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Angiospermae (被子植物)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

[Engler's syllabus (エングラー体系)]

Embryowith single cotyledonwith two cotyledons
Pollenwith single furrow or porewith three furrows or pores
Flower partsin multiples of threein multiples of four or five
Major leaf veinsparallelreticulated
Stem vascular bundlesscatteredin a ring
Rootsadventitiousdeveloping from radicle
Secondary growthabsentoften present

Class Dicotyledonae (双子葉植物)

Bentham-Hooker system (ベンサム・フッカー方式)

Commonly used in USA and UK (Bentham, Hooker)
perianth present = primitive: Magnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae
I Amentiflorae
II Thalamiflorae
III Corolliflorae
IV Calyciflorae
V Ovariflorae

I Amentiflorae (尾状花序群)

II Thalamiflorae (花托群)

Order Polygonales タデ

Order Paeoniales ボタン

Paeoniaceae ボタン

Order Magnoliales モクレン


Order Piperales コショウ

Order Aristolochiales ウマノスズクサ

Order Rafflesiales ヤッコソウ

Order Ranales キンポウゲ植物類

= Polycarpicae 多心皮類 s.l.
Circaesteraceae キルカエアステル, western China - Himalaya

Order Geraniales フウロソウ

Euphorbiaceaeトウダイグサ(s.s.): all photosynthetic types,C3, C4 and CAM plants, in this familty
Daphniphyllaceaeユズリハ(s.s.) → merged into Euphorbiaceae

Order Malvales アオイ

Order Violales

(no Violales in APG)

III Corolliflorae (花冠群)

Order Primulales サクラソウ

Myrsinaceae ヤブコウジ
35 genera
Primulaceae サクラソウ

Order Gentianales リンドウ

IV Calyciflorae (萼筒群)

Proteales ヤマモガシ
= Proteaceae, the type = Protea
pollen analysis → Gondwana origin (cp. Nothofagus)

Western Australia: Adenanthos Labillardiere, Banksia Linnaeus f., Conospermum Smith, Dryandra R. Brown, Franklandia R. Brown, Grevillea R. Brown ex Knight, Hakea Schrader, Isopogon R. Brown ex Kngiht, Lambertia Smith, Persoonia Smith, Petrophile Knight, Stirlingia Endlicher, Synaphea R. Brown, Petrophile, Xylomelum Smith

V Ovariflorae (子房群)

Order Rubiales アカネ

→ Cronquist
Caprifoliaceae スイカズラ: 12 genera
Adoxaceae: レンプクソウ: 1 genus 1 spedies (Adoxa L.)
Valerianaceae オミナエシ: 13 genera
Dipsacaceae マツムシソウ: 8 genera
Rubiaceae -: > 500 genera
Subfam. Cinchonoideae フタバムグラ
Subfam. Rubioideae アカネ

Order Campanulales キキョウ

Campanulaceae キキョウ

[class and family established by Engler]

Class Monocotyledonae (単子葉植物)

Two hypotheses
1. Dicotyledonae (dicot) → Monocotyledonae (monocot)
2. Primitive dicotylodonae → Monocotiledonae + Dicotyledonae