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(Upload on August 25 2016) [ 日本語 | English ]

Manner for wrting scientific papers in English






Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

[ Conversation ]

10 rules of plain English

  1. Prefer the short word to the long.
  2. Prefer the familiar word to the fancy.
  3. Prefer the specific word to the abstract.
  4. Use no more words than necessary to make your meaning clear.
  5. Use the active voice whenever possible.
  1. Use verbs. Put verbs in action.
  2. When possible, express even a negative in positive form.
  3. Put one piece of information in one sentence.
  4. Put outline first and then details or specifics.
  5. State cause and effect.

(Ito 1984)

Elliptical sentence (省略文)


Redcuing repetitions
You may read this book if you want to (omission: read this book).
Language was made for man, and not man for language.
He worked hard when (he was) young.
He is never happier than (he is) when (if) he is working.
When (I was) a boy, I used to go fishing with my father.

Language for sciences


Some Common Word Stems

  • aer (air) [air] aerial, aerodynamic, airport
  • ann (enn) [year] annual, anniversary, centennial
  • aqua [water] aqueous, aqueduct, aquifer
  • aud [hear] audience, audible, auditorium
  • bio [life] biology, biography, antibiotics
  • chron [time] chronology, chronic, synchronized
  • clos (clud) [shut] close, disclose, enclosure
  • corp [body] corporation, incorporated, corpuscle
  • cred [believe] credit, credo, incredible
  • dict [say] dictate, predict, contradict
  • duc [lead] product, reduce, transducer
  • fac (fic) [make, do] manufacture, satisfaction, efficient
  • flu [flow] fluid, effluence, influence
  • ge n [birth] generate, genus, hydrogen
  • geo [earth] geology, geography, geometry
  • hydro [water] hydraulic, dehydrate, hydrofoil
  • ject [throw] eject, reject, injection
  • labor [work] laboratory, collaborate, elaborate
  • log [reason, science] logic, technology, analog
  • manu [hand] manual, manufacture, manuscript
  • mit (miss) [send] emit, omit, missile
  • nov (neo) [new] novel, innovate, neoplasm
  • ped (pod) [foot] pedal, podium, expedite
  • photo [light] photograph, photoelectric, photon
  • plic (ply) [fold] complicate, implicate, multiply
  • port [carry] portable, export, report
  • pos [put] deposit, composition, propose
  • puls [drive, push] impulse, propulsion, pulse
  • rota [wheel] rotation, rotary, rotate
  • scend [climb] ascend, descend, transcend
  • scop [look] microscope, telescopic, scope
  • sequ (secu) [follow] sequence, consequence, consecutive
  • solv [release] solve, solvent, resolve
  • spect [look] inspect, aspect, perspective
  • stat (stit) [state] state, static, constitute
  • strain [bind] restrain, constraint, stringent
  • tact [touch] tactile, contact, intact
  • tele [distant] television, telephone, telecommunication
  • tempor [time] temporal, contemporary, extemporaneous
  • therm [heat] thermodynamics, thermometer, thermal
  • tract [draw] traction, attract, contract
  • val [strength] value, valence, evaluation
  • vert [turn] invert, divert, conversion

