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Refereences on Western Australia (plant ecology)






Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

Western Australia [ Book | Journal (related to smoke)], Mine , Links , Asstract (note)

Keywords: coalfield, seedbank, seed dormancy, smoke-induced seed germination

Western Australia


Main gates to enter Western Australia [ Japanese | English ]

Book


  • Corrick MG, Fuhrer BA 2002. Wildflowers of Southern Western Australia (updated edn). Five Mile Press, Victoria. pp.226
  • Hoffman N, Brown A. 1998, Orchids of south-west Australia. (Revised second edition with supplment). UWAP, Nedlands. pp. 468
  • Lowrie A. 1998. Carnivorous plants of Australia. Volume 3. UWAP, Nedlands. pp. 288
  • Mitchell AA, Wilcox DG 1994. Arid shrubland plants of Western Australia (2nd and enlarged edn). UWAP, Nedlands. pp. 478
  • Nevil S, McQuoid N. 1998. Guide to the wildflowers of South Western Australia. 2nd edn. Simon Nevil Publications, Perth. pp.117
  • Paczkowska G, Chapman AR. 2000. The Western Australian flora: a descriptive catalogue. Wildflower Society of Western Australia, Perth. pp. 652
  • Planning and Infrastructure. 2003. The West Australian StreetMart 2004 Perth Street Directory. West Australian Newspapers, Perth. pp. 432
  • Recher HE, Lunney D, Dunn I (eds). 1986. A natural legacy: Ecology in Australia. 2nd edn. A.S. Pergamon Press, Sydney. pp. 443
  • Slater P. 1989. The Slater field guide to Australian birds. New Holland Publishers, Sydney. pp. 343
  • Webb S, Colson I. 2001. Western Australia. 3rd edn. Lonely Planet Publications, Victoria. pp. 352
  • Wheeler J, Marchant N, Lewington M. 2002. Flora of the South West. Bunbury-Augusta-Denmark. UWAP, Crawley. (2 vols.) pp. 971
  • School of Plant Biology, UWA. 2003. 4th year, honours, postgraduate diploma, msc preliminary research projects for prospective studies 2004. SPB, UWA. pp. 41

Out of print

  • Marchant NG, Wheeler JR, Rye BL, Bennett EM, Lander NS, Macfarlane TD. 1987. Flora of the Perth Region. Western Australian Herbarium, Department of Western Australia. 1080 p. (two parts)

