
艶がない furvous (black and lusterless)
粗い(ザラザラした) coarse (粗くなった, ザラザラした) roughened)
手触りがザラつく scabrid (rough to the touch) (scabrous: slightly rough)
革状の(ガサガサの、酷く硬い) leathery, 皮革のcoriaceous
堅い(ゴワゴワした) stiff (adv. stiffly)
多孔質の(海綿状の) spongy

可視光

(color)


表. 植物の色とかの説明は、極めて細かいので
白 white帯白色 glaucescent, whitish白くなる whitened
灰 gray灰色がかった grayish
黒 black帯黒色 blackish
透明 trasparent透明な hyaline/transparent半透明なtranslucent薄色のpale
紫 purple帯紫色: purple-tinged, purplish
青 blue青味がかった bluish藤色 wisteriaライラック lilac
緑 green緑色っぽい greenish
黄 yellow黄色っぽい yellowish 黄色くなる flavescent
ピンク pinkピンクっぽい pinkish
マゼンタ magenta
バラ色 rose, roseateバラ色の/バラの様なrosy
茶 brown茶色っぽい brownishマルーン/蝦茶 maroon
赤 red帯赤色(赤っぽい) reddish赤くなるrubescent

deep (色があざやかで)濃い ↔ light, pale

Ex. What is that deep colored fruit?
Cf. dark blue, strong/deep red

vivid 鮮やかな
brightly, nitid 明るい ⇔ sordid
rich きつい
showy/loud/gaudy red けばけばしい

showy 人目をひく, loud 下品な, gaudy 明るくて

tender 柔らかな
tinged (with) -の色を帯びる, -に影響されている
subdued, dull くすんだ/鈍い
soft 薄い
quiet 渋い
褐色 brown

淡褐色 (adj.) = alutaceous, light brown
黄褐色の tan (tawny), yellow-brown
灰褐色gray-brown

鉄さび色のferruginous, (錆のように)赤茶けた rusty
黄色味のある白 ochroleucous (yellowish white)
虹色/玉虫色のiridescent
藁色のstraw-colored (麦わら色のstramineous)
variegated: 斑入りの (n. variegation), 斑点があるspotted (n. 雀斑状の斑点freckle, adj. freckled)


味覚・臭覚


 Rumex acetocella等は、味の記載もあるし。Chelidonium majus()等、苦いのは多い。Clerodendrum trichotomumに代表されるように匂い(臭い)も分類の鍵となる。
味覚
sour 酸っぱい(熟していないので)

Ex. sour-sweet 甘酢っぱい
Cp. acid 酸味がある

tart ピリッと酸っぱい
sweet 甘い (sugary 砂糖のように甘い)
luscious 熟して甘い
smooth 口当たりが良い
puckery 渋い(口をすぼめたくなるほど)
harsh 渋い
rough (酒が)渋い acetous (酢酸を含む)酸っぱい (n. acetum 酢, 酢に浸した薬剤)
臭覚 (香)
aromatic 香りの良い, 芳香族の ↔ nonaromatic 香らない
fragrant 良い香りの, 芳香性の [n. fragrance]
odorous 臭いのする (不快な匂いのする malodorous), (odor, n. 強い悪臭)
strong 強いにおい
rank 鼻をつくにおい
smell (acrid) 刺すような
bad 腐った
disagreeable 嫌な
foul むかつくような
faint かすかな
slight わずかな
persistent しつこい
fragrance いい香り
perfume 強いいい香り
scent かすかな匂い

単語 (word)


類義語: 日本語を含む全ての言語で1番難しい(ニュアンス)


名詞

関係
relation 人、物、概念、意味における結び付きと形態
relationship 互いに関連する人々又は群の間に存在する状態又は条件
reference 関連
The relation between theory and practice, the relation of the individuals to society, a cause-and-effect relationships, to clarify logical relationships
欠点
defect 不完全、欠点
demerit ⇔ merit 短所
disadvantage 欠点
fault 理論の欠陥、過失
× to make up for defects.
○ to adduce supplementary evidence of 付加的証拠をあげる
性質
proper (uc) 性質
characteristic (c) 特性
quality (uc) (良否の判断を含む) ⇔ quantity
attribute (c) 属性
character (uc) 性格、本性
nature (uc) 性格、本性
独立
dependency 依存物
dependence ← 科学技術論文ではこちら ⇔ independence
装置
apparatus (n: 複数不変) 特別な目的のために用意された大量生産されないもの
contrivance (uc) or device (c) 簡単な機械。電化部品はan electric deviceという
equipment (u) 効率的作業を行うためのものすべて
facilities (pl) 設備・施設 ex. facilities for travel, facilities for communications
instrument 精巧な道具 ex. optical instruments, surgical instruments
unit 装置の一部分
測定値
data obtained Dataは数字として記録する計測値のように得られた事柄や事実について言及する
measured values(s) 得られたdata (測定値ではないこともある)
measurement(s) 寸法、長さ、幅
observation 観察結果
a value obtained 読み取った値を使って得られた測定値
結果
consequence, result 結果として生じるもの

