Top
Header

(Upload on February 8 2014) [ 日本語 | English ]

Liliaceae Juss. (ユリ科)






Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

[Engler's syllabus (エングラー体系)]

Order Liliales (ユリ目, s.l.)


Order Liliales in Monocotyledons (revised greatly by APG)
Leaf: Linear leaves mostly with parallel veinations (with a few exceptions, i.e., net venations)
Flower: arranged in threes
Amaryllidaceae ヒガンバナ
Taccaceae タシロイモ
Lridaceae アヤメ
Juncaceae イグサ
Liliaceae
Stemonaceae ビャクブ

+ Asparagales キジカクシ(アスパラガス)

when separated from Liliales
Convallariaceaeスズラン

including Nolinaceae トックリラン, Dracaenaceae リュウケツジュ

Asphodelaceae ツルボラン

Asphodelus ramosus ツルボラン)

Agavaceae リュウゼツラン

Agave, Sansevieria, Yucca

Alliaceae ネギ
Amaryllidaceae ヒガンバナ
Iridaceae アヤメ

floral diagram
floral diagram (花式)
Ornithogalumumbellata

Orchidaceae ラン
Asparagaceae クサスギカズラ

Asparagus L.

Hypoxidaceae キンバイザサ
Hyacinthaceae ヒアシンス
Agapanthaceae アガパンサス
Hemerocallidaceae キスゲ
including Phormiaceae
Termidaceae

+ Xanthorrhoeales (ススキノキ)

when separated from Liliales
Baxteriaceae
Lomandraceae
Calectasiaceae
Dasypogonaceae Dumort.

syn. Baxteriaceae Takht., Calectasiaceae Endl., Kingiaceae Endl.

Acanthocarpus Lehm., Calectasia R. Br., Chamaexeros Benth., Dasypogon R. Br. (D. bromeliifolius R. Br. Pineapple Bush, D. obliquifolius Lehm. ex Ness), Kingia R. Br., Lomandra Labill.

Xanthorrhoeaceae ススキノキ (s.l.)

Cronquist placement: Calectasiaceae + Dasypogonaceae

Liliaceae Juss. (ユリ科)


Genera selected in Liliaceae
Allium L. (ネギ)
Asparagus
Chionodoxa Boiss. in Japan
[APG: Asparagaceae separated from Liliaceae] C. luciliae Boiss. (ユキゲユリ)
C. sardensis Barr. et Sugden (ヒメユキゲユリ)
Clintonia Raf. (ツバメオモト)
Colchicum L. (イヌサフラン)
Convallaria L. (スズラン)
Disporum Salisb. (チゴユリ)
Erythronium
Gagea Salisb. (キバナノアマナ)
Ipheion Raf. (ハナニラ, spring starflower)
[APG: Amaryllidaceae]
Distribution: Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil
I. uniflorum (Graham) Raf. (ハナニラ)
Heloniopsis
Hemerocallis
Hosta
Hyacinthus Tourn. ex L. (ヒヤシンス)
[separated to Hyancinthaceae or Asparagaceae]
H. orientalis L. (ヒアシンス)
Japonolirion (テシオソウ)
[APG: Petrosaviaceae (サクライソウ)]
J. osense Nakai (テシオソウ)
Lilium
Maianthemum
Muscari
Ornithogalum L. (オオアマナ, star of Bethlehem) [APG: Asparagaceae]
O. orthophyllum Ten. (ホソバオオアマナ)
O. umbellatum L. (オオアマナ)
Paris L. (ツクバネソウ)
Polygonatum Mill. (アマドコロ)
Rohdea Roth. (オモト)
Ruscus L. (ナギイカダ)
Scilla L. (ツルボ)
Smilacina Desfontaines (ユキザサ)
Streptopus
Tulipa L. (ウコンコウ)
T. gesneriana (ウコンコウ, tulip)
Trillium
Tricyrtis
Veratrum

[APG: Alliaceae]

Allium L. (ネギ) in Japan


> 700 spp. in the world
Vegetatbles for Japanese
A. cepa L. (タマネギ)

var. aggregatum G. Don (シャロット)
var. proliferum (Moench) Regel (ヤグラタマネギ)

