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Algae (藻類)






Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

Phycology (藻類学)

The scientific study of all aspects of alga
Alga are important to understand marine ecosystems, becasue they are producers in the ecosystems.
culture (培地)
  • Bold HC & Wynne MJ. 1985. Introduction to the algae: structure and reproduction (2nd edn). Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs
  • Chapman ARO. 1979. Biology of seaweeds. University Park Press, Baltimore. 千原光雄(訳). 1981. 海藻の生物学. 細胞・個体・個体群・群落. 共立科学ブックス, 共立出版, 東京 181 p.
Usujiri Usujiri

seagrass , algal fossil, ocean ecology

索引

Algae, pl. alga (藻類)

Lower colored plants in water
Materials: phytoplantic and benthic algae

Aerobic algae, soil algae, thermal algae, crystal algae / Symbiotic algae, parasitic algae

Seaweed (海藻)
General name of benthic marine algae
Seagrass (海草)
General name of seed plants grown in marine, fully-saline environment, recorded from four families
Habitats:
  • Epilitic: living on rocks or stones
  • Epiphytic: living on plants
  • Epizoic: living on animals
Water bloom: abnormal mass breeding of plankton, Akashio: abnormal mass breeding of red algae)

Taxonomy (分類)


Division

Hiroo
The mouth of Hiroo River, eastern
Hokkaido, on June 20 2013
(provided by UHB on May 21 2017)

Division Charophyta (輪藻植物門)


brittlewort (n): a name applied to calcareous members of the Charophyta
Charophyta
Charophyta
nd: node 節, br: bract 苞 , st: stiple 托葉, s: stipulode, in: internode, bt: bract, bl: bracteole, a: antheridium 造精器, o: oogonium 造卵器 Charophyta
Charophyta
Fig. Male organ of Charophyta. enveloping cell (tube cell) (被嚢細胞) = 5. coronula (小冠細胞)
Taxonomical group
Class Charophyceae シャジクモ網(輪藻網)
Order Sycidiales (including Sycidium palaeozoic fossils)
Order Trochiliscales (including Trochiliscus palaeozoic fossiles)
Order Charales シャジクモ
Characeae: Chara, Lamprothamnium, Lychnothamnus, Nitella (フラスモ) [f.<1. nitere(光る) + ella(愛称)。植物体が水中で明るく美しい], Nittellopsis, Tolypella
Chara (シャジクモ), f<g 喜ぶ
C. brauni Gmelin (シャジクモ): Plants monoecious (雌雄同株), l0-25(40) cm high, incrusted or sometimes zonally incrusted with lime, totally uncorticated and therefore without spine cells. Stem (主軸) 0.3-1 mm thick. Stipulodes forming a single whorl at each node, alternate with and equal in number of the branchlets, sometimes inconspicuous and at times prominently developed, 150-2000 μm long. Branchlets 8-11 in a whorl with 3-4 articulations except the short terminal crown of 3 mucronate (小棘状突起のある/微凸形の), mucronated (棘状突起のある), mucronulate (超微細突起のある) cells; bract-cells unilateral or somewhat verticillate, developed or inconspicuous; bracteoles as long as the oogonia or sometimes shorter. Female and male gametangia produced at the two lowest nodes, usually conjunct. Antheridia 240-270 μm in diameter. Oogonia solitary or geminate, 700-1100 μm long by 400-500 μm broad with 10 spiral convolutions; coronula 150-170 μm long, 220-250 μm broad at the base. Oospore ellipsoid (楕円体) or long elliptical, 550-750 μm long, by 280-470 μm broad, black and opaque; ridges 7-12 prominent or inconspicuous. (Imahori 1954)
→ filamentous without branching, cell sylindrical, multiple nucleus, coronula = 1 cell (→ Nitella)
Distributed in Japan (ponds, marshes, dictches, paddy fields, and rivers). Fresh and brakish water (cf. Cladophorales シオグサ目)
Paleocharaceae (including Paleochara palaeozoic fossils)
Clavatoraceae (including Clavator mesozoic fossils)
Lagynophoraceae (incluing Lagynophora mesozoic fossils)

[ evolution ]

Division Chlorophyta (緑藻植物門), green algae



green
Fig. Chlorophyta

Phylogeny and taxonomy

Class Chlorophyceae (緑藻鋼)

uninucleate (single nucleus)
Order Volvocales (オオヒゲマワリ)
Most of them in freshwater
green
Fig. Formation of daughter coenobium, antheridium, oogonia and zygote in Volvox.
green
Fig. Unicellular forms in Volvocales
green
Fig. Colonial forms in Volvocales

Gonidium (pl. –a) (ゴニジア/緑顆体): an asexual, non-mobile reproductive cells, as in Volvox

Class Prasinophyceae (Loxophyceae)

uninucleate

Class Bryopsidophceae (Siphonophyceae)

multi-nuculeus

Subclass Hemisiphoniidae

multi-nuculeus cell
Order Chladphorales (シオグサ)
Order Sphaeroplales
Order Acrosiphonales