→ 成果・成績までの過程が評価されること多。データ分析により得る

issue, outcome 結果だけに焦点
fruit, effect 直接的で短時間に表れる結果(=効果)

動詞

思う
思うようには行くまい It won't go as you expect. It won't be what you expect.
せいぜい...位だと思う I should think that it will be about 15 days at the longest.

...したい(と思う) I want to find a job and earn (some) money.
...と思ったら: I felt a sudden flush of light and found a flare hanging in the sky.
提供する

provide 必要な物を予め用意して
furnish 家・部屋・家具等を
supply 人・施設等不足しているものを
equip ある特定の目的のために必要な物を

形容詞

光沢
polished 磨かれぴかぴか光沢
glossy 表面がつやつやし光沢 (≈ lustrous)
shiny 艶がある (= 輝きてかった光沢)
滑々
smooth 滑らかで滑々した
slippery 滑る様に滑々した
greasy 油で滑々した Ex. greasy hair 汚い髪

Cf. oily hair = しっとりした髪

弾力性
elastic ゴム紐の様に(しなやかな)
flexible 簡単に曲げたり伸ばしたりできるしなやかな
supple/limber 体がしなやかな
springy バネの様に
resilient 凹んでも元に戻るような
鮮度
fresh 生きが良い ↔ bad 生きが悪く腐った
spoiled 食品が腐った
rancid 油性食品が腐る
rotten 木材・野菜が腐る

色々な
different: 異なった(数量の) ex. The conductivity was measured for different anion concentrations.

variant: = different or alternative. Ex. variant spelling of a word

diverse: 種類が異なる(very diverse = varied) ex. The wild life in Africa is extremely diverse.
several & many: 数を表わす Ex. They went their several (own) ways. Cf. several different
various: 標準的な訳語
a variety of: 種々様々の
versatile: The new device is simple and versatile.
完全な
complete: 100%に到達した

× The manuscript has been complete.
○ The manuscript has been completed.

entire, whole, complete: 組になっている物が全部揃った The entire group was found safe.
exhaustive: 余すところのない、あらいざらいの an exhaustive investigation, an exhaustive list
perfect: 完璧で非難すべき点は全くない The manuscript is complete but not perfect.
stark: 飾り気のない、ありのままの
through: 徹底的な a through research
total = total, entire
utter まるっきりの an utter refusal, whole 存在するもの全ての (complete). I want to know the whole truth of this matter.

はやい(早い・速い)
early 時刻が ⇔ fast 動作が ⇔ quick 反応が ⇔ rapid 行動が

prompt 適時内になされる, swift: 動きが円滑で速い
Ex. in an early date, a quick reply, to make rapid progress, a swift reply

引き続く
引き続く consecutive 一定の順でとぎれなく次々に起る, consequent 結果として生じる, subsequent 続いて起る, succeeding 後に続く(⇔ preceding), successive 引き続く(3回以上)
本質的な
本質的な essential 絶対的な要素, indispensable 目的を達するのに欠くことのできない、不可欠の, inherent 属性・本性として本来備わっている, intrinsic 内部から起こる、本性に属する, substantial: 実質的な

Ex. Food is essential to life. Air, water and food are indispensable to life. the function inherent in paper money, intrinsic merits of the material, Though they disagreed in details, they were substantial agreement over the plan.


汎用語


except: v. excepts | excepting | excepted: adv. -以外(他)に(は), -を除(省)いて, -を別にすれば, -がなければ

- as otherwise agreed 別段の合意なき場合, - as otherwise noted (E.A.O.N.) 他に注記がなければ(特に指定のない限り)
- at great cost 莫大な費用を支払わない限り
- that: (that以下)であることを除いては

except for: -をおいて, -以外に(は), -を除外する, -の他は, -を除いては, -を省いて, -を別にすれば, がなければ

- for cases of serious misjudgment よほど重大な誤りがある場合を除き
- for its own negligence それ自身の怠慢である場合を除き
- for the use of force 武力行使を除き
except in an emergency 緊急の場合を除き
- in cases more extreme than -よりはるかに極端な場合を除くと
- in critical situations 重大 [必要不可欠] な場合を除いて
- in rare instances まれな場合を除いて
- in some very rare circumstances ごくまれな状況を除いて