A. chinense G. Don (ラッキョウ)
A. fistulosum L. (ネギ)
A. porrum L. (ニラネギ/ポロネギ)
A. scorodoprasum L. (ヒメニンニク)
A. sativum L. (ニンニク)
A. schoenoprasum L. (エゾネギ/アサツキ): native
A. tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng. (ニラ): native
Wild vegetable
A. macrostemon Bunge (ノビル)
A. victorialis L. (ギョウジャニンニク, s.l.)
Non-vegetable natives
A. austrokyushuense M. Hotta (ナンゴクヤマラッキョウ)
A. kiiense (Murata) Hir. Takah. et M. Hotta (キイイトラッキョウ)
A. monanthum Maxim. (ヒメニラ)
A. pseudojaponicum Makino (タマムラサキ)
A. splendens Willd. ex Schult. et Schult. f. (ミヤマラッキョウ)
A. thunbergii G. Don (ヤマラッキョウ), 2n = 16 or 32

f. albiflorum (Makino) Honda (シロバナヤマラッキョウ)

A. togashii H. Hara (カンカケイニラ)
A. virgunculae F. Maek. et Kitam.

var. koshikiense M. Hotta et Hir. Takah. (コシキイトラッキョウ)
var. virgunculae (イトラッキョウ): endemic to Hrado Island

f. albiflorum S. Toyama (オトメラッキョウ)

var. yakushimense M. Hotta (ヤクシマイトラッキョウ)

Non-vegetable exotics
A. giganteum Regel (オオハナニラ)

[APG III: Xanthorrhoeaceae, Cronquist: Aloeaceae]

Aloe L. (アロエ, aloe) in Japan


Originally distributed between the South Africa and Arabian Peninsula
= no native species in Japan
Developing arbuscular mycorrhiza
A. arborescens Mill. (キダチアロエ)
A. aristata Haw. (アヤニシキ)
A. bainesii Th. Dyer (タイザンニシキ)
A. capitata Baker (ニンギョウニシキ)
A. dichotoma L. f. (オオジニシキ)
A. ferox Mill. (アオワニ)
A. marlothii A. Berger (オニキリマル)
A. perryi Baker (ソコトラアロエ)
A. plicatilis (L.) Mill. (ゴジュウノトウ)
A. variegata L. (チヨダニシキ)
A. vera (L.) Burm. f. (バルバドスアロエ)

[Convallariaceae]

Clintonia Raf. (ツバメオモト)


Five species have been reported from the world:
C. andrewsiana
C. borealis
C. udensis (ツバメオモト), only this species is distributed in Japan
C. umbellulata
C. uniflora (plant species in Washington)

[AGP: Colchicaceae (イヌサフラン)]

Colchicum L. (イヌサフラン)


C. agrippinum Baker (シボリイヌサフラン)
C. autumnale L. (イヌサフラン)

[APG III: Asparagaceae]

Convallaria L. (スズラン)


C. majalis L. (ドイツスズラン)
C. majuscula Greene (アメリカスズラン)

[APG: Colchicaceae]

Disporum Salisb. (チゴユリ)


D. cantoniense (Lour.) Merr. (トウチクラン)
D. kawakamii Hayata (タイサンチゴユリ)
D. lutescens (Maxim.) Koidz. (キバナチゴユリ)
D. sessile D. Don ex Schult. et Schult. f. (ホウチャクソウ)
D. shimadae Hayata (キバナトウチクラン)
D. smilacinum A. Gray (チゴユリ)
D. uniflorum Baker (キバナホウチャクソウ)
D. viridescens (Maxim.) Nakai (オオチゴユリ)

Erythronium L. (カタクリ), Subfamily Lilliodeae


Native species is one in Japan
E. japonicum Dence. (カタクリ)
Exotic
E. americanum Ker-Gawl. (アメリカカタクリ)
E. dens-canis L. (セイヨウカタクリ)

Gagea Salisb. (キバナノアマナ) in Japan , Subfamily Lilliodeae


The genus is distributed in Europe and Asia. Three species are in Hokkaido.
G. japonica Pascher (ヒメアマナ)
G. lutea (L.) Ker-Gawl. (キバナノアマナ)
G. vaginata Pascher (エゾヒメアマナ)
formerly in Tulipa L.

[[Hostaceae B. Mathew, Funkiaceae, Horan., nom. illeg.]