Subclass Cystosiphoniidae

Order Siphonocladales
Order Dasycladales (カサノリ)
Dasycladus: gametangium

Gametangium (pl. –a): a container in which gametes are produced
Gamete: a sexually active cell capable of uniting with a compatible cell to form a zygote
Gametophyte: the sexual, gamete-producing phase in the life history of a plant

Gametophyte development
Gametophyte generation
Gametophyte tissue
Female gametophyte → male gametophyte

Gametophore: a branch bearing a gametangium or gametangia

Bornetella
Polyphysaceae (カサノリ)
Acetabularia (カサノリ): A. acetabulum (L.) P. C. Silva (syn. A. mediterranea J. V. Lamouroux), A. ryukyuensis Okamura et Yamada (カサノリ, endemict to sourthernmost Japan)

Merotomy: the cutting up or division of cells into several portions, with or without nuclei, e.g., the experimental grafting on Acetabularia

Subclass Eusiphoniidae

Order Derbesiales
Order Codiales
Order Caulerpales
Caulerpaceae (イワヅタ)
Caulerpa (イワヅタ)

Caulerpicin (n): a toxin produced by Caulerpa

Order Bryopsidales (ハネモ)
Order Dicholomosiphonales

Class Oedogoniophyceae (サヤミドロ)

Order Oedogoniales (サヤミドロ)

Oedogonium
Fig. Oedogonium
___(Oedogonium)___(Ulothrix)_____(Sphaeroplea)
Oedogonium
Fig. Chlorophyta

Class Zygonematophyceae (Conyngatophyceae) (ホシミドロ)

Order Zygonematales
Desmidiaceae (ツヅミモ)

Placoderm desmid: members of the Desmidiaceae in which cell walls of the semicells are of different ages

Order Tetrasporales (ヨツメモ)
Order Chlorococcales (クロロコックム)
Major freshwater phytoplankton, as well as Zygnematales
Chlorococcaceae

Chlorococcaceae
Fig. Chlorococcaceae

Autospore (自生胞子): a nonmotile spore that is the miniature of the cell from which it is derived; not potensitally flagellate, ontogenetically
Autosporangium (pl. –a, 自生胞子嚢): a cell or sporangium that contains autospores

synchronized culture
Fig. Change in cell number and
cell volume in synchorinzed
cluture
of Chlorella ellipoidea.

Eremosphaeraceae
Chlorellaceae (クロレラ)

Chlorellaceae
Fig. Chlorella vulgaris

Hydrodictiaceae (アミミドロ)
Hydrodictyon (アミミドロ): H. reticulatum (アミミドロ)
Order Ulotrichales (ヒビミドロ)
Suborder Ulotrichineae (ヒビミドロ)
Isogamy or anisogamy
Suborder Ulvineae (アオサ)
Suborder Prasiolineae (カワノリ)
Prasiolaceae (カワノリ)
Prasiola (カワノリ), Schizogonium

Prasiola
Fig. Prasiola japonica
Table. Mitsusawa in Okutama (奥多摩三沢)
Prasiola

Suborder Sphaeropleineae (ヨコカワミドロ)
Sphaeropleaceae: Sphaeroplea (S. annulina, grown in paddy fields)
Order Chaetophorales (カエトフォラ)

Chaetophorales
Fig. Chaetophorales

Order Oedogoniales (サヤミドロ)
Order Sihponales (クダモ, 管状藻)
→ separated into three orders (Siphonocladales + Dasycladales + Siphonales, s.s.)
Order Sihpnocladales (ネダシグサ)
Order Zygnematales (ホシミドロ)
green
Fig. Life cycle of Cladophora sp.
green
Fig. Life cycle of Spirogyra
Derbesia
Fig. Life cycle of Derbesia marina
Codium
Fig. Life cycle of Codium fragile (ミル)
Cosmarium
Fig. Life cycle of Cosmarium botrytis
Chlorella
Fig. Life-cycle of Chlorella elliposidea
Hydrodictyon
Fig. Life-cycle of Hydrodictyon reticulatum

Monostroma
Monostroma
Monostroma
M. oxyspermum
Monostroma
M. fuscum var. splendens (Ulvaria)
Fig. Life cycles of Monostroma complex
Sphaeroplea
Fig. Life-cycle of Sphaeroplea annuliana

Division Euglenophyta (緑虫藻植物門)


Photosynthetic production: paramylon = a β-1, 3-glucose polymer, a food reserve of Euglenophycophyta

Class Eugelnophyceae (緑虫)

Order Euglenales 緑虫

algal body: mobile monocellurar cell
Euglenaceae
Euglena Ehrenberg (E. gracilis)
Astasiaceae
Rhynchopodaceae
Peranemaceae
Rhizaspidaceae