Some Common Prefixes

  • prefix: (meaning), examples
  • a-: (not), atypical, asymmetric, abnormal
  • ad-(at-, al-, etc.): (to, toward), adhere, ad infinitum, attraction
  • anti-: (opposite), antibiotic, anticatalyst, antimatter
  • back-: (behind), background, backlog, backfire
  • bi-: (two), biweekly, bilateral, bivalent
  • centi-: (1/100), centimeter, centigram, centiliter
  • co- (col-, con-, etc.): (together with), cooperate, collaborate, consolidate
  • counter- (contra-): (opposite), counterbalance, counteryeight, contradict
  • de-: (reverse, undo), defiate, decrease, defrost
  • di-: (two), dimethyl, divide, dilemma
  • dia-: (across, through), diameter, diagonal, diagnose
  • dis-: (not), discontinuous, disproportionate, dishonest
  • dis-: (reverse, undo), discharge, dislodge, dismantle
  • down-: (down), downturn, downslope, downtime
  • e- (ex-): (out of), evaporate, eject, expel
  • en-: (in, within), enclose, encapsulate, engage
  • extra-: (beyond), extrapolate, extraordinary, extracurricular
  • in- (im-, ir-): (in), insert, immerse, irrigate
  • in- (im-, ir-, il-): (not), independent, inelastic, immobile
  • inter-: (between), interpolate, intercontinental, interfuse
  • iso-: (similar, same), isotope, isomorphic, isosceles
  • mal-: (bad, badly), malfunction, malformed, malpractice
  • mis-: (bad, badly), miscalculate, misfire, mispronounce
  • mono-: (one), monomer, monorail, monotone
  • multi-: (many), multiple, multiplex, multitude
  • non-: (not), noncollapsible, nonmalleable, nonflammable
  • on-: (on), ongoing, onlooker, on-line
  • out-: (surpass), outperform, outdo, outclass
  • out-: (out, outside), outline, outbuilding, outskirts
  • out-: (proceeding from), outgrowth, outlook, output
  • over-: (excessive), overwork, overproduce, oversell
  • over-: (beyond), overlook, overlap, overtime
  • poly-: (many), polygon, polymer, polytechnic
  • post-: (after), postpone, postmortem, postgraduate
  • pre-: (before), preview, prevent, preformed
  • quadr-: (four-), quadrangle, quadrilateral, quadrant
  • re-: (back), revert, reject, retract
  • re-: (again), reapply, refasten, reiterate
  • retro-: (back, backwards), retrospect, retroactive, retrorocket
  • self-: (by itself, by oneself), self-lubricating, self-employed, self-loading
  • self-: (in itself, in oneself), self-evident, self-explanatory, self-assured
  • semi-: (half), semicircular, semiconductor, semiannual
  • side-: (to or on the side), sidetrack, sidelong, sidecar
  • sub-: (under, below), submarine, subsoil, substrate
  • sub-: (a lesser part of), subclass, subdivision, subroutine
  • super-: (beyond, above), superstructure, supersonic, superheated
  • trans-: (across), transmit, transaction, transect
  • tri-: (three), triangle, tripod, trioxide
  • ultra-: (extreme), ultrasound, ultraviolet, ultramicroscopic
  • un-: (not), uncertain, unavoidable, unclear
  • un-: (reverse), unfold, undo, unbend
  • under-: (beneath, below), underground, underlie, undersurface
  • under-: (inadequate), underdeveloped, underestimate, understaffed
  • uni-: (one), uniform, unify, unique
  • up-: (up), upgrade, upturn, upkeep
  • well-: (well), well-timed, well-advised, well-defined

Adjectives for taxonomical description (記載で使う形容詞)


Leaf surface

glabrous: smooth, not hairy (glabrate, glabrescent = losing hairs with age)
pubescent: covered with erect hair (especially soft and short ones)
hirsute: with rather rough or stiff hair
tomentose: densely pubescent with matted, soft white woolly hair
woolly, lanate: with long, soft and tortuous or matted hair
setaceous, setose, strigose (adj. bristly, hispid): setulose (小剛毛), hispidulous, strigillose
ciliate: marginally fringed with short hairs (cilia).

For lectures (講義のために)


Syllabus (シラバス)


Verbs for indicating the goals

Cognitive domain (知識領域)
low-order
↓ knowledge
↓ comprehension
↓ application
↓ analysis
↓ synthesisi
↓ evaluation
high-order

define identify recognize repeat choose describe discuss explain review simulates
apply generalize relate operate demonstrate analyze calculate conclude develop estimate solve appraise assess choose compare revise value arrange compose modify prepare predict

Affective domain (情意領域)
low-order
↓ receiving
↓ responding
↓ valuing
↓ organization
↓ characterization
high-order

accept attend develop recognize complete comply cooperate examine obey respond accept defend devote pursue seek codify display order organize systematize internalize verify

Psychomotor domain (精神運動領域)
low-order
↓ imitation
↓ manipulation
↓ precision
↓ articulation
↓ naturalization
high-order

bend calibrate dismantle fasten fixe grasp grind handle heat manipulate measure mix organize perform reach shorten sketch stretch

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