Hosta Tratt. (ギボウシ), hostas or plantain lily


H. plantaginea (Lam.) Aschers. (マルバタマノカンザシ)
H. venussta F. Maekawa (オトメギボウシ)
H. minor Nakai (ケイリンギボウシ)
H. capitata (Koidz.) Nakai (イヤギボウシ)
H. nakaiana F. Maekawa (カンザシギボウシ)
H. opipara F. Maekawa (ニシキギボウシ)
H. atropurpurea Nakai (クロバナギボウシ)
H. rectifolia Nakai (タチギボウシ)
H. decorata L. H. Bailey (オタフクギボウシ)

f. normalis Stearn (ミドリオタフクギボウシ)

H. longissima Honda (ナガバミズギボウシ)

var. brevifolia F. Maekawa (ミズギボウシ)

H. helonioides F. Maekawa (ハカマギボウシ)
H. okamii F. Maekawa (ムラサメギボウシ)
H. rhodeifolia F. Maekawa (オモトギボウシ)

f. viridis F. Maekawa (アオバオモトギボウシ)

H. clavata F. Maekawa (コギボウシ)
H. albo-marginata (Hook.) Ohwi (コバギボウシ)

→ highly variable, merged into H. rectifolia (Satake et al. 1982)

H. undulata (Otto et Dietr.) L. H. Bailey (スジギボウシ)
H. gracillima F. Maekawa (ヒメイワギボウシ)
H. tardiva Nakai (ナンカイギボウシ)
H. cathayana Nakai (アキカゼギボウシ)
H. tardiflora (Irving) Stearn (アキギボウシ)
H. torifrons F. Maekawa (コガラシギボウシ)
H. longipes (French. et Savat.) Matsum. (イワギボウシ)
H. rupifraga Nakai (ハチジョウギボウシ)
H. nigrescens (Makino) F. Maekawa (クロギボウシ)
H. fluctuans F. Maekawa (クロナミギボウシ)
H. tokudama F. Maekawa (トクダマ)
H. sieboldiana (Lodd.) Engler (トウギボウシ)
H. hypoleuca Murata (ウラジロギボウシ)
H. montana F. Maekawa (オオバギボウシ)
H. crispula F. Maekawa (サザナミギボウシ)
H. kikutii F. Maekawa (ヒュウガギボウシ)

var. yakusimensisi (Masam.) F. Maekawa (ヒメヒュウガギボウシ)

H. tosana F. Maekawa (トサノギボウシ)
H. sacra F. Maekawa (サクラギボウシ)
H. hippeastrum F. Maekawa (ラッパギボウシ)
H. kiyosumiensis F. Maekawa (キヨスミギボウシ)
H. densa F. Maekawa (ケヤリギボウシ)
H. pachyscapa F. Maekawa (ベンケイギボウシ)

Controversial group (Ohwi & Kitagawa 1983)

Lilium L. (ユリ)


L. alexandrae Hort. ex Wallace (ウケユリ)
L. amabile Palib. (コマユリ)
L. auratum Lindl. (ヤマユリ)
L. batemanniae (Hort. ex Wallace) Wallace (タツタユリ)
L. brownii N. E. Br. ex Miellez var. viridulum Baker (ハカタユリ)
L. callosum Siebold et Zucc. (ノヒメユリ)

var. flaviflorum Makino (キバナノヒメユリ)

L. candidum L. (マドンナリリー)
L. cernuum Kom. (マツバユリ)
L. concolor Salisb. (ヒメユリ)

var. partheneion (Siebold et de Vriese) Baker (ヒメユリ, s.s.)
f. coridion (Siebold ex De Vriese) E. H. Wilson (キヒメユリ)

L. cordatum (Thunb.) Koidz. (ウバユリ)
L. dalhansonii Hort. ex Wallace (ダルハンソニー)
L. distichum Nakai ex Kamibayashi (チョウセンクルマユリ)
L. formosanum A. Wallace (タカサゴユリ)
L. hansonii Leichtlin ex D. T. Moore (タケシマユリ)
L. henryi Baker (キカノコユリ)
L. japonicum Houtt. (ササユリ)

var. abeanum (Honda) Kitam. (ジンリョウユリ)
f. album (E. H. Wilson) Sugim. (シロササユリ)
f. purpureum Terashita (ベニバナササユリ)

L. lancifolium Thunb. (オニユリ)
L. leichtlinii Hook. f.

f. leichtlinii (キヒラドユリ)
f. pseudotigrinum (Carriere) H. Hara et Kitam. (コオニユリ)

L. longiflorum Thunb. (テッポウユリ)

var. scabrum Masam. (ザラグキテッポウユリ)