Order Colaciales

Algal body: adherent, tufted cology
Zoospore cells, showing the characteristics of Euglenophyta
Colaciaceae
Colacium Ehrenberg

Division Phaeophyta (褐藻植物門), brown algae


Growth (成長)
apical growth (頂端成長): growth at the apex of a plant
marginal growth (縁辺成長)
trichothallic growth (頂毛成長)
interculary growth (介生成長)
diffuse growth (拡散成長)

Phyletic evolution (系統進化)

brown algae

Class Isogenerate 同型世代

Order Ectocarpales (シオミドロ)
diffuse growth (haplostichous growth)
trichothallic growth (apical growth)
ectocarpin (エクトカルピン): an erotactin (sex hormone) produced by female gametes of the brown alga Ectocarpus, causing cluster formation by the male gametes and their accumulation at the source of the hormone
Order Ralfsiales (イソガワラ)
Order Sphacelariales (クロガシラ)
meriblastic (adj.): pattern of branchin (in Sphacelaria) in which the branch primordium originates from only a part of a secondary segment
Order Cutleriales (ムチモ)
Order Sporochnales (ケヤリ)
Order Desmarestiales (ウルシグサ)
Desmarestiaceae ウルシグサ

Desmarestia
Fig. Desmarestia

Order Tiplopteridales (ティロプテリス)
Order Dictyotales (アミジグサ)
Dictyotaceae (アミジグサ): Plants of moderate to large size, simple or branched, the divisions growing from apical cells of marginal rows of apical cells, forming fanlike, foliaceous, strap-shaped branching thalli, usually composed of cortical and medullary layers of cells; sexual and asexual generations distinct, the plants of the two phases similar in form; asexua1 reproductive elements consisting of sporangia in which four or eight nonmotile aplanospores (commonly called tetraspores) are produced; sexual reproductive elements, eggs, borne singly in the superficial oögonia,and probably uniflagellate antherozöids, borne in great number in the superficial plurilocular antheridia.
Dictyota Lamouroux, 1809 (アミジグサ): Plants erect, bushy, brown or sometimes iridescent, attached by a small irregular fibrous holdfast and often by secondary holdfasts on branches in contact with the substratum; generally dichotomously, less often pinnately, branched, each branch developing by regular segmentation from a conspicuous, shallow, convex apical cell; medulla of one layer of regularly placed cells, covered on each surface by a one-celled cortical layer; hairs developed in inconspicuous tufts (房, adj. tufted) scattered over the thallus; reproductive organs as typical for the family, the tetrasporangia scattered, the gametangia in sori.
D. dichotoma (Hudson) Lamouroux (アミジグサ): Plants to about 1 dm tall, occasionally to 3.5 dm., bushy, usually regularly dichotomous, forking at angles of 15-45o, usually with narrow sinuses, with little general decrease in width from the base to the upper branches, the lower segments a little broader below each fork than just above it, the terminal divisions somewhat tapered, but hardly acute; segments 2-5 mm. broad, the internodes 1.0-2.5 cm. long; rarely proliferous except at the base, which in color and texture is much like the rest of the plant.
Dictyota
Fig. Dictyota dichotoma (アミジグサ): n. Thueet, Cohn u. Präp. Geuber. 1 Habitushild. 2 Keimling n. Cohn. 3 Sprofisoheitel von der Flicbe. 4 Ders im Langaschnitt. 5 Sprosschoitel mit beginnendar Dichotomierung. 6 Dere. Schwach vergrusert. 7 Querschbnit eines Keimlings.
Dictyota
Fig. Dictyota dichotoma n. Thuret. 1-3 Thallus cross-section, 1 with sporangium, 2 with waiblicham, 3 with mhantichem Borus. 4 spermatozoid n. Willcame. 5 Ei em Moment der Betruchgang n. Williamb.

Class Heterogenerate (異型世代鋼)

Subclass Haplostichineae

Order Chordariales (ナガマツモ)
Order Dictyosiphonales (ウイキョウモ)
Order Scytosiphonales (カヤモノリ)
(separated from Dictyoshiphonales)

Subclass Polystichineae

Order Laminariales (コンブ)
Laminariales
Growth in length and sorus formation through life in Laminaria angustata.
Laminariaceae (コンブ)
Agarum アナメ
Arthrothamnus ネコアシコンブ
Laminaria
Costaria スジメ
Cymathere ミスジコンブ
Hedophyllum クロシオメ
Kjellmaniella トロロコンブ
Laminaria コンブ (L. religiosa Miyabe ホソメコンブ, L. ochotensis Miyabe リシリコンブ) (s: 子嚢群 sorus, A-D: 分類観察部位)
distribution L. religiosa Miyabe
L. japonica Areschoug
L. ochotensis Miyabe
L. diabolica Miyabe
L. longissima Miyabe
L. angustata Kjellman