Journal


  • Bell J, Wells S, Jasper DA, Abbott LK. 2003. Field inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in rehabilitation of mine sites with native vegetation, including Acacia spp. Australian Systematic Botany 16: 131-138
  • Brundrett MC, Ashwath N, Jasper DA. 1996. Mycorrhizas in the Kakadu region of tropical Australia. I. Propagules of mycorrhizal fungi and soil properties in natural habitats. Plant and Soil 184: 159-171
  • Cornelissen JHC, Lavorel S, Garnier E, Diaz S, Buchmann N, Gurvich DE, Reich PB, ter Steege H, Morgan HD, van der Heijden MGA, Pausas JG, Poorter H. 2003. A handbook of protocols for standardisesd and easy measurment of plant functional traits worldwide. Australian Journal of Botany 51: 335-380
  • Chia KA, Koch JM, Sadler R, Turner SR. 2016. Re-establishing the mid-storey tree Persoonia longifolia (Proteaceae) in restored forest following bauxite mining in southern Western Australia. Ecological Research 31: 627-638
  • Glen M, Bougher NL, Colquhoun IJ, Vlahos S, Loneragan WA, O'Brien PA, Hardy GEStJ. 2008. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of rehabilitated bauxite mines and adjacent, natural jarrah forest in Western Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 255: 241-255
  • Grant CD, Loneragan WA. 1999. The effects of burning on the understorey composition of 11-13 year old rehabilitated bauxite mines in Western Australia. Vegetation characteristics. Plant Ecology 145: 291-305
  • Grant CD, Loneragan WA. 2001. The effects of burning on the understorey composition of rehabilitated bauxite mines in Western Australia: community changes and vegetation succession. Forest Ecology and Management 145: 255-279
  • Havel JJ. 1975. Site-vegetation mapping in the northern jarrah forest (Darling Range). 1. Definition of site vegetation types. Bulletin of Forests Department, Perth, Western Australia 86: 1-115 [Basic information]
  • Havel JJ. 1975. Site-vegetation mapping in the northern jarrah forest (Darling Range). 2. Location and mapping of site-vegetation types. Bulletin of Forests Department, Perth, Western Australia 87: 1-105 [Basic information]
  • Heap JW. 1997. Biology and control of Reseda lutea L. 1. Seed biology and seedling growth. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 48: 511-515
  • Heap JW. 1997. Biology and control of Reseda lutea L. 2. Life cycle: seedling emergence, recruitment, and vegetative reproduction. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 48: 517-524
  • Herath DN, Lamont BB. 2009. Persistence of resprouting species after fire in natural and post-mine restored shrublands in southwestern Australia. Applied Vegetation Science 12: 451-458
  • Hobbs RJ, Yates CJ. 2003. Impacts of ecosystem fragmentation on plant populations: generalising the idiosyncratic. Australian Journal of Botany 51: 471-488
  • Hopper SD, Gioia P. 2004. The southwest Australian floristic region: Evolution and Conservation of a global hot spot of biodiversity. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 35: 623-650
  • Keighery GJ, Alford JJ, Longman V. 2002. A vegetation survey of the islands of the Turquoise Coast from Dongara to Lancelin, south-western Australia. Conservation Science of Western Australia 4: 13-62
  • Koch JM, Ward SC. 1994. Establishment of understorey vegetation for rehabilitation of bauxite-mined areas in the jarrah forest of Western Australia. Journal of Environmental Management 41: 1-15
  • Ludwig JA, Hindley N, Barnett G. 2003. Indicator for monitoring minesite rehabilitation: trends on waste-rock dumps, northern Australia. Ecological Indicators 3: 143-153
  • Majer JD, Nichols OG. 1998. Long-term recolonization patterns of ants in Western Australian rehabilitated bauxite mines with reference to their use as indicator of restoration success. Journal of Applied Ecology 35: 161-182
  • McKenzie NL, Hopper SD, Wardell-Johnson G, Gibson N. 1996. Assessing the conservation reserve system in the Jarrah forest bioregion. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 79: 241-248
  • Mullins RG, Koch JM, Ward KS. 2002. Practical method of sgermination for a key jarrah forest species: Snottygobble (Persoonia longifolia). Ecological Management and Rehabilitation 3: 97-103
  • Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, da Fonseca GAB, Kent J. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Natrue 403: 853-858
  • Patrick S. 2002. Flora and vegetation of Burnerbinmah Station: a study of the plant communities in the Mulga shrublands of the Murchison Region, Western Australia. Conservation Science of Western Australia 4: 72-93
  • Pettit NE, Froend RH. 2001. Long-term changes in the vegetation after the cessation of livestock grazing in Eucalyptus marginata (jarrah) woodland remnants. Austral Ecology 26: 22-31
  • Prober SM, Thiele KR, Lunt ID. 2002. Identifying ecological barriers to restoration in temperate grassy woodlands: soil changes associated with different degradation status. Australian Journal of Botany 50: 699-712
  • Smith MA, Loneragan WA, Grant CD, Koch JM. 2000. Effect of fire on the topsoil seed banks of rehabilitated bauxite mine sites in the jarrah forest of Western Australia. Ecological Management and Restoration 1: 50-60
  • Tacey WH, Glossop BL. 1980. Assessment of topsoil handling techniques for rehabilitation of sites mined for bauxite within the Jarrah forest of Western Australia. Journal of Applied Ecology 17: 195-201
  • Turner J, Lamber MJ. 2002. Litterfall and forest dynamics in Eucalyptus pilularis forests. Austral Ecology 27: 192-199
  • van Etten EJB. 1998. Mapping vegetation in an arid, mountainous region of Western Australia. Applied Vegetation Science 1: 189-200
  • Ward SC. 2000. Soil development on rehabilitated bauxite mines in south-west Australia. Australian Journal of Soil Research 38: 453-64