L. maculatum Thunb. (スカシユリ)
L. martagon L. (マルタゴンリリー)
L. medeoloides A. Gray (クルマユリ)
L. nepalense D. Don (ウコンユリ)
L. nobilissimum (Makino) Makino (タモトユリ)
L. philippinense Baker (ルゾンユリ)
L. pumilum Redoute (イトハユリ)
L. regale E. H. Wilson (リーガルリリー)
L. rubellum Baker (ヒメサユリ)
L. speciosum Thunb. (カノコユリ)

var. clivorum S. Abe et T. Tamura (タキユリ)
var. gloriosoides Baker (タイワンカノコユリ)
var. speciosum (シマカノコユリ)
f. kratzeri Duchartre ex Baker (シラタマユリ)

L. tsingtauense Gilg (チョウセンカサユリ) cv cv
cultivars Table Dance on October 13 2014.

[APG III: Asparagaceae (キジカクシ)]

Liriope Herb. (ヤブラン) in Japan


L. graminifolia (L.) Baker (ホソバヤブラン)
L. minor (Maxim.) Makino (ヒメヤブラン)

f. albiflora (Murai) Okuyama (シロバナヒメヤブラン)

L. muscari (Decne.) L. H. Bailey (ヤブラン)
L. spicata Lour. (コヤブラン)

[APG III: Asparagaceae]

Maianthemum F. H. Wigg. (マイヅルソウ) in Japan


There are two species in Hokkaido, Japan
M. dilatatum (マイヅルソウ)
M. bifolium (L.) F. W. Schmidt (ヒメマイヅルソウ)

[Liliaceae (Asparagaceae)]

Muscari Mill. (ムスカリ)ex in Japan


M. armeniacum Leichtlin ex Baker (ルリムスカリ)
M. botryoides (L.) Mill.
grape hyacinth; common grape hyacinth; ; small grape hyacinth
bell-shaped flowers in early spring, with 2-3 semi-erect leaves of which base are gray-green. Dense spikes with light blue flowers.
M. comosum (L.) Mill.
tassel grape hyacinth; fringe hyacinth; tassel hyacinth; feather hyacinth
bell-shaped flowers in late spring, with < 6 semi-erect, gray-green, bonnet-string leaves. brown-yellow fertile flowers, and red-blue infertile flowers.
M. moschatum Willd.
musk hyacinth, nutmeg hyacinth
raceme with 20-50 flowers. flower, colors changing from purple to virescent, strongly scented
M. neglectum Guss. ex Ten.
grape hyacinth, nutmeg hyacinth, musk hyacinth, starch grape hyacinth
bulbous perennial, with 3-6 radical leaves. Raceme with dense bell-shaped, blue or violet flowers, 3-7 mm long.

APG III: Asparagaceae

Ophiopogon Ker Gawl. (ジャノヒゲ, lilyturf) in Japan


O. bodinieri H. Lev. (タイワンジャノヒゲ)
O. intermedius D. Don (タイワンカブダチジャノヒゲ)
O. jaburan (Siebold) Lodd. (ノシラン)
O. japonicus (Thunb.) Ker Gawl. (ジャノヒゲ)
O. planiscapus Nakai (オオバジャノヒゲ)
O. reversus C. C. Huang (ヨナグニノシラン)

Paris L. (ツクバネソウ) in Japan


P. japonica (Franch. et Savat.) Franch. (キヌガサソウ)
P. verticillata M. V. Bieberst. (クルマバツクバネソウ)
P. tetraphylla A. Gray (ツクバネソウ)

[APG III: Asparagaceae. APG II: Ruscaceae]

Polygonatum Mill. (アマドコロ)


P. acuminatifolium Kom. (ヒナヨウラク)
P. altelobatum Hayata (アリサンアマドコロ)
P. amabile Yatabe (ヒメナルコユリ)
P. arisanense Hayata (ナガバアマドコロ)
P. cryptanthum H. Lev. et Vaniot (ウスギワニグチソウ)
P. falcatum A. Gray (ナルコユリ)

var. hyugaense Hiyama (ヒュウガナルコユリ)

var. trichosanthum (Koidz.) M. N. Tamura (マルバオウセイ)

P. humile Fisch. ex Maxim. (ヒメイズイ)
P. ibukiense (Makino) Makino (イブキワニグチソウ)
P. inflatum Kom. (ミドリヨウラク)
P. involucratum (Franch. et Sav.) Maxim. (ワニグチソウ)

f. akagiense Hiyama (アカギワニグチソウ)

P. lasianthum Maxim. (ミヤマナルコユリ)

var. coreanum Nakai (チョウセンナルコユリ)
f. purpurascens T. Inoue (ムラサキミヤマナルコユリ)