Streptophyllum ネジレコンブ
Thallassiophyllum キクイシコンブ
Undaria
Blade (葉身/葉): the broad, membranous distal portions of kelp plants
Kelp
Fig. 1. Formation of sorus in Laminariales. From left to right, Laminaria, Undaria, Alaria, and Egregia. A: blade or lamina (葉状部), B: transition zone (介生分裂組織), C: stipe (茎状部), D: haptera or haldfast (付着器) Kelp
Fig. Structure of Laminaria
Kelp
Fig. 2. Life cycle of Laminaria (L. angustata)
Chordaceae (ツルモ): Chorda Stackhouse Alariaceae (チガイソ): Alaria
Kelp
Lessoniaceae (レッソニア)
Macrocystis Agardh (1 M. pyrifera), Lessonia Bory (2 L. fuscescens), Nereocystis Postel et Ruprecht (3 N. luetkeana), 4 Pelagophycus porra, 5 Postelsia palmaeformis.

Class Cyclosporae (円胞子鋼)

Order Fucales (ヒバマタ)
Fucus
Fig. Fucus serratus
conceptacle (生殖器巣): a near-spherical invagination or cavity containing reproductive structures, such as in Fucales and Corallinaceae
exocite: the outermost layer of the oogonium in the Fucales
Fucaceae Anderson, 1763 (ヒバマタ) (adj. fucacean)

ostiole (小孔): an opening as in the conceptacle of fucalean algae
endochite: the innermost layer of the Fucalean oogonium
mesochite: the middle layer in the oogonial wall of Fucalean algae

Division Rhodophyta, s.l. (紅藻), red algae


≈ subkingdom Rhodoplantae
Assimilatory pigments

chl a, b, c
phycoerythrin: red biliprotein pigment of blue-green algae and red algae
phycocyanin b, c, γ: blue biliprotein pigment of blue-green and red alage carotenoid α, β carotene
lutein
zeaxanthin

photosystem II related pigments = phycobilin (フィコビリン) → biliprotein pigments of blue-green and red algae

phycobilisome (フィコビリソーム): the cellular organelle on the surface of thylakoids in which the biliprotein pigments are present in blue-green and red algae

Assimilation products

floridoside (フロリドシド), ect.

Storage substance

floridean starch (紅藻デンプン), sterols, etc.

Phylesis (need re-construction)

Phylum Cyanidiophyta

moved from Cyanophyta
= Class Cyanidiophyceae = Order Cyanidiales = Cyanidiaceae 5 species in 5 genera
Rhodospora, Cyanidioschyzon, Cyanidium, Rhodococcus, Galdieria

Phylum Rhodophyta

Class Bangiophyceae ウシケノリ鋼, or
Class Protoflorideophyceae 原始紅藻鋼
= Protoflorideae, Bangioideae
red algae
Fig. Protoflorideae (Bangiales): A: Erythrocladia subintegra, B: Calaconema simplex, C: Porphyropsis subintegra, D: Erythrotrichia reflexa
Order Porphyridiales (チリノモ)
Porphyridiaceae
Chroothece, Porphyridium

red algae
Chroothece mobilis

red algae
Porphyridium ceruentum
Order Goniotrichales ベニミドロ
Goniotrlchaceae (Stylonemataceae)
Asterocytis, Bangiopsis, Goniotricum
red algae
Stylonema alsidii (Zanardini) K. M. Drew (Syn. Goniotrichum alsidii)
Phragmonemataceae フラグモネマタ
Phragmonema
Order Bangiales ウシケノリ
Conchosporangium (pl. -a): a type of enlarged sporangium usually produced in series ("fertile cell rows") by the conchocelis phase of several members of the Bangiales
Conchospore: a spore produced and released singly by a conchosporangium
Erythropeltidaceae ホシノイト
Colathrocladia, Erythrocladia, Erythropeltis, Kyliniella, Membranella, Porphyropsis, Smithora
Bangiaceae ウシケノリ
Bangia ウシケノリ, Erythrotrichia, Porphyra アマノリ
Porphyra
Fig. Periods of the growth of different Porphyra and seasonal changes of their reproductive organs.

-------- : plant bearing neutral sporangia only. - - - -: plant bearing neutral sporangia and antheridia. ········: plant bearing neutral sporangia and cystocarps. ••••••••: plant bearing antheridia and cystocarps. ======: liberation of monospores of conchocelis

Class Florideophyceae (Florideae) 真正紅藻鋼
Gonimoblast (造果糸): a filament bearing a carpospore or carpospores or the entire collection of these filaments comprising the carposprophyte

Cystocarp (嚢果): the carposporophyte and any immediately surrounding envelope or pericarp provided by the gametophyte (→ cf. pericarp)