Smoke-induced sgermination

  • Abella SR. 2006. Effects of smoke and fire-related cues on Penstemon barbatus Seeds. American Midland Naturalist 155: 404-410
  • Adkins SW, Bellairs SM, Loch DS. 2002. Seed dormancy mechanisms in warm season grass species. Euphytica 126: 13-20
  • Baker KS, Steadman KJ, Plummer JA, Merritt DJ, Dixon KW. 2005. The changing window of conditions that promotes germination of two fire ephemerals, Actinotus leucocephalus (Apiaceae) and Tersonia cyathiflora (Gyrostemonaceae). Annals of Botany 96: 1225-1236
  • Baldwin IT, Morse L. 1994. Up in smoke. 2. Germination of Nicotiana attenuata in response to smoke-derived cues and nutrients in burned and unburned soils. Journal of Chemical Ecology 20: 2373-2391
  • Baldwin IT, Staszakkozinski L, Davidson R. 1994. Up in smoke. 1. Smoke-derived germination cues for post-fire annual, Nicotiana attenuata Torr. ex Watson. Journal of Chemical Ecology 20: 2345-2371
  • Baxter BJM, van Staden J. 1994. Plant-derived smoke: an effective seed pre-treatment. Plant Growth Regulation 14: 279-282
  • Baxter BJM, Granger JE, van Staden J. 1995. Plant-derived smoke and seed germination: Is all smoke good smoke? That is the burning question. South African Journal of Botany 61: 275-277
  • Baxter BJM, van Staden J, Granger JE, Brown NAC. 1994. Plant-derived smoke and smoke extracts stimulate seed germination of the fire-climax grass Themeda triandra Forssk. Environmental and Experimental Botany 34: 217-223
  • Beligni MV, Lamattina L. 2000. Nitric oxide stimulates seed germination and de-etiolation, and inhibits hypocotyl elongation, three light-inducible responses in plants. Planta 210: 215-221
  • Blank RR, Young JA. 1998. Heated substrate and smoke: Influence on seed emergence and plant growth. Journal of Range Management 51: 577-583
  • Brown NAC. 1993. Promotion of germination of fynbos seeds by plant-derived smoke. New Phytologist 123: 575-583
  • Brown NAC. 1993. Seed germination in the fynbos fire ephemeral, Syncarpha vestita (L.) B. Nord. is promoted by smoke, aqueous extracts of smoke and charred wood derived from burning the ericoid-leaved shrub, Passerina vulgaris Thoday. International Journal of Wildland Fire 3: 203-206
  • Brown NAC, Botha PA. 2004. Smoke seed germination studies and a guide to seed propagation of plants from the major families of the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. South African Journal of Botany 70: 559-581
  • Brown NAC, Jamieson H, Botha PA. 1994. Stimulation of seed germination in South African species of Restionaceae by plant-derived smoke. Plant Growth Regulation 15: 93-100
  • Brown NAC., van Staden J. 1997. Smoke as a germination cue: a review. Plant Growth Regulation 22: 115-124
  • Dixon KW, Roche S, Pate JS. 1995. The promotive effect of smoke derived from burnt native vegetation on seed germination of Western Australian plants. Oecologia 101: 185-192
  • Drewes FE, Smith MT, van Staden J. 1995. The effect of plant-derived smoke extract on the germination of light-sensitive lettuce seed. Plant Growth Regulation 16: 205-209
  • Enright NJ, Goldblum D, Ata P, Ashton DH. 1997. The independent effects of heat, smoke and ash on emergence of seedlings from the soil seed bank of a healthy Eucalyptus woodland in Grampians (Gariweld) National Park, western Victoria. Australian Journal of Ecology 22: 81-88
  • Enright NJ, Kintrup A. 2001. Effects of smoke, heat and charred wood on the germination of dormant soil-stored seeds from a Eucalyptus baxteri heathy-woodland in Victoria, SE Australia. Austral Ecology 26: 132-141
  • Flematti GR, Ghisalberti EL, Dixon KW, Trengove RD. 2004. A compound from smoke that promotes seed germination. Science 305: 977
  • Gomez-Gonzalez S, Sierra-Almeida A, Cavieres LA. 2008. Does plant-derived smoke affect seed germination in dominant woody species of the Mediterranean matorral of central Chile? Forest Ecology and Management 255: 1510-1515
  • Jager AK, Light ME, van Staden J. 1996. Effects of source of plant material and temperature on the production of smoke extracts that promote germination of light-sensitive lettuce seeds. Environmental and Experimental Botany 36: 421-429
  • Jager AK, Strydom A, van Staden J. 1996. The effect of ethylene, octanoic acid and a plant-derived smoke extract on the germination of light-sensitive lettuce seeds. Plant Growth Regulation 19: 197-201
  • Keeley JE, Fotheringham CJ. 1997. Trace gas emissions and smoke-induced seed germination. Science 276: 1248-1250
  • Keeley JE, Fotheringham CJ. 1998. Smoke-induced germination in California chaparral. Ecology 79: 2320-2336.
