(First upload on January 3 2018. Last on January 13 2019) [ 日本語 | English ]

Quercus robur L.

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

Quercus L. (コナラ)
Section Quercus
Oushunara (オウシュウナラ, 欧州楢), English oak
Lifeform: deciduous tall tree
Distribution: Europe and Asia Minor
Habitat: man-made or disturbed habitats, forest edges and forests
Bark (樹皮)
Pollination: wind
Seed dispersal: gravity or cache by acorns
Utilization: timber, tanning leather, food for livestock, etc.
Sometimes separated into four species (one is Q. robur)

Q. brutia Tenore, in Italy
Q. pedunculiflora K. Koch, in southeast Europe
Q. haas Kotschy, in Asia Minor and Caucasus

Hybrid: Q. × rosacea = Q. robur × Q. petraea, fertile

Quercus robur transplanted in Japan

oak4 ST5 ST6
[1-3] at an arboretum garden in Tomakomai Experimental Forest, HU, on September 14 2017. [4-6] in front of NiPR (National Institute of Polar Research), Tokyo, on November 17 2018.