Pericarp (子嚢): a sterile covering around a carposporophyte (in the Florideophycidae)
axis Fig. Differentiation of filaments within axes of erect Florideophycean fronds. A, uniaxial erect frond (単軸型), with filament of unlimited growth (u) and filaments of limited growth (l); B, multiaxial erect frond (多軸型), with filaments of unlimited growth (u) and filaments of limited growth (l). (Modified after Scagel)
(a) Uniaxial form
Acrochaetiaceae (Chantransiaceae)
Acrochaetium, Rhodochorton: monostichous
Batrachospermaceae カワモズク
Batrachospermum カワモズク: B. ectocarpum, B. moniliforme, B. testale, B. virgatum, B. coerulescens, B. graibussoniense, B. vagum, B. gallaei

Nemalion multifidum
Fig. Nemalion multifidum

Lemaneaceae レマネア
Naccariaceae
Naccaria
Bonnemaisoniaceae (カギノリ)
Asparagopsis (Falkenbergia), Bonnemaisonia (Hymenoclonium, Trailliella), Delisea, Ptilonia
(b) Multiaxial form
Thoreaceae
(Nemalionopsis), Thorea
Helminthcladiaceae ベニモズク
Cumaqloia, Dermonema, Helminthocladia, Helminthora, Liagora, Liagoropsis, Nemalion, Nemalinopsis, Trichogloea
Chaetangiaceae ガラガラ
Actinotrichia, Chaetangium, Galaxaura, Gloiophloea, Scinaia
Life cycle of Florideophyceae (真正紅藻類生活環)
Many species have three morphological phases
Type I__________________Type II
life cycle life cycle
Type I: ancestral type. Type II: Polysiphonia flexicaulis type (イトクサ型), cycling three generations. C carposporophyte (果胞子体). G gametophyte (配偶体). R place or potential place of meiosis. T tetrasporophyte (四分胞子体). Solid rectangles indicate diploid phase of nucleus (複相), open rectangles haploid phase (単相).
Type III a____________b________________c
life cycle life cycle life cycle
Type III: heteromorphic type, classified into three subtypes a to c. a, Asparagopsis aroma subtype. b, Acrosymphyton purpuriferum subtype. c, Gloiosiphonia capillaris subtype.
Type IV a__________b
life cycle life cycle
Directly-developed type. a, Lemanea mamillosa subtype (レマネア型). b, Ptilonia okadai subtype.
Type V_____Type VI
life cycle life cycle
Type V: Liagora tetrasporifera type. Type VI: Rhodochorton purpureum type. CT carpotetrasporophyte or tetrasporoblast.
Type VII_Type VIII__Type IX
life cycle life cycle life cycle
Type VII: Hildenbrandia prototypus type (ベニマダラ型). Type VIII: Gigartina papillata type (イボノリ型). Type IX: Acrochaetium bonnemaisonii type. AT apomeiotically divided tetrasporangium.
life cycle
Fig. Diagram showing evolutionary relationship among types of life history in the Florideophyceae (Umezaki 1977).
Order Gelidiales テングサ
carpogonium (造果器): forming from the cells at the bottom of paraphysis, and with no stalks wihtout the specific gonimoblast (造果枝)

paraphysis (側糸, pl. –ses): a sterile structure among sporangia or gametangia

Gelidium amansii マクサ

a phycocolloid characteristc of the Rhodophyceae; its a sulfated polysaccharide (a galactan) occurring in the cell walls and intercellular spaces, extracted primarily from Gelidium and Gracilaria and used commercially for its gelling properties

Order Cryptonemlaes カクレイト
(generative) auxiliary cell (助細胞): a cell from which the carposporophyte is produced following transfer to it of the zygote nucleus or one of its diploid progeny (in Florideophycidae of the Rhodophycophyta)
Corallinaceae サンゴモ
perithallium (or perithallus): that protion of the vegetative thallus (in Corallinaceae) in which the cells or filaments are developed inwardly from the intercalary meristem
Order Gigartinales スギノリ
Gracilariaceae オゴノリ
Gracilaria
Fig. Gracilaria verrucosa
Gigartinaceae スギノリ Gloiopeltis
Fig. Gloiopeltis furcata

Condrus yendoi Yamada et Mikami

Female gametophyte – carpogonium, cystocarp
Tetrasprophyte – tetrasporangium

Gloiopeltis furcata フクロフノリ: dioecious plant

Female gametophyte – carpogonium, cystocarp
Tetrasporophyte – tetrasporangia

Order Rhodymeniales ダルス
Red algae Red algae
Red algae
Fig. Development of reproductive organs and carposporophyte in Rhodymenia pertusa. VS: Dumontia simplex Cotton (ヘラリュウモン), a part of the vertical section of tetrasporophyte
Order Ceramlales イギス
Rhodomelaceae フジマツモ
Red algae
Fig. Polysiphonia flexicaulis

ala (翼, pl. alae): wing, such as the membranous expanses from the central midrib in foliose members of the Delesseriaceae

Order Cryptonemiales カクレイト
Dumontia simplex Cottonヘラリュウモン: イトグサ型

Division Chrysophyta (黄藻植物門), golden algae


Auxospore (増大胞子): the zygote of diatoms orginally so-called because of its rapid increase in size