  • Keeley JE, Fotheringham CJ. 1998. Mechanism of smoke-induced seed germination in a post-fire chaparral annual. Journal of Ecology 86: 27-36
  • Keeley JE, Fotheringham CJ. 2000. Role of fire in regeneration from seed. In: Fenner M. (ed.) Seeds. The ecology of regeneration in plant communities (2nd edn.). CAB International. pp. 311-330
  • Keeley SC, Pizzorno M. 1986. Charred wood stimulated germination of two fire-following herbs of the California chaparral and the role of hemicellulose. American Journal of Botany 73: 1289-1297
  • Keith DA. 1997. Combined effects of heat shock, smoke and darkness on germination of Epacris stuartii Stapf., an endangered fire-prone Australian shrub. Oecologia 112: 340-344
  • Light ME, Gardner MJ, Jager AK, van Staden J. 2002. Dual regulation of seed germination by smoke solutions. Plant Growth Regulation 37: 135-141
  • Lindon HL, Menges E. 2008. Effects of smoke on seed germination of twenty species of fire-prone habitats in Florida. Castanea 73: 106-110
  • Lloyd MV, Dixon KW, Sivasithamparam K. 2000. Comparative effects of different smoke treatments on germination of Australian native plants. Austral Ecology 25: 610-615
  • Morrison DA, Morris EC. 2000. Pseudoreplication in experimental designs for the manipulation of seed germination treatments. Austral Ecology 25: 292-296
  • Ne'eman G, Henig-Sever N, Eshel A. 1999. Regulation of the germination of Rhus coriaria, a post-fire pioneer, by heat, ash, pH, water potential and ethylene. Physiologia Plantarum 106: 47-52
  • Newton RJ, Bond WJ, Farrant JM. 2006. Effects of seed storage and fire on germination in the nut-fruited Restionaceae species, Cannomois virgata South African Journal of Botany 72: 177-180
  • Ooi MK, Auld TK, Whelan RJ. 2006. Dormancy and the fire-centric focus: germination of three Leucopogon species (Ericaceae) from South-eastern Australia. Annals of Botany 98: 421-430
  • Perez-Fernandez MA, Rodriguez-Echeverria S. 2003. Effects of smoke, charred wood, and nitrogenous compounds on seed germination of ten species from woodland in central-western Spain. Journal of Chemical Ecology 29: 237-251
  • Pierce SM, Esler K, Cowling RM. 1995. Smoke-induced germination of succulents (Mesembryanthemaceae) from fireprone and fire-free habitats in South Africa. Oecologia 102: 520-522
  • Read TR, Bellairs SM. 1999. Smoke affects the germination of native grasses of New South Wales. Australian Journal Botany 47: 563-576
  • Rivas M, Reyes O, Casal M. 2006. Influence of heat and smoke treatments on the germination of six legumenous shrubby species. International Journal of Wildland Fire 15: 73-80
  • Roche S, Dixon KW, Pate JS. 1994. Smoke - a new process for germinating Australian plants. Australian Horticulture 92: 46-47
  • Roche S, Dixon KW, Pate JS. 1997. Seed aging and smoke: partner cues in the amelioration of seed dormancy in selected Australian native species. Australian Journal of Botany 45: 783-815
  • Roche S, Koch JM, Dixon KW. 1997. Smoke enhanced germination for mine rehabilitation in the southwestern of Western Australia. Restoration Ecology 5: 191-203
  • Rokich DP, Dixon KW, Sivasithamparam K, Meney KA. 2002. Smoke, mulch, and seed broadcasting effects on woodland restoration in Western Australia. Restoration Ecology 10: 185-194
  • Senaratna T, Dixon K, Bunn E, Touchell D. 1999. Smoke-saturated water promotes somatic embryogenesis in geranium. Plant Growth Regulation 28: 95-99
  • Thomas PB, Morris EC, Auld TD. 2003. Interactive effects of heat shock and smoke on germination of nine species forming soil seed banks within the Sydney region. Austral Ecology 28: 674-683
  • Tieu A, Dixon KA, Meney KA, Sivasithamparam K. 2001. The interaction of heat and smoke in the release of seed dormancy in seven species from southwestern Western Australia. Annals of Botany 88: 259-265
  • Tieu A, Dixon KA, Sivasithamparam K. 1999. Germination of four species of native Western Australian plants using plant-deirved smoke. Australian Journal of Ecology 47: 207-219
  • Tieu A, Dixon KW, Meney KA, Sivasithamparam K, Barrett RL. 2001. Spatial developmental variation in seed dormancy characteristics in the fire-responsive species Anigozanthos manglesii (Haemodoraceae) from Western Australia. Annals of Botany 88: 19-26
  • Tsuyuzaki S and others
  • Turner SR, Merritt DJ, Ridley EC, Commander LE, Baskin JM, Baskin CC. 2006.Ecophysiology of seed dormancy in the Australian endemic species Acanthocarpus preissii (Dasypogonaceae). Annals of Botany 98: 1137-1144
  • Williams PR, Congdon RA, Grice AG, Clarke PJ. 2003. Fire-related cues break seed dormancy of six legumes of tropical eucalypt savannas in north-eastern Australia. Austral Ecology 28: 507-514

