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(Upload on December 29 2015) [ 日本語 | English ]

Logic: Manner for wrting scientific papers (論理学)






Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

Before talking about manner (that means grammar here)


Writing scientific papers, Natural sciences

Logic (論理)


s.l. The branch of philosophy concerned with the use and study of valid reasoning.
s.s. The study of logic features prominently in mathematics and computer science.

Tautology (循環論法)


circular reasoning, circular argument, vicious circle

A → → → → A

Correlation vs Causal relation (相関関係と因果関係)


Correlation relation

A weak claim - that variation in the independent variable is associated with variation in the dependent variable.
→ Chicken-and-egg

A ↔ B

pH-growth
Soil pH determines plant growth, or plant growth determines soil pH

Causal relation

A strong claim - that variation in the independent variable actually causes variation in the dependent variable.

A → B
Rain (precipitation → water level in a river
⇒ path analysis

Variable
Dependent variable: the target variable. The variable that is assessed as being the result of or predicted by other variables.
Independent variable (predictor): The manipulated variable. Variation in the independent variable is predicted to be associated with variation in dependent variable.

statistics (統計学), meta-analysis (メタ解析)

Ethics (倫理学)


= Moral philosophy
the branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct Classification:
  1. Meta-ethics (メタ倫理学), concerning the theoretical meaning and reference of moral propositions, and how their truth values (if any) can be determined
  2. Normative ethics (規範倫理学), concerning the practical means of determining a moral course of action
  3. Applied ethics (応用倫理学), concerning what a person is obligated (or permitted) to do in a specific situation or a particular domain of action

Lacco un po Matto
Lento va,
Il tempo, fredd-e grigio,
In un vestito che,
Bavero rialzato, copre la citta,
Strade, case, gatti neri,
Un'auto va,
Corre, frena i suoi pensieri,
Corre e va.
Scacchi tutti bianchi,
Tu regina nera del re,
Scacco, scacco, scacco un po matto
Scacchi tutti neri,
Tu re bianco dei doveri,
Scacco, scacco, scacco un pomatto.

And the most famous singer, Miyuki Nakajima
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