(First upload on November 27 2008. Last on October 4 2017) [ 日本語 | English ]

Empetrum nigrum L.

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

Empetraceae (Engler's syllabus, エングラー体系) → APG assigns to Ericaceae (ツツジ科)

Gankouran (ガンコウラン, 岩高蘭), crowberry
Lifeform: creeping evergreen shrub
Distribution: circumpolar regions, including northern Japan
Habitat: ombrotrophic wetlands (湿原) and mountain tops in Japan, tundra (ツンドラ) in AK
Seed dispersal: endozoochore (animal)

Empetrum L. (Sp. Pl. 1753) in the world

E. eamesii Fernald et Wiegand (Rockberry)
ssp. eamesii
ssp. atropurpureum (Fernald et Wiegand) D. Love
E. nigrum L. (Crowberry)
ssp. hermaphroditum (Lange ex Hagerup) Bocher
var. nigrum: the type (セイヨウガンコウラン)
var. japonicum K. Koch (ガンコウラン)

f. albicarphum Honda ex H. Hara (シロミノガンコウラン)

E. rubrum Vahl ex Willd.

Empetrum nigrum in the Northern Hemisphere

var. japonicum in Hokkaido

[1] near the bothie (hut escaped from mountainous disasters) of Mount Tokachi (十勝岳), central Hokkaido, on June 27 2017. [2] in a post-mined peatland, Sarobetsu Mire (サロベツ湿原), northern Japan, on July 5 2006. [3] at a trail from Nonaka Spa to Mount Meakan (雌阿寒岳), eastern Hokkaido, on June 25 2013.

ssp. hermaphroditum in Alaska


[1] a patch on Sphagnum mat. [2] close-up of a fruit and leaves. [1/2] at Poker Flats, interior Alaska, on August 11 2010.