- in special circumstances 特別な場合以外は
- otherwise herein provided: 本書に別途規定のない限り
- to an opinion: 意見に反対する
- to say: と言うだけで [以外には]

correspond: vi. 一致(合致・対応・該当)する。連絡(文通)する correspond to: -に一致する、-に合致する、-に対応する、-に該当する

Ex. - to reality 現実と一致する, - to sample 見本と合う, - to the consumption of ~ per day 1日当り~の摂取量に相当する
(correspond with: -と文通する、-と手紙のやりとりをする、-に連絡する)

correspondence ko`(:)rэspɑ'nd(э)ns (pl.) correspondences (= correspondence)

[n. 一致] look for -: -を求める, mutual -: 相互の-
[n. 対応] - rule: -規則, - theory: -理論, - principle: -原理, anomalous - 異常- (harmonious - 調和性異常-)
one to one (or one-to-one) -: 一対一-, - of one's words to (or with) one's actions (or one’s deeds): 言行-


have little - with -と殆ど-しない Ex. What he does has little - with what he says. 彼は言行不-だ

- of a bird's wing to a human arm 鳥の翼と人の腕との-関係
- relation 対訳関係子

corresponding: adj. 一致(対応・相当・調和)する

- amounts of the other 他の-もその量に合わせて [対応分だけを] Ex. Due to undersupply of the necessary AWGs, ABC consumes only - amounts of the other devices.
- angle (数)同位角、対応角
- period 相当する期間、同期 Ex. - period of last year 前年の同期(同時期) (over the - period of a year earlier 前年同期比)
n: 対応(する): requisite corresponding 必要に応じて, effect a corresponding entry 対応する記帳を行う
corresponding to: -に相当する、-に対応する (accurately - to ~と正確に符合する)
name corresponds to the code 名前はコードに対応している

否定形 (negative form)


否定語 no, not, nothing, nowhere, never, none, few ···

no/not

He is not a fool. 彼はバカではない ⇔ He is no fool. 彼はバカどころではない → 秀才だ

He is not an ordinary scholar. 彼は普通の学者ではない ⇔ He is no ordinary scholar (= an extraordinary scholar). 彼は非凡な学者である

"No good." 全然駄目だ(処置なし)
"(There were) no hard feelings." 悪く思うな
I don’t think I can. できそうもないね。 × I think I can not.
"Is that true?" I'm afraid so. (残念ながら)そうらしい / I'm afraid not. そうではないらしい
not any ≈ no

He did not learn anything from that book. ≈ He learned nothing from that book.

not half 半分ではない → 少しもない (= not at all)

"How do you like this wine?" "Not so (half) bad." このワインどうだい。いけるよ。

not in the same class with ~とは比べものにならない (≈ not equal to)

"He is not in the same class with you in chess?" "Not now. He gets the better of me."

no better than: ~に過ぎない、~も同然だ

not better than: ~よりは良くない、せいぜい~だ

He is no better than a beggar.

no less than: ~ほども
not less than: 少なくとも(at least)
To my surprise, he gave me no less than $500. I suppose that he has no less than $500.

not much of たいした~ではない

He was never much of a fellow for talking when young. My father was not much of a poet.

no end = immensely ひどく

Mother once had a bat down the chimney and was scared no end. 母は煙突からコウモリが落ちてきて、ひどく震え上がったことがある

My father's hobbies enclosed him in himself and got him nowhere. 私の父の趣味が彼を自分の世界に閉じ込め、うだつが上がらなかった。
neither A nor B: AもBも~でない

You have neither killed her nor cured her. あなたは彼女を殺しも生かしもしなかった
Lockheed? Kotchain? Neither one of them means anything to me; that's neither here nor there.

ロッキード? コーチャン? 私にはどちらも何のことか分かりません。無関係のことであります

none [see, file "dict.mdb"]
nothing [see, file "dict.mdb"]
cannot (can never) ~ too (enough): どんなに~としてもしすぎることはない

We cannot value the sense of proportion too much.
I cannot thank you enough for your kind invitation.
It is impossible to overestimate the value of health.

