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Plant community dynamics on volcanoes






Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

[volcanology: Mount Usu | Mount Koma | Mount St. Helens ]
[volcanic succession, volcano]

Table. Dominant plant species in the early stages of Japanese volcanic succession

VolcanoVolcanic ejectaDominant species
UsuAsh, pumicePolygonum sachalinense, Petasites japonicus
KomaPyroclastic flow (pumice)Polygonum weyrichii, P. sachalinense, Miscanthus sinensis, Pteridium aquilinum, Salix spp., Betula platyphylla
ChausuAshP. weyrichii, Empetrum nigrum
AsamaScoria, lapilliP. weyrichii, Polygonum cuspidatum, Festuca ovina
FujiScoria, lapilliP. weyrichii, P. cuspidatum, Carex doenitzii, Artemisia pedunculosa
MiharaAa lavaP. cuspidatum, Carex okuboi
AsoScoria, lapilliP. cuspidatum, Carex chrysolepis, Calamagrostis autumnalis, Miscanthus oligostachyus
SakurajimaMassive lava flowP. cuspidatum, Nephrolepis cordifolia, M. sinensis
Volcanic succession researched

VA VB VC
A. A permanent plot established in 1983 to monitor the effects of 1977-78 eruptions on plant communities on Mount Usu. B. A permanent plot established in 1996 to monitor the effects of 1996 eruptions on plant communities on Mount Koma. C. A permanent plot established on Mount Ruapehu, New Zealand (Dr B Clarkson, the University of Waikato) (Clarkson 1990)

[flora, Vegetation dynamics]

Mount Usu


Usu 861 Usu 012 Usu 023
[1] the crater basin in 1986. [2] vegetation damaged by the 2000 eruptions. (by J.H. Titus at August 2001). [3] a crater created by the 2000 eruptions, taken at September 4 2002

Seedbank in the former topsoil

We collected seedbank in the former topsoil 10, 20 and 30 years after the 1977-78 eruptions. Many seeds were still alive!

References
  1. Irie, K. & Tsuyuzaki S. 2007. Faunal make-up and abundance of rodents 17 years after volcanic eruptions. Northwest Science 81: 333-336
  2. Haruki, M. & Tsuyuzaki, S. 2001. Woody plant establishment in the early stages of volcanic succession on Mount Usu, northern Japan. Ecological Research 16: 451-457
  3. Tsuyuzaki, S. 1987. Origin of plants recovering on the volcano Usu, northern Japan, since the eruptions of 1977 and 1978. Vegetatio 73: 53-58
  4. Tsuyuzaki, S. 1989. Contribution of buried seeds to revegetation after eruptions of the volcano Usu, northern Japan. Botanical Magazine, Tokyo 102: 511-520
  5. Tsuyuzaki, S. 1989. Buried seed populations on the volcano Mt. Usu, northern Japan, ten years after the 1977-78 eruptions. Ecological Research 4: 167-173
  6. Tsuyuzaki, S. 1989. Analysis of revegetation dynamics on the volcano Usu, northern Japan, deforested by 1977-78 eruptions. American Journal of Botany 76: 1468-1477
  7. Tsuyuzaki, S. 1991. Species turnover and diversity during early stages of vegetation recovery on the volcano Usu, northern Japan. Journal of Vegetation Science 2: 301-306
  8. Tsuyuzaki, S. 1991. Survival characteristics of buried seeds 10 years after the eruption of the Usu Volcano in northern Japan. Canadian Journal of Botany 69: 2251-2256
  9. Tsuyuzaki, S. 1994. Fate of plants from buried seeds on volcano Usu, Japan, after the 1977-78 eruptions. American Journal of Botany 81: 395-399
  1. Tsuyuzaki, S. 1995. Vegetation recovery patterns in early volcanic succession. Journal of Plant Research 108: 241-248
  2. Tsuyuzaki, S. 1996. Species diversities analyzed by density and cover in early volcanic succession on Mount Usu, Japan. Vegetatio 122: 151-156
  3. Tsuyuzaki, S. 1997. Wetland development in the early stages of volcanic succession. Journal of Vegetation Science 8: 353-360
  4. Tsuyuzaki, S. 2009. Causes of plant community divergence in the early stages of volcanic succession. Journal of Vegetation Science 20: 959-969
  5. Tsuyuzaki, S. 2010. Seed survival for three decades under thick tephra. Seed Science Research 20: 201-207
  6. Tsuyuzaki, S. & del Moral, R. 1994. Canonical correspondence analysis of early volcanic succession on Mt Usu, Japan. Ecological Research 9: 143-150
  7. Tsuyuzaki, S. & del Moral, R. 1995. Species attributes in the early stages of volcanic succession. Journal of Vegetation Science 6: 517-522
  8. Tsuyuzaki, S. & Goto, M. 2001. Persistence of seed bank under thick volcanic deposits twenty years after eruptions of Mount Usu, Hokkaido Island, Japan. American Journal of Botany 88: 1813-1817
  9. Tsuyuzaki, S. & Haruki, M. 1996. Tree regeneration patterns on Mount Usu, northern Japan, since the 1977-78 eruptions. Vegetatio 126: 191-198
  10. Tsuyuzaki, S. & Haruki, M. 2008. Effects of microtopography and erosion on seedling colonisation and survival in the volcano Usu, northern Japan, after the 1977-78 eruptions. Land Degradation & Development 19: 233-241