Mines (except for Western Australia)


  • Akala VA, Lal R. 2000. Potential of mine land reclamation for soil organic carbon sequestration in Ohio. Land Degradation and Development 11: 289-297
  • Akala VA, Lal R. 2001. Soil organic carbon pools and sequestration rates in reclaimed minesoils in Ohio. Journal of Environmental Quality 30: 2098-2104
  • Alday JG, Marrs RH, Martinez-Ruiz C. 2011. Vegetation succession on reclaimed coal wastes in Spain: the influence of soil and environmental factors. Applied Vegetation Science 14: 84-94
  • Alday JG, Marrs RH, Martinez-Ruiz C. 2011. Vegetation convergence during early succession on coal wastes: a 6-year permanent plot study. Journal of Vegetation Science 22: 1072-1083
  • Ashby WC, Hannigan KP, Kost DA. 1989. Coal mine reclamation with grasses and legumes in southern Illinois. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 44: 79-83
  • Baig MN. 1992. Natural revegetation of coal mine spoils in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta and its significance for species selection in land restoration. Mountain Research and Development 12: 285-300
  • Cooke JA, Johnson MS. 2002. Ecological restoration of land with particular reference to the mining of metals and industrial minerals: A review of theory and practice. Environmental Review 10: 41-71
  • Cummings J, Reid N, Davies I, Grant C. 2005. Adaptive restoration of sand-mined areas for biological conservation. Journal of Applied Ecology 42: 160-170
  • Gandy CJ, Smith JWN, Jarvis AP. 2007. Attenuation of mining-derived pollutants in the hyporheic zone: A review. Science of the Total Environment 373: 435-446
  • Greenberg WA, Wilding LP. 2007. Pre-and post-mined bauxite soils of Jamaica: physical and chemical properties. Soil Science Society of America Journal 71: 181-188
  • Hendrychová M. 2008. Reclamation success in post-mining landscapes in the Czech Republic: A review of pedological and biological studies. Journal of Landscape Studies 1: 63-78
  • Holl KD. 2002. Long-term vegetation recovery on reclaimed coal surface mines in the eastern USA. Journal of Applied Ecology 39: 960-970
  • Huang Y, Tian F, Wang Y, Wang M, Hu Z. 2015. Effect of coal mining on vegetation disturbance and associated carbon loss. Environmental Earth Sciences 73: 2329-2342
  • Holmes PM. 2001. Shrubland restoration following woody alien invasion and mining: effects of topsoil depth, seed source, and fertilizer addition. Restoration Ecology 9: 71-84
  • Li D, Jiang J, Li T, Wang J. 2016. Soil heavy metal contamination related to roasted stone coal slag: a study based on geostatistical and multivariate analyses. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 23: 14405-14413
  • Lindemann1 WC, Fresquez PR, Cardenas M. 1989. Nitrogen mineralization in coal mine spoil and topsoil. Biology and Fertility of Soils 7: 318-324
  • Malik A, Scullion J. 1998. Soil development on restored opencast coal sites with particular reference to organic matter and aggregate stability. Soil Use and Management 14: 234-239
  • Marrs RH, Roberts RD, Skeffington RA, Bradshaw AD. 1981. Ecosystem development on naturally-colonized China clay wastes. II. Nutrient compartmentation. Journal of Ecology 69: 163-169
  • Martinez-Ruiz C, Fernandez-Santos B. 2005. Natural revegetation on topsoiled mining-spoils according to the exposure. Acta Oecologica 28: 231-238
  • Martinez-Ruiz C, Marrs RH. 2007. Some factors affecting successional change on uranium mine wastes: Insights for ecological restoration. Applied Vegetation Science 10: 333-342
  • Mushia NM, Ramoelo A, Ayisi KK. 2016. The impact of the quality of coal mine stockpile soils on sustainable vegetation growth and productivity. Sustainability 8: Article 546