部分否定

「全て、常に、全く」を表す語(all, every, both; always, necessarily, altogether, quite, completely, wholly, etc.)を否定
⇒ 部分否定: 全部が全部-とは限らない、必ずしも-ではない

It is not entirely new. それは全く新しいというわけではない
Well, it wasn't exactly cold, but it wasn't warm either. そう、必ずしも寒くはないが、暖かくもない
not ~ always (necessarily, quite): 常に~とは限らない
not every: 全てが~ではない
not both: 両方とも~というわけではない

二重否定

否定 + 否定  強い肯定 = Every ~
cannot (can never) ··· without ~ ing

You cannot read a good book without being the better for it. 良書を読めば必ず人はそれだけ向上する

there is no ··· but ~: ~しない···はない(butはthat not の意味の関係代名詞)

There is no one but knows such a simple matter.

no ~ but what ···: ~で···でないものはない

No ill befalls us but what may be for our good.

no ~ so ··· that ··· not: ···でないほど~なものはない → どんな~でも···である

No wound is so slight that it may not become fatal.

弱否定語

hardly, scarcely: 殆ど-ない

John hardly ever works hard.
It rained for two days with scarcely any pause.
[as soon as] = [scarcely (hardly) – when (before)] = [no sooner – than] –するやいなや(受験的訳)

As soon as = the moment, the instant, directly, instantly, immediately

seldom, rarely: 滅多に-ない

Rarely have I had a heavier heart than on that morning.
A sailor seldom returns to his ship without delight.

講義のために (for lectures)


シラバス (syllabus)


参考


  • 子供のオーストラリアで使ってた参考書: 実はすごく良い
  • 木村 明. 1967. 英文法精解 -改訂板-, 培風館 745 p. 高校時に愛用してたもの。今でも使うが...
  • 林 育男. 1977. ビートルズで英語を学ぼう. 講談社(Big Backs) 252 p.
  • 平野 進 (編). 1983. 技術英文のすべて(第6版). 丸善, 東京
  • 小林聰籌 (編). 2003. 英語ライティングハンドブック. TNU
  • 松川昇太郎. 1968. マイティ 英文解釈. 学研447 p.
  • 溝口歌子. 1976. ライフサイエンスの英語論文. 講談社サイエンティフィック 157 p.
  • Murphy R & Smalzer WR. 2002. Basic grammer in use. 2nd edn. (CD付). Cambridge University Press
  • 原田豊太郎. 2004. 間違いだらけの英語科学論文. 講談社Blue Backs
  • ピーターセン・マーク. 1988. 日本人の英語. 岩波新書
  • Swan, M. 2005. Practical English usage (3rd edn.). Oxford University Press, London
  • 谷口次郎 (監). 1977. 大学入試 英語書き換え問題の公式(増補版). 篠崎書林, 東京 167 p.
辞書
  • Hornby, A.S. (ed.). 1985. 現代英々辞典. 開拓社. 1036 p. 最新は2005年らしい. 英和辞典でニュアンスがとれないときに使う

ブラウザ仕様のためデザイン等は変更


2005年 環境起学専攻試験問題

環境起学専攻・試験問題: 英語[英文和訳]
問1 次の英文(1)から(5)を全て日本語に訳しなさい。
(1) An international agreement to protect forests was not passed because of conflicting interests.
(2) In order to achieve the reduction commitment not only by industrial activities, the Kyoto Protocol, for the first time, considers also an enhancement of biological sinks.
(3) The forest definition (forests are stands with trees greater than 0.5 ha, 2 m in height and with 10% cover) does not protect against degradation (over-use) of forests.
(4) As areas required in developing countries are made available by clearing primary forests, this process is an emission and not a sink in the global carbon balance.
(5) A prediction of the effects of an increase in climate-effective trace gases (CO2, N2O, CH4 and others) is only possible using model calculations based on certain “scenarios” of their increase and by coupling land, ocean and atmosphere processes.
用語注: stand = 林分(ある程度の面積をもった、まとまりのある森林)

(引用:Schulze et al. 2005. Plant Ecology. Springer. 問題文は問の都合上一部を改変し使用)


修士課程生態環境科学専攻入試問題(1998)