P. macranthum (Maxim.) Koidz. (オオナルコユリ)
P. macropodum Turcz. (トウアマドコロ)
P. odoratum (Mill.) Druce (アマドコロ, s.l.)
P. sibiricum Delar. ex Redoute (カギクルマバナルコユリ)
P. stenophyllum Maxim. (クルマバナルコユリ)

Rohdea Roth (オモト) in Japan


R. chlorantha (Baill.) N. Tanaka (カッパンオモト) R. japonica (Thunb.) Roth (オモト)

[APG III: Asparagaceae]

Ruscus L. (ナギイカダ) recorded from the world


Evergreen shrub-like perrenial or shrub
R. aculeatus L. (ナギイカダ)
R. colchicus Yeo, Caucasus
R. hypoglossum L., central and southeast Europe - Turkey
R. hypophyllum L. (spineless butcher's broom), Iberia - northwest Africa
R. hyrcanus Woronow, endemic in the Talish Mountains, Azerbaijan
R. microglossus Bertol.. southern Europe
R. streptophyllus Yeo, Madeira

[APG III: Asparagaceae]

Scilla L. (ツルボ) in Japan


Bulb-forming perennials. Except S. scilloides, all species are exotic.
S. bifolia L. (フタバツルボ)
S. peruviana L. (オオツルボ), native to the Mediterranean
S. hispanica Mill. (ツリガネズイセン)
S. scilloides (Lindl.) Druce (ツルボ) (syn. S. sinensis (Louriro) Merrill), native

var. major Ueki et Tokui (オニツルボ)

S. sibirica Haw. (シベリアツルボ), exotic used for gardening

[APG: Ruscaceae]

Smilacina Desfontaines (ユキザサ)


S. japonica A. Gray (ユキザサ, 雪笹)
The following three species are not distributed in Hokkaido.
S. yesoensis Franch. et Sav. ヒロハユキザサ, 広葉雪笹)
S. robusta Makino et Honda (ハルナユキザサ, 榛名雪笹)
S. viridiflora Nakai (Syn. S. hondoensis Ohwi) (ヤマトユキザサ, 大和雪笹)
  • Takahashi H. 1997. Classification and distribution of Smilacina species (Liliaceae) in Japan. Bull Natn Sci Mus, Tokyo, Ser B 23: 103-113

Streptopus Michx. (タケシマラン) in Japan


S. amplexifolius (L.) DC. (オオバタケシマラン, s.l.)
S. ovalis (Ohwi) F. T. Wang et Ts. Tang (コンゴウソウ)
S. streptopoides (Ledeb.) Frye et Rigg

ssp. japonicus (Maxim.) Utech et Kawano (タケシマラン)

f. atrocarpus (Koidz.) Makino et Nemoto (クロミノタケシマラン)

ssp. streptopoides (ヒメタケシマラン)

var. koreanus (Kom.) Kitam. (オタケシマラン)

[APG III: Liliaceae (Engler), Melanthiaceae, Nartheciaceae or Tofieldiaceae]

Tofieldia Huds. (チシマゼキショウ)


Japan
T. coccinea Richards. (チチマゼキソウ, s.l.)

var. kondoi (Miyabe et Kudo) H. Hara (アポイゼキショウ)

T. furusei (Hiyama) M. N. Tamura et Fuse (ヤシュウハナゼキショウ)
T. nuda Maxim.

var. hizenensis T. Yamaz. (ヒゼンハナゼキショウ)
var. nuda (ハナゼキショウ)

T. okuboi Makino (ヒメイワショウブ)
T. yoshiiana Makino

var. hyugaensis M. N. Tamura et Fuse (ヒュウガチャボゼキショウ)
var. koreana (Ohwi) M. N. Tamura, Fuse et N. S. Lee (コハナゼキショウ)
var. yoshiiana (ヤクシマチャボゼキショウ)

Alaska
T. pusilla (Michx.) Pers. (Scotch false asphode)
T. glutinosa (Michx.) Pers.