  • Pallavicini Y, Alday JG, Martinez-Ruiz. 2015. Factors affecting herbaceous richness and biomass accumulation patterns of reclaimed coal mines. Land Degradation and Development 26: 211-217
  • Peterson GD, Heemskerk M. 2001. Deforesstation and forest regeneration following small-scale gold mining in the Amazon: the case of Suriname. Environmental Conservation 28: 117-126
  • Read TR, Bellairs SM, Mulligan DR, Lamb D. 2000. Smoke and heat effects on soil seed bank germination for the re-establishment of a native forest community in New South Wales. Austral Ecology 25: 48-57 [Study site: Mount Owen open-cut coal mine]
  • Reid NB, Naeth MA. 2005. Establishment of a vegetation cover on tundra kimberlite mine tailings: 1. A greenhouse study. Restoration Ecology 13: 594-601
  • Reid NB, Naeth MA. 2005. Establishment of a vegetation cover on tundra kimberlite mine tailings: 2. A fiedl study. Restoration Ecology 13: 602-608
  • Rogowski AS, Weninrich BE, Khanbilvardi RM. 1990. A nonparametric approach to potential erosion on mined and reclaimed areas. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 45: 408-412
  • Rogowski AS, Weninrich BE. 1987. Modeling the effects of mining and erosion on biomass production. Ecological Modelling 35: 85-112
  • Schladweiler BK, Vance GF, Legg DE, Munn LC, Haroian R. 2005. Topsoil depth effects on reclaimed coal mine and native area vegetation in northeastern Wyoming. Rangeland Ecology and Management 58: 167-176
  • Sharma KD, Kumar S, Gough LP. 2000. Rehabilitation of lands mined for limestone in the Indian desert. Land Degradation and Development 11: 563-574
  • Taylor J, Middleton BA. 2004. Comparison of litter decomposition in a natural versus coal-slurry pond reclaimed as a wetland. Land Degradation and Development 15: 439-446
  • Urbanova M, Snajdr J, Brabcova V, Merhautova V, Dobiaaova P, Cajthaml T, Vanek D, Frouz J, Santruckova H, Baldrian P. 2014. Litter decomposition along a primary post-mining chronosequence. Biology and Fertility of Soils 50: 827-837 [Coal mining]
  • Vetterlein D, Waschkies C, Weber E. 1999. Nutrient availability in the initial stages of surface mine spoil reclamation - Impact on plant growth. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 162: 315-321
  • Wei L, Li S, Noguera DR, Qin K, Jiang J, Zhao Q, Kong X, Cui F. 2015. Dissolved organic matter removal during coal slag additive soil aquifer treatment for secondary effluent recharging: Contribution of aerobic biodegradation. Journal of Environmental Management 156: 158-166
  • Wickham JD, Ritters KH, Wade TG, Coan M, Homer C. 2007. The effects of Appalachian mountaintop mining on interior forest. Landscape Ecology 22: 179-187 [Coal mining]
  • Zhai M, Totolo O, Modisi MP, Finkelman RB, Kelesitse SM, Menyatso M. 2009. Heavy metal distribution in soils near Palapye, Botswana: an evaluation of the environmental impact of coal mining and combustion on soils in a semi-arid region. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 31: 759-777
  • Singh RS, Tripathi N, Chaulya SK. 2012. Ecological study of revegetated coal mine spoil of an Indian dry tropical ecosystem along an age gradient. Biodegradation 23: 837–849
  • Wang J, Wang H, Cao Y, Bai Z, Qin Q. 2016. Effects of soil and topographic factors on vegetation restoration in opencast coal mine dumps located in a loess area. Scientific Reports 6: 22058. doi: 10.1038/srep22058
  • Zhang ZQ, Shu WS, Lan CY, Wong MH. 2001. Soil seed bank as an input of seed source in revegetation of lead/zinc mine tailing. Restoration Ecology 9: 378-385