外国語(英語)
1. 以下の文章を読み問に答えよ。
Lichens are ubiquitous plants that occur in a variety of habitats. One finds these organisms on the bare surfaces of exposed desert rocks or on the frozen substrata of polar regions. Five species of lichens can survive a temperature of -198oC and that lichens can photosynthesize actively at -18.5oC in the Antarctic. Lichens _________________a (saxicolous-species) and _________________b (terricolous species), and _________________c (corticolous species). There are also reports of lichens growing on a number of unusual substrates, ranging from iron grave markers to the backs of large forest weevils.
A few species of lichens are submerged aquatics, both freshwater and marine, that are periodically exposed to the air, while others survive long periods of desiccation. Lichens can absorb water in both liquid and vapor form, and the absorption of water seems to be an entirely physical process. In the desiccated state, they can survive with a water content of 2-15% of their dry weight; during a rain, they may contain 100-300% of their dry weight as water.
Rock-inhabiting lichens have been implicated as agents initiating soil formationd. The underlying substrate is apparently chemically weathered by lichen compounds as well as subjected to mechanical destruction by the growing thallus. Partially weathered rock is then readily broken down by ice and other physical agents to form a primitive type of soil. As organic remains from lichen vegetation become incorporated among the rock particles, other forms of vegetation become established in this primitive soile.
Lichens are extremely slow-growing organisms, many increasing in size no more than 1 mm to 1 cm per year. Accordingly, large plants are probably quite ancient. The age of some arctic lichens has been calculated to be 4500 years, and lichen growth rates are sometimes used to set approximate dates of glacial retreat in arctic and alpine regions. Their slow rate of growth is probably correlated with their lack of adaptations to conserve water. In the dry state their vital activities continue only at an extremely reduced rate. Hydrated lichens, however, have the capacity to absorb from their environment large quantities of solutes–for example, phosphate.

A


問1. a, b, cの部分に適当な文章を補え。
問2. 枠でくくった部分A内の文章を日本語に訳せ
。 問3. dの機能を有するlichens以外の生物を2グループ以上英語で答えよ。
問.4. 下線部eについて知れるところを英文で述べよ。
2. 修士課程における研究計画を、(a) 研究目的、(b) その(地球)環境科学的な意義と、(c) 具体的な方法(2年間でまとめるという意味)について、それぞれ200語程度の英文で説明せよ。

博士課程生態環境科学専攻地域生態系学講座入試問題 (1999)

外国語(英語)
I. 以下の文章を読み問に答えよ。
Boreal forest plants take up organic nitrogen
Plant growth in the boreal forest, the largest terrestrial biome, is generally limited by the availability of nitrogen. The presumed cause of this limitation is slow mineralization of soil organic nitrogen. Here we demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, the uptake of organic nitrogen in the field by the trees Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies, the dwarf shrub Vaccinium myrtillus and the grass Deschampsia flexuosa. These results show that these plants, irrespective of their different types of root-fungal associations (mycorrhiza), bypass nitrogen mineralization. A trace of the amino acid glycine, labeled with the stable isotopes 13C and 15N, was injected into the organic (mor) layer of an old successional boreal coniferous forest. Ratios of 13C:15N in the roots showed that at least 91, 64 and 42% of the nitrogen from the absorbed glycine was taken up in intact glycine by the dwarf shrub, the grass and the trees, respectively. Rates of glycine uptake were similar to those of 15N-ammonium. Our data indicate that organic nitrogen is important for these different plants, even when they are competing with each other and with non-symbiotic microorganisms. This has major implications for our understanding of the effects of nitrogen deposition, global warming and intensified forestry.

A


Current conceptual models of nitrogen cyclingB in boreal forests are based on the assumption that mineralization of organic nitrogen is a prerequisite for plant nitrogen acquisition. Laboratory studies have shown, however, that some plants can use amino acids and proteins, thereby bypassing the common mineralization pathway. This has not been demonstrated in the field, where plants compete with soil microorganisms held to be superior in using organic substrates. It has been proposed that plants forming ericoid mycorrhiza and ectomycorrhiza are especially efficient at using organic nitrogen. This would give them a competitive advantage over plants forming arbuscular mycorrhiza and over non-mycorrhizal plants, and help explain their dominance in boreal forests, in which levels of organic nitrogen are typically high in the soil (compare with Table 1). If so, anthropogenic inorganic nitrogen deposition, climate warming and intensified silviculture could alter the composition of plant communities by promoting a shift from organic- towards inorganic-nitrogen nutrition. Again, field evidence demonstrating that organic-nitrogen uptake occurs and is exclusive to some groups of plants is lacking. The interaction between the abiotic soil system, mycorrhizal fungi, other micro-organisms and plants is complex, and studies showing higher gross turnover rates of inorganic nitrogen pools than previously assumed call for intensified studies of the nitrogen cycle, taking into account higher levels of complexity.