Class Chrysophyceae (黄鞭藻鋼, ヒカリモ鋼)

body simple, sexual reproduction unknown → the first key of taxonomy is vegetative body
Order Chrysomonadales (黄色マワリモ)
Suborder Chromuliniales (ヒカリモ)
Chromulinaceae: Chromulina
Mallomonadaceae: Mallomonas

golden algae

Suborder Isochrysidinales
Synuraceae: Synura
Coccolithophoridaceae: Syrachosphaeara
Ochrosphaeraceae: Ochrosphaeara

golden algae golden algae
Synura uvella__Syracosphaera mediterranea

Suborder Ochromonadinales
Ochromonadaceae: Ochromonas, Uloglena
Lepochromonadaceae: Dinobryon
Monadaceae: Monas

golden algae
Uloglena volvox_Dinobryon balticum golden algae
Ochromonas mutabilis_Dinobryon cylindrica

Order Silicoflagellales (Silicoflagellata)
silicicolous skeleton around cell body (taxonomy confusing)
Suborder Siphonotestinales
Dicytochaceae: Dictyocha, Distephanum

golden algae
Dictyocha fibula
(Silicoflagellatae)

Suborder Sterotestinales
Ebricaceae: Ebrica
Order Rhizochrysidales (リゾクシス)
Rhizochrysidaceae: Rhizochrysis
Cyrtophoraceae: Chrytophora
Chrysocrinidiaceae (Lagyniaceae): Heterolagynion

golden algae
Rhizochrysis
scherfferli

golden algae
1. Distephanum speculum, 2. Cyrtophora pedicellata (Rhizochrysidales)

Order Chrysocapsales
Chrysocapsaceae: Chrysocapsa, Phaeocystis (move to Haplophyceae in an opinion)
Hydruraceae: Hydrurus

golden algae
Hydrurus foetidus (Cf. Haplophyceae)
golden algae
Fig. Haplophyceae. Phaeocystis is P. pouchetii

Order Chrysosphaerales (クリソスフェレラ)
Chrysosphaeraceae: Epichrysis

golden algae
Epichrysis paludosa

Order Chrysotrichales (黄色糸状藻)
Nematochrysidaceae: Nematochrysis
Phaeothamnionaceae: Phaeothmnion
Thallochrysidaceae: Phaeodermatium

golden algae
Fig. Chrysotrichales. A; Nematochrysis sessilis, B; Phaeothamnion borzianum, C; Phaeodermatium rivulare

Class Xanthophyceae(Heterokontae) 黄緑藻鋼(不等毛鋼)

body simple, sexual reproduction reported from a few species
→ widely applied to classify the vegetative bodies

golden algae
Fig. Zoospore of Xanthophyceae (s.s.). H, FS, E, NE,.CER, M, LV, L, F1B, F2B, C
golden algae
Zoospore of Eustigmatophyceae

Order Heterochloridales
Heterochloridaceae: Heterochloris, Rhizochloris (separated to Order Rhizochloridales in an opinion)

golden algae
Gloeochloris smithiana
(Heterocapsales)

golden algae golden algae
H. mutabilis_________R. mirabilis

Order Heterocapsales
Heterocapsaceae: Botryococcus, Gloeochloris (G. smithiana)
Mischococcaceae: Mischococcus
Order Heterococcales

golden algae
Characiopsis longipes
(Heterococcales)

golden algae golden algae
Halosphaera viridis___Ophinochytium
__________________capitatum
(Heterococcales)____(Heterococcales)

Order Heterotrichales

golden algae
Tribonema bombycinum (Heterotrichales)

Order Heterosiphonales
Botrydiaceae: Botrydium
Vaucheriaceae: Vaucheria (V. sessilis フシナシミドロ)

golden algae
Fig. Botrydium granulatum (フウセンモ)
golden algae
Fig. Vaucheria

Class Bacillariophyceae (珪藻鋼), diatom(s)

= member of the class Bacillariophyceae
Elevation (高さ): algae: raised region of a valve wall of a diatom frustule, not projecting laterally beyond the valve margin and with much the same structure as the valve

Intercalary band (中間帯): an element of frustule in the girdle region, located proximal to the valves

Generation
    (1)
    -----------------------
    (1)                 (2)
    ------------        ------------
    (1)      (2)        (2)      (3)
    -------  -------    -------  -------
    (1) (2)  (2) (3)    (2) (3)  (3) (4)

Fig. Diagram showing the progressive diminution in size of certain frustules through successive cell generations of a diatom.