Links

Botany and Ecology Mine Smoke
Australian National Botanic Garden

List of all Australian plant names [> 7 Mb, need caution]
Australian National Herbarium: The Fern Pages
Pteridophytes: Links to the Ferns and their Allies

NatureBase, Department of Conservation and Management, Government of Western Australia
Wildflowers of Western Australia by World Botanical Associates

MATTISKE Consulting

Review of management options for poorly represented vegetation complexes

Alcoa [Worldwide], [in Australia]
Worsley Alumina Pty Ltd
Smoke Starter
Smoke infused paper
Smoke paper (Super Smoke Plus)
Liquid smoke

Abstract (note)


Vegetation


Havel JJ. 1975. Site-vegetation mapping in the northern jarrah forest (Darling Range). 2. Location and mapping of site-vegetation types. Bulletin of Forests Department, Perth, Western Australia 87: 1-105

Location and area:
South-west of Western Australia (115°50'E-116°50'E, 31°50'S-33°30'S), ca 10500 km².

Category of habitats, based on species habitat preferences

a. Moist, leached sands.
b. Fertile loams.
c. Dry, sandy gravels of the eastern zone.
d. Moist, loamy gravels of the western zone.
e. Moist, sandy gravels of the western zone.
f. Moist, loamy sands and sandy loams.

Seedbank


Mullins RG, Koch JM, Ward KS. 2002. Practical method of germination for a key jarrah forest species: Snottygobble (Persoonia longifolia). Ecological Management and Rehabilitation 3: 97-103

Snottygobble (Persoonia longifolia): a key component of the mid-story (< 5 m in height) of the jarrah forest in WA.

The combination of endocarp chipping and GA3 treatment is effective to promote seed germination, suggesting physical (mechanical) and chemical dormancy
+ Cool temperature is required to germinate
The longevity of seed is less than 1 yr

Smoke (closely related to seedbank)


Roche S, Dixon KW, Pate JR. 1997. Seed aging and smoke: partner cues in the amelioration of seed dormancy in selected Australian native species. Australian Journal of Botany 45: 783-815

References
First report on smoke-induced germination
de Lange JH, Boucher C. 1990. Autoecological studies on Audouinia capitata (Bruniaceae). I. Plant-derived smoke as a seed germination cue. South African Journal of Botany 56: 700-703

Lloyd MV, Dixon KW, Sivasithamparam K. 2000. Comparative effects of different smoke treatments on germination of Australian native plants. Austral Ecology 25: 610-615

Smoke methods
Aerosol smoke
Smoke water, bubbling aerosol smoke through water
Concentrated smoke products (CSP), commercially available as Regen 2000 Direct, Melbourne - effective with low cost for restoration




Fig. A tool for exposing smoke to seeds Smoke generator
(for cooled smoke)
Voltage regulator
to controll fan spped
Air inlet fan Cooling pipe to carry
smoke to tent
Smoke tent with shelves
for seeds/water/flats

Williams PR, Congdon RA, Grice AG, Clarke PJ. 2003. Fire-related cues break seed dormancy of six legumes of tropical eucalypt savannas in north-eastern Australia. Austral Ecology 28: 507-514

Fire-related cues = heat shock + smoke + nitrate
Those cues are interacted to each other.

Rehabilitation


Tacey WH, Glossop BL. 1980. Assessment of topsoil handling techniques for rehabilitation of sites mined for bauxite within the Jarrah forest of Western Australia. Journal of Applied Ecology 17: 195-201

Study area: Jarradale minesite on the Darling Plateau
Climate: mediterranean type

Annual rainfall: 1217 mm (608-2169 mm)
Temperature: 8.4°C to 29.2°C

Three treatments on rehabilitation
Stockpiling

Unconfined heap approximately 10 m high for 2 yr was respread at the same average depth after mining

Direct whole-return

Topsoil was stripped to 40 cm and immediately respread

Double-stripping

Topsoil which had been stockpiled for 2 yr was spread onto a mined area to a depth of 40 cm and then covered with a 5 cm deep layer which had been freshly removed from the top 5 cm of topsoil of another unmined area

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