Table 1. Characteristics of the mor layer at the site studied, Renberget.
PHa_______________________________3.1 ± 0.0
C:N ratio__________________________ 36.6 ± 0.9
Total soil nitrogen (kg/ha)______________302 ± 33
Microbial nitrogen (kg/ha)b______________27 ± 3
Extractable amino-acid nitrogen (kg/ha)c__ 1.0 ± 0.1
Extractable inorganic nitrogen (kg/ha)c____0.3 ± 0.0
a: 0.04M CaCls, soil:solution ratio 1:10.
b: Using 0.45 as an estimate of the fraction of nitrogen released by fumigation.
c: In 2M KCl, soil:solution ratio 1:10.


The lack of data showing organic nitrogen uptake by plants in the field relates to methodological problems. Classic 15N-tracer technique cannot separate uptake of intact amino acids from uptake of mineralized nitrogen. 14C-labelling has been used in studies of hydroponic (soil-free, nutrient-water) systems, but not in the field. Double-labeled (13C, 15N) glycine was used in a macrocosm study of arctic tundra, showing that plant uptake of glycine-derived nitrogen was as fast as uptake of NH4+, but this gave no evidence that the 13C-labeled tracer was taken up. Variations in the natural abundance of 15N among plants in the field may be related to use of different nitrogen sources, but analysis of these variations is unlikely to yield conclusive quantitative evidence of the relative importance of organic and inorganic nitrogen uptake.

C


We aimed to test whether uptake of organic nitrogen occurs in the field, and to test whether plants with different types of mycorrhiza differ in this respect. We performed a low-tracer-level study with minimal disturbance of the soil-plant system in a late successional coniferous forest in northern Sweden (Table 1). Double, universally labeled (U) amino acid (U-13C2, 15N-glycine) injected at 1 kg nitrogen per hectare into the mor layer was used to study the importance of direct uptake of intact amino acid compared with uptake of nitrogen from mineralized amino acid, that is 15N-NH. Typical European boreal forest speciesD (the ectomycorrhizal trees Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea abies (L.) Karst.), the ericoid-mycorrhizal dwarf shrub Vaccinium myrtillus L. and the arbuscular-mycorrhizal grass Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin. were included in the study. Sequential sampling of above- and below-ground plant parts and mor layer soil was conducted after 6 h (2 h for above-ground parts), 1 day and 7 days. Respiration of 13C-CO2 was measured after 2 h, l day and 7 days.
問.
1. A枠内の文を日本語に訳せ。
2. 下線Bに関してmycorrhizaの役割を表1をもとに簡潔に日本語で説明せよ。
3. C枠内の内容を50字程度の日本語に要約せよ。
4. 日本における下線Dに関する特徴について知れるところを英語で記せ。
II. 博士課程における研究計画を、(1) 研究目的、(2) (地球)環境科学的意義、(3) 具体的方法(3年間でまとめるという意味)、(4) 予測される結果について、それぞれ5-10行程度の英文で説明せよ。
英語(英作文)
以下の1, 2の問に答えよ。
1. 以下の文章を英語に訳しなさい(本文の最後の括弧内に示した一行は訳す必要はない)。
 現在、地球上ではこれまでに見られなかった劇的な環境変化が全地球的規模で発生し、自然環境の悪化、生態系の破壊をもたらし、ひいては人類の存続すら懸念される事態にまで進展しつつある。このような地球環境問題は、人類が看過し得るものではなく、早急な対応が迫られている重要な事態である。これに対処するためには、自然環境の変化の機構を解明すると共に、人間の創造する環境と自然との調和・人間社会と自然界との調和の原理を、多方面かつ根本的に解明する新しい科学体系を必要とする。

(平成10年度北海道大学大学院地球環境科学研究科学生便覧より一部改変)

2. 以下の問に10-20行程度の英文で答えよ。
 嗜好品にはコーヒー、紅茶、緑茶、ビール、ワイン、日本酒等様々なものがある。あなたがもっとも好む嗜好品をまず述べ、ついで「他の嗜好品と比べてどのような点が優れているのかが明らかになるように」その理由を説明しなさい。すべての嗜好品が嫌いであれば「なぜすべての嗜好品があなたの嗜好にそぐわないのかが明らかになるように」その理由を説明しなさい。

博士課程生態環境科学専攻地域生態系学講座入試問題(2000)