Subclass Centricae (中心亜鋼)

diatom
Fig. 2. Centricae: A Melosira granulata. B Thalassiosira decipiens. CD Coscinodiscus excentricus und Kammerbau der Schale nach elektronenmikroskopischer Aufnahme. E Arachnoidiscus ehrenbergii. F Auliscus caelatus. G Rhizosolenia eriensis. H Chaetoceras holsaticus. I Ch. Compressus mit Dauersporen. K Triceratium favus. L Isthmia enervis. M Terpsinoe musica. Redrwan from Hustedt und A. Schmidt; D Original.
Order Discales
Coscinodiscaceae: Coscinodiscus, Cyclotella, Melosira, Skeletonema (akashio), Thallassiosira
Actinodiscaceae: Arachnoidiscus, Planktoniella
Order Soleniales
Soleniaceae: Rhizosolenia
Order Biddulphiales
Chaetoceraceae: Chaetoceros
Biddulphiaceae: Triceratium, Biddulphia, Isthmia

diatom
Biddulphia moailiensis
diatom
Isthmia enervis

Subclass Pennatae (羽状亜鋼)

diatom
Fig. 1. Pennatae: A Tabellaria fenestrata. B Meridion circulare. E Eunotia robusta. F Achnanthes flexella. G Diploneis splendida. H Pinnularia alpina. L Epithemia hyndmanni. N Surirella robusta. (Nach Hustedt)
diatom
Hantzschia amphioxys
Order Araphidales (偽背線)
Fragilariaceae: Fragilaria, Dicmophora, Synedra, Asterionella (A. glacialis - akashio), Rhabdonema, Gramatophora

diatom
Asterionella formosa

diatom
Fig. Synedra capitata
Order Raphidioidales (原始背線)
Eunotiaceae: Eunotia, Peronia
Order Monoraphidales (単背線)
Achnathaceae: Cocconeis, Achnanthes, Rhoicosphaenia
Order Biraphidales (両背線)
Naviculariaceae: Diploneis, Pinnularia, Navicula, Pleurosigma, Mastogloia, Stauroneis
Cymbellaceae: Cymbella, Amphora, Gomphonema

diatom
Gomphonema acuminatum

Epithemiaceae: Epithemia, Rhopalodia
Nitzschiaceae: Bacillaria, Nitzschia
Surirellaceae: Surirella

Division Haptophyta (ハプト植物門)

characterized by haptonema (ハプトネマ) that is a short to long cellular extension with a distinctive fine structure, characteristic of the class Prymnesiophyceae

= substantial reasons of the separation from Chrysophyta

Division Pyrrophyta (橙藻植物門)


Class Cryptophyceae (褐色鞭毛藻鋼)

Chrysophyta
Fig. Cryptophyceae
Order Cryptocapsales
Order Cryptococcales

Class Dinophyceae (渦鞭藻鋼)

Class Chloromonadophyceae (緑鞭藻鋼)

Order Chloromonadales
zooxanthella (褐虫藻): a symbiotic golden-pigmented algal cell living in the tissue of an animal host; usually a Pyrrhophycophytan alga but can also belong to other algal classes

Division Cyanophyta (藍藻植物門), blue-green algae


Cell content: Cyanophyta granules, Pseudovacuole, Metachromatin granule (voltin), chromatin and nucleoid
Bluegreen
Fig. Body plan 1. Synechocystis, 2. Synechococcus, 3. Dactylococcopsis, 4,5. Gloeothece, 6. Tetrapedia, 7. Merismopedia, 8. Eucapsis, 9. Chroococcus, 10. Gloecapsa, 11. Microchystis, 12. Aphanocapsa, 13. Coelosphaerium, 14. Gomphosphaeria, 15. Aphanothece, 16. Chamaesiphon, 17. Dermocarpa, 18. Pleurocapsa (Oncobyrsa), 19. Oscillatoria, 20. Phormidium, 21. Lyngbya, 22. Microcoleus, 23. Anabaena, 24. Nostoc, 25. Aulosira, 26. Calothrix, 27. Rivularia, 28. Scytonema, 29. Hapalosiphon, 30. Stigonema. Scytonema coactile
Scytonema coactile Montagne var. thermalis Geitler
Order Chroococcales (クロオコックス)
monocellular (only vegetative cell)
many cells secreting polysaccharide mucilage
colony forming regular or irregular
Chroococcaceae
Chroococcus, Synecocystis, Synecococcus, Tetrapedia, Aphanocapsa, Aphanothece, Coelosphaerium, Fucapsis, Gloeocapsa, Gloeothece, Merismopedia, Microcystis (M. aerginosa アオコ), Phylloderma (P. sacrum スイゼンジノリ)
Chroococcaceae
Entophysalidaceae
Entophyealis

Order Chamaesiphonales
Chamaesiphonales
A: Chamaesiphon, B: Dermocarpa

Order Chamaesiphonales
Benthic, monocellular
Dermocarpaceae
Dermocarpa
Chamaesiphonaceae
Chamaesiphon

