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Spruce (non-native to Japan)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

Picea A. Dietr. (トウヒ), not in Japan

[ P. glauca | P. pungens | P. engelmannii | P. sitchensis ] ⇒ bark (樹皮)

Picea glauca in Interior Alaska

Shirotouhi (シロトウヒ, 白唐檜), white spruce
Kanadatouhi (カナダトウヒ, 加奈陀唐檜)
Lifeform: tall needle-leaved evergreen tree
Distribution: widespread in the boreal regions of North America
Habitat: climax tree developing taiga (Tsuyuzaki et al. 2009) ⇒ compared to P. mariana after wildfire (森林火災)

Understory: dominated by mosses (蘚苔類), represented by Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi, Ptilium crista-castrensis, and Dicranum spp. Sphagnum spp. are not so common.

Seed dispersal: wind
Varieties and cultivars

Alaska1 Alaska2 Alaska3
[1-3] at Fairbanks on August 10 2012.

Picea pungens Engelm.

Kororadotouhi (コロラドトウヒ), Colorado blue spruce
Pungensutouhi (プンゲンストウヒ)
Amerikaharimomi (アメリカハリモミ, 亜米利加針樅)

Lifeform: tall needle-leaved evergreen tree

Distribution: the Rocky Mountains, West Coast
Habitat: forest
Use: gardening → cultivars: glauca (ギンヨウコロラドトウヒ), white leaves

Picea pungens transplanted in Hokkaido

ST Alaska2 Alaska3
[1 front] at the arboretum (樹木園) of Hokkaido Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, in Hitsujigaoka, Sapporo, on July 9 2013. [1 back] a bunch of cones on a tree at a parking lot, N28/E2, East Ward, Sapporo, on July 18 2014. Looks like a mast seeding (豊作). [2/3] cv. glauca at a park near JR Obihiro Station, eastern Hokkaido, on June 6 2014.

Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.

Engerumantouhi (エンゲルマントウヒ), Engelmann spruce, or silver spruce
Lifeform: tall, evergreen tree, occasionally becoming 60 m tall
Distribution: at high elevations on the Rocky Mountains in western Noth America
Habitat: forests → major climax species
Seed dispersal: wind
Use: woods, pulp, etc.
var. engelmannii
var. mexicana (Martinez) Silba, only in southwestern USA
and a few cultivars

Picea engelmannii in Hokkaido

[1-3] at an arboretum garden in Tomakomai Experimental Forest, HU, on September 17 2015.

Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carrière

Shitokatouhi (シトカトウヒ), Sitka spruce
Lifeform: large coniferous evergreen tree growing to ≈ 100 m
Distribution: west coast of North America (down to California)
Habitat: temperate rain forests
Use: timber and paper

[1-3] in the salicetums of Botanic Gardens, Tohoku University, Natural Monument Aobayama, northern Honshu, on March 22 2016. Data: Rec. Seeds No. 1241. Ex. Vancouver, Canada. Donat. Bot. Gard. the Univ. of British Columbia. Plant. 15 May 1969