外国語(英語)
I. 以下の文章を読み問に答えよ。

LEAVE IT A LAWN

An acre of lawn needs more than 27,000 gallons of water every week. But Americans use even more than that; we routinely overwater our lawns by 20 to 40%.
BACKGROUND. Lawn care isn't something you normally associate with saving the Earth. But when you consider that there are an estimated 20 million acres of lawn-and some 600 trillion grass plants - in the US, you can see the impact that watering, fertilizing, and mowing them might have. If you have a lawn, it's worthwhile to learn a few environmentally sound ways of taking care of it.
MOW. MOW, MOW
Some Mower Facts:
• Set your mower blades high. Don't be a victim of "golf course syndrome." Many Americans believe a healthy lawn looks like a manicured golf course; but the opposite is true. For most types of grass, the proper length is 2 to 3 inches in height. This encourages longer, healthier roots, and provides natural shade for the ground around each plant - which enables it to retain moisture in the soil.
• Keep mower blades sharp. Dull blades tear grass (instead of cleanly cutting it), weakening the plants, and making them more susceptible to weeds and disease.
Grass Clippings:
• "Cut it high and let it lie." During dry periods, leave grass cuttings on the lawn. This works well if you keep grass long and cut small amounts each time. Cuttings will serve as a moisture-retentive mulch and a natural fertilizer.
• At other times, use grass clippings and other lawn and garden waste to make a compost pile. It will provide your garden with natural mulch and fertilizer - and help reduce contributions to your local landfill.

A


FILL 'ER UP
• Most established lawns need about 1 inch of water a week, applied slowly to prevent runoff. This is considerably more effective than shorter, more frequent sprinklings.
• How can you tell if it's an inch? Put 3 cans around the area you're sprinkling, at varying distances from the sprinkler. Check them every five minutes to see how long it takes for an inch of water to accumulate in each. Add the 3 times together, and divide by 3 to get an average. That's how long to water.
Watering Tips
• Due to outdoor watering, water use in America increases by as much as 30% in the summer months.
Water from sprinklers evaporates 4-8 times faster during the heat of the day than in the early morning. Watering at night is better than midday - there's no evaporation problem - but it can cause fungus in the grass plants.B Best choice: water in the morning.
• In a drought, don't waste water on grass beginning to turn brown.  It's dormant and will revive after normal rainfall begins again.
ABOUT PESTICIDES
• Homeowners use up to 10 times more toxic chemicals per acre than farmers.
• The average homeowner uses 5 to 10 pounds per lawn - for a national total of some 25 to 50 million pounds! Many scientists believe these chemicals endanger the songbird population (by contaminating the worms they eat), as well as polluting groundwater.
• A green, healthy lawn is possible without chemical pesticides.
RESULTS
1) If every lawnowner composted grass clppings, we could cut the landfill congestion by a whopping 18% during summer and spring.
2) Avoiding overwatering can save about 12% of a homeowner's water use during the summer - an average of over 50 gallons a week. If 100,000 lawnowners do it, 5 million gallons are saved.
3) If even 10% of lawnowners began using organic pesticides, it would remove 2.5 to 5 million pounds of toxic chemicals from the environment every year.

C



1. A枠内の文を日本語に訳せ。
2. 下線Bをまず日本語に訳し、ついでfungus-plant interactionについて知れることを日本語で記せ。
3. C枠内の1-3の項目は、実証が伴なわないと、そのような言うことは言えない。これらの数値を得るために、どのような調査実験を行なえばよいか1-3のうちから一つを選び英文で答えなさい。
4. 上記文章の内容ついて、見解を異にする部分があれば、a) その部分を日本語に要約し、b) 自分の見解を英文で述べなさい。全てに同意するとすれば、a) 日本(あるいは北海道)では見られない部分を日本語に要約し、b)日本(あるいは北海道)にどのように応用すべきか英文で答えなさい。
II. 博士課程における研究計画を、(1) 研究目的と(地球)環境科学的意義、(2) 具体的方法(3年間でまとめるという意味)、(3) 予測される結果とそのオリジナリティについて、それぞれ簡潔な(5-10行程度)英文で説明せよ。

生態環境科学専攻修士課程入試問題

英語(英文解釈)
次の文を読んで問1-6に答えよ。和訳に際し、固有名詞(地名、人名)はカタカナでも英語をそのまま綴ったものでも構わない。
Disturbances to ecosystems caused by military activities must be distinguished according to whether they occur during times of war or peace.  In war, environmental planning is not a predominant concern. During peacetime, disturbances may accompany military training activities, often with an opportunity to document, minimize, and mitigate their negative impacts on the environment.