Pleurocapsales
Onchobyrsa

Order Pleurocapsales
pseudoparenchyma (偽柔組織)
Pleurocapsaceae
Pleurocapsa Thuret et Hauck
Hyellaceae (Scopulonemataceae)
Hydrococcus Kützing (Onchobyrsa), Xenococcus, Hyella Bornet
Order Nostocales (ネンジュモ)
Siphonenemataceae
Siphonenema
Pascherinemataceae (Endonemataceae)
Pascherinema (Endoneama)
Order Hormogonales
filament, homogonium
1) Suborder Nostocinales
no-branching
Oscillatorineae (Oscillatoriaceae, ユレモ)
heterocyst absent
Lyngbya, Oscillatoria, Microcoleus, Phormidium, Spirulina, Trichodesmium (T. erythraeum, red tide)
Oscillatorineae
Nostocaceae (ネンジュモ)
heterocyst present
Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Cylindrospermum, Nostoc Nostocaceae
A. Anabaena, B. Nostoc, C. Calothrix, D. Rivularia
Rivulariaceae (ヒゲモ)
Calothrix Agardh (イトヒゲモ), Gloiothrichia Agardh (タマヒゲモ), Rivularia Roth (ヒゲモ)
Scytonemataceae
Plectonema, Scytonema, Tolypothrix
2) Suborder Stigonematinales (Order Stigonematales)
branching
intercellular plasmodesma (protoplasmic connection)
Loriellaceae
Loriella
Capsosiraceae
Capsosira Kützing
Stigonemataceae (スチゴネマ)
Hapalosiphon Nageli, Matteia, Stigonema, Westiella
Siphonenemataceae
Siphonenema Pascherine
Nostochopsidaceae
Mastigocoleus, Nostochopsis
Mastigocladaceae (Brachytrichiaceae)
Mastigocladus, Srachytrichis
Nostocaceae
A. Hapalosiphon, B. Stigonema, C. Brachitrichia

Seagrass (海草)


Seagrass is recorded from two (Engler's syllabus エングラー体系) to six families with ca 60 species:
All of them are in monocotyledons
Potamogetonaceae (ヒルムシロ)

Zosteraceae (アマモ)
Cymodoceaceae (ベニアマモ)
Posidoniaceae (ポシドニア)
Ruppiaceae (カワツルモ)

Zannichelliaceae (イトクズモ)
Hydrocharitaceae (トチカガミ)

seagrass
Fig. 1. Distribution of seagrass species along the Australian coast line divided into CONCOM regions.
Seagrass meadows are the shaded areas along the coast and the lists are of seagrass species found in each CONCOM region.

Ocean ecology (海洋生態学)


Researches on ocean ecosystems and the interactions between chemical cycles and life

Lght and vertical distribution

Lambert-Beer law (ランバート・ベーア則)
= Beer-Lambert law, Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law, or Beer's law
Showing the abosrbance curves of light intensity with increasing the depth of water or other materials (in particular in sea)

Application: chemical measurements

I = I0e-KD

I0: initial light indensity at depth zero
I: light intensity at depth D
K: absorption coefficient (吸光係数), depending on the transparency, e.e., 0.15-0.3 in sea water, and 0.15-1.0 in land water, in general)
→ light intensity is decreaded with light absorbed by water molecule (the decreases differ between light wavelengths)

Photosynthetic productivity, Qx = P(λIx(λdλ

x: depth
λ: wavelength
P(λ): photosynthetic rate at wavelength λ
I(λ): light intensity

LB law
Sea surface temperature, SST (海面温度)

Paleothermometry (古温度測定法)
TEX86 paleothermometry
Analisysi of organic molecules by LC-MS/MS

Euphotic zone (有光層)
Layers of which photosynthesis is higher than respiration → plants can grow
= range beteween water surface and compensation depth (補償深度)

Marine: compensation depth (m)
Outer sea: 100-120
Japan Current (Black Stream): 80-100
Oyashio Current: 30-50

Littoral zone (沿岸帯)

Zonation: three zones are developmed in most littoral communities
Supratidal zone (supralittoral zone)
Eulittoral zone

Intertidal zone (tidal zone): occurring between the levels of low and high tides; thus, exposed at low tide; also reffered to as eulittoral

Sublittoral zone Tide pool (us → en = rock pool)

developing specific ecosystems

Aquatic organisms (水生生物)
life form → determined mostly by the movement of water (water flow) Plankton: the community of minute organisms suspended in water

Meroplankton (meroplanktonic, adj.): refers to organisms that spend a part of their life cycle as planktonic and a part as bentic (as in a resting stage), which restricts such organisms largely to neritic conditions

Necton (or nekton): marine and freshwater organisms that swim freely and are generally independent of currents, ranging in size from microscopic organisms to whales Ex. fish, squid, octopus
Benthos: organisms which live on, in, or near the seafloor (called benthic zone). Ex. bentic algae, barnacle, sea urchin, sea cucumber
+ Seston: the organisms (bioseston) and non-living matter (abioseston or tripton) swimming or floating in a water body.

→ seeds of seagrass

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