Mount Koma


Flora (a few photos on wild flowers)

Vegetation dynamics (biological invasion, facilitation, and interspecific interactions)

References shown with the keywords
  1. Akasaka, M. & Tsuyuzaki, S. 2005. Tree seedling performance on microhabitats along an elevational gradient on Mount Koma, Japan. Journal of Vegetation Science 16: 647-654 (Biological invasion)
  2. Akasaka, M. & Tsuyuzaki, S. 2009. Comparisons of recruitment, survival and growth in invasive and native tree saplings on a volcano. Plant Ecology 202: 235-245 (Biological invasion)
  3. Akasaka, M., Tsuyuzaki, S. & Hase, A. 2007. Annual growth of invasive Larix kaempferi seedlings with reference to microhabitat and ectomycorrhiza1 colonization on a volcano. Journal of Plant Research 120: 329-336 (Interactions between plants and fungi)
  4. Kondo, T. & Tsuyuzaki, S. 1999. Natural regeneration patterns of the introduced larch, Larix kaempferi (Pinaceae), on the volcano Mount Koma, northern Japan. Diversity and Distributions 5: 223-233 (Biological invasion)
  5. Nishi, H. & Tsuyuzaki, S. 2004. Seed dispersal and seedling establishment of Rhus trichocarpa promoted by a crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) on a volcano in Japan. Ecography 27: 311-322 (Interactions between plants and birds)
  6. Titus, J.H. & Tsuyuzaki, S. 2002. Arbuscular mycorrhizal distribution in relation to microsites on recent volcanic substrates of Mt. Koma, Hokkaido, Japan. Mycorrhiza 12: 271-275 (Interactions between plants and fungi)
  1. Titus, J.H. & Tsuyuzaki, S. 2003. Influence of a non-native invasive tree on primary succession at Mt. Koma, Hokkaido, Japan. Plant Ecology 169: 307-315 (Biological invasion)
  2. Titus, J.H. & Tsuyuzaki, S. 2003. Distribution of plants in relation to microsites on recent volcanic substrates on Mount Koma, Hokkaido, Japan. Ecological Research 18: 91-98 (Microhabitat)
  3. Tsuyuzaki, S. & Hase, A. 2005. Plant community dynamics on the volcano Mount Koma, northern Japan, after the 1996 eruption. Folia Geobotanica 40: 319-330 (Plant community dynamics)
  4. Tsuyuzaki, S., Hase, A. & Niinuma, H. 2005. Distribution of different mycorrhizal classes on Mount Koma, northern Japan. Mycorrhiza 15: 93-100 (Interactions between plants and fungi)
  5. Tsuyuzaki, S., Matsuda, M. & Akasaka, M. 2012. Effect of a deciduous shrub on microclimate along an elevation gradient, Mount Koma, north Japan. Climate Research 51: 1-10 (Facilitation)
  6. Tsuyuzaki, S. & Miyoshi, C. 2009. Effects of smoke, heat, darkness and cold stratification on seed germination of 40 species in a cool temperate zone, northern Japan. Plant Biology 11: 369-378 (Smoke-induced seed germination)
  7. Uesaka, S. & Tsuyuzaki, S. 2004. Differential establishment and survival of species in deciduous and evergreen shrub patches and on bare ground, Mt. Koma, Hokkaido, Japan. Plant Ecology 175: 165-177 (Facilitation)

Mount St. Helens


References
  1. Tsuyuzaki, S. & del Moral, R. 1995. Species attributes in the early stages of volcanic succession. Journal of Vegetation Science 6: 517-522
  2. Tsuyuzaki, S., Titus, J.H., & del Moral, R. 1997. Seedling establishment patterns in the Pumice Plains, Mount St. Helens, Washington. Journal of Vegetation Science 8: 727-734
  1. Tsuyuzaki, S. & Titus, J.H. 1996. Vegetation development patterns in erosive areas on the Pumice Plains of Mount St Helens. American Midland Naturalist 135: 172-177
  2. Tu, M., Titus J.H., Tsuyuzaki, S. & del Moral, R. 1998. Composition and dynamics of wetland seed banks on Mount St. Helens, Washington, USA. Folia Geobotanica 33: 3-16

Pinatubo, Philippines


Volcano1 Volcano2 Volcano3
[1-3] mudflow occurring at the foot of Mt Pinatubo, Philippines, in early Janunary 1997. [2] close-up. Looks like a desert. [3] even on the unstable ground surface, plant had immigrated on the surface.

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