Tricyrtis Wall. (ホトトギス) in Japan


19 species reported from the world, and 12 species are distributed in Japan (10 species are endemic to Japan)
T. affinis Makino (ヤマジノホトトギス)
T. flava Maxim. (キバナノホトトギス)

ssp. ohsumiensis (Masam.) Kitam. (タカクマホトトギス)
f. rubella Masam. (ホソバノキバナホトトギス)

T. formosana Baker (タイワンホトトギス), Ryukyu and Taiwan

var. stolonifera (Matsum.) Masam. (ツルタイワンホトトギス)

T. hirta (Thunb.) Hook. (ホトトギス)
T. ishiiana (Kitag. et T. Koyama) Ohwi et Okuyama (サガミジョウロウホトトギス)

var. surugensis T. Yamaz. (スルガジョウロウホトトギス)

T. latifolia Maxim. (タマガワホトトギス)

var. makinoana (Tatew.) Hiyama (ハゴロモホトトギス)

T. macrantha Maxim. (ジョウロウホトトギス), Kochi Pref.
T. macranthopsis Masam. (キイジョウロウホトトギス)
T. macropoda Miq. (ヤマホトトギス)

f. epunctata Akasawa (ムテンヤマホトトギス)

T. nana Yatabe (チャボホトトギス)
T. perfoliata Masam. (キバナノツキヌキホトトギス)
T. puberula Nakai et Kitag. (マンシュウホトトギス)
T. setouchiensis Hir. Takah. (セトウチホトトギス)

[Trilliaceae or Liliaceae (s.l.). APG II: treats as a synonym of Melanthiaceae]

Trillium L. (エンレイソウ)


Taxa: 40-50 species in the world
Seed dispersal: ant dispersal
T. apetalon Makino (エンレイソウ)
T. smallii Maxim. (コジマエンレイソウ)
T. tschonoskii Maxim. (シロバナエンレイソウ/ミヤマエンレイソウ)
T. kamtschaticum Pall. (オオバナノエンレイソウ)
Hybrids
T. × hagae Miyabe et Tatewaki (シラオイエンレイソウ) = T. tschonoskii × kamtschaticum
T. × yezoense Tatewaki (トカチエンレイソウ) = T. kamtschaticum × apetalon
T. × miyabeanum Tatewaki (ヒダカエンレイソウ) = T. tschonoskii × apetalon
  • Kurabayashi M, Saho T. 1957. Evolution and variation in Trillium. IX. Chromosome complement in two interspecific hybrids newly found. Cytologia 22: 263-272

[APG: Melanthiaceae]

Veratrum L. (シュロソウ) in Japan


V. album L. ssp. oxysepalum Hultén (バイケイソウ)
V. alpestre Nakai (ミヤマバイケイソウ) → POV, merged with V. album
V. grandiflorum Loes. f. var. maximum Nakai (オオバイケイソウ)
V. maackii Regel var. maackii (ナガバシュロソウ)

var. japonicum (Baker) T. Simizu (シュロソウ)

f. atropurpureum (Honda) Kitam. (ムラサキタカネアオヤギソウ)

var. parviflorum (Miq.) Hara et Mizushima (アオヤギソウ)

f. alpinum (Nakai) Kitam. (タカネアオヤギソウ)

V. nigrum (チョウセンシュロソウ, s.l.)
V. nipponicum Nakai (コシジバイケイソウ)
V. stamineum Maxim. (コバイケイソウ)

Experimental materials (実験材料)


Cell division (細胞分裂)


Meiosis of pollen mother cells

1. Stage of cell divisions
1st Prophase (Leptotene, Zygotene, Pachytene, Diplotene, Diakinesis)
1st Metaphase, 1st Anaphase, 1st Telophase, Interphase
2nd Metaphase, 2nd Anaphaase, 2nd Telophase, Tetrad
2. Plant materials
Trillium kamtshaticum (n = 5, Dec.-March)
Paris verticillata (n = 5, early-mid May)
Tradescantia paludosa (n = 6 May-June)
Tradescantia virginiana 4X (n = 6 May-June)
Acetocarmine smear method
Preparations: Acetocarmine, tweezers, surgical knife, filter paper, glass slide, cover glass, spatula, sealing wax (封蝋), etc.

cel division
Pick PMCs from anthers → pour an acetocarmine drop (proceeding fixation and dyeing at the same time)

cel division Cover the glass slide by a cover glass → remove excess moisture using a filter paper by pushing lightly the paper and cover glass → seal by sealing wax

Observation under a microscope
  1. Observe the karyotype (核型) and centromere conjugation (動原体接合) at the 1st metaphse of Trillium kamtschaticum and/or Paris verticillata
    Find out the common characteristics between the karyotype and conjugation between the two species
  2. Tradescantia is not appropriate to observe the propahse in detail but shows the spiral structure of chromosome at metaphase well. In addition, note that the patterns of chromosome conjugation at M1 stage differ between the two species.
フッター