A


Wartime disturbances often are catastrophic and at large spatial and temporal scales. Disturbance impacts may cross regional and national boundaries, particularly for such conflicts as World Wars I and II. During wartime battles, with victory the primary concern, there is little concern for adverse effects on the environment; environmental planning and management play little part. Impacts are not studied in advance, and documentation may not be undertaken at all until political arenas are stabilized.
Defeat of a nation or group of peoples can be facilitated by eliminating their environmental resources. General Sherman of the Union Army practiced the "scorched earth"* approach as he made his way to capture Atlanta, Georgia, during the Civil War in the United States during the 1860s, burning all resources of potential use by his enemy. During World War II, large areas of reclaimed lands in the Benelux countries were flooded with sea water to impede the German invasion. During the Vietnam War, up to 40% of the land area of Vietnam, and 44% of all forests, were sprayed with defoliants*. This defoliation, combined with effects from bombs and heavy equipment, destroyed forest vegetation* over an estimated 22 × 106 ha in South and North Vietnam. Recovery of these defoliated forests has been slow and soil erosion* prevalent on steep slopes.
Direct impacts of military munitions* can be significant. In Vietnam, an estimated 25 × 106 bomb and shell craters displaced about 3 × 109 m3 soil. A 227 kg high explosive bomb can form a crater 14 m in diameter and 9 m deep, and the crater may still be plainly visible 25 years later. Roughly 3.5 × 106 such bombs were dropped in Vietnam during 1968 and 1969.
Turning to military activities in peacetime, the management of military lands involves facilitating use of those lands for training. Inevitably, use leads to disturbance. Military training, while not as dramatic a disturbance as the direct effects of war, can have a widespread influence on the land. Although most of our information comes from lands administered by the United States Department of Defense, we should know the impacts of army training in the other countries, such as Australia, Canada, Germany, and Japan.
It is the policy of the United States Army to maintain training lands in a condition which closely mimics the natural conditions under which actual warfare would be conducted, as well as for wildlife* habitat and other natural values. In particular, it is the goal of the Department of Defense to reduce or avoid long-term impacts on natural resources caused by military training.

B


Military land-use* is frequently intensive, especially where maneuvers* are conducted with tracked vehicles. For instance, at Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Fort Carson, Colorado, after two years (six training rotations), a line-transect* study in three out of five training areas, with observations at one-meter intervals, showed that 40% of the surface area had been impacted by tracked vehicles. Under such training regimes, military land-managers are responsible for maintaining and rehabilitating training lands. Importantly, many habitats and species are protected from private development by the presence of military installations. Also, base longevity and maintenance of realistic habitat conditions for training require proactive resource management. Therefore, it is good policy for the military to manage its lands in ways consistent with sound stewardship. Disturbances resulting from military activities are multi-faceted, affecting ecosystems at several points; soil structure is damaged through compaction causing erosion, and vegetation is damaged or destroyed causing modification and loss of wildlife habitat. Such damage to the soil and the vegetation compromise the realism of the training exercise, creating an incentive to train in alternative undisturbed locations. This expansion of the training grounds creates further disturbance.
The management approach on lands of the United States Department of Defense has increasingly incorporated the concept of ecosystem management. This concept allows the Department to consider the full array of natural resources on lands under their stewardship. For some time, it was a priority to identify "indicator species" which could be used to indicate early stages of habitat disturbance. More recently, documentation and monitoring of long-term change has received emphasis. The approach has thus focused on development of repeatable methodologies, appropriate in many ecosystems.

C


Demarais, S. et al. 1999. Disturbance associated with military exercises. In: Walker L. R. (ed.). Ecosystems of the World vol. 16 "Ecosystems of disturbed ground". Elsevierから抜粋、一部改変。引用文献略す
【語注例】 [本文中に*印がついている] (ここに示されている訳例にとらわれる必要はない)
scorched earth = 焦土, defoliant = 枯葉剤, vegetation = 植生(植物群集), erosion = 侵食, munitions = 軍需品, wildlife = 野生生物, land-use = 土地利用, maneuver = 大演習, line-transect = ライントランゼクト(帯状調査区)
【問1】 A枠内の文を日本語に訳せ。
【問2】 B枠内の文を日本語に訳せ。
【問3】 C枠内の文を日本語に訳せ。
【問4】 枯葉剤散布域の全ての森林が破壊されたと仮定すると、ベトナム戦争以前に南北ベトナムには、どの程度の森林面積があったと推定されるか。
【問5】 爆弾による窪みが円錐形に形成されると仮定すると、1発227 kgの爆弾を爆発させると、どの程度の土壌がそこから飛散すると推定されるか。円周率は3として計算して構わない。
【問6】 本文中から、戦時中と平時(平和時)における軍事演習による撹乱の違いと、平時における軍事演習地の管理の重要性について書かれていることを150字以内にまとめよ。
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