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(Upload on October 13 2013) [ 日本語 | English ]

Fish (Pisces) (魚類)






Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

Any cold-blooded aquatic vertebrates usually having scales and breathing through gills
Important taxa for understanding food chain
Animalia 動物界
Chordata 脊索動物門
Vertebrata 脊椎動物亜門

Agnatha 無顎上綱
Gnathostomata 顎口上綱

Placodermiomorphi 板皮階
Chondriomorphi 軟骨魚階 (軟骨魚類)
Teleostomi 真口階 (硬骨魚類)

  • Nelson JS. 1994. Fish of the world (3rd edn). John Wiley & Sons, New York
  • Nelson JS. 2006. Fish of the world (4th edn). John Wiley & Sons, New York
fish
Fig. External morphology of bony fish
索引
caudal peduncle (尾柄部)
belly (腹部)
breast (胸部)
fin (鰭)

caudal fin or tail fin (尾鰭)
adipose fin (脂鰭)
anal fin (尻鰭)
dorsal fin (背鰭)
pelvic fin (腹鰭)
pectoral fin (胸鰭)

anus or cloaca (排泄腔)
operculum (鰓蓋) or gill plate (鰓板)
opercle (鰓蓋, 特に鰓蓋後部骨)
lateral line (側線)

Geological timescale (地質年代)

Taxonomy (分類)


Class Agnatha 無顎綱

Order Cyclostomata (lampreys, hagfish) 円口目

Suborder Petromyzonida (lampreys) ヤツメウナギ亜目
Suborder Myxinida (hagfish) メクラウナギ亜目

Order Anaspida (Birkeniiformes) 欠甲類: extinct (Ordovician-Devonian)
Order Osteostraci 骨甲目: extinct
Order Heterostraci: extinct
Order Coelolepida: extinct (Silurian-Devonian)

Suborder Petromyzonida (lampreys) ヤツメウナギ目
Suborder Myxinida (hagfish) メクラウナギ目

Class Placodermi 板皮綱

extinct (Silurian-Devonian)
Order Acanthothoraciformes
Order Rhenaniformes
Order Antiarchiformes (胴甲)
Order Petalichthyiformes
Order Ptyctodontiformes
Order Arthrodiriformes (節頸)

Class Chondricthyes軟骨魚綱 cartilaginous fish

Order Elasmobranchia 板鰓

Suborder Selachii (sharks, dogfish, angel-fish) サメ
Suborder Rajida (rays, skates)エイ: Dasyatis akajei Müller et Henle アカエイ (tail - poison)

Order Holocephali (rabbit-fish) 全頭: Chimaeraギンザメ
Order Pleuropterygii 側鰭: Devonian-Upper Carboniferous

Class Osteichthyes 硬骨魚綱

Subclass Actinopterygii 条鰭亜綱 (Teleostomi 真口亜綱) ray-finned fish

the pair fins on thoracoabdominal body (胸腹) are not archipterygium (原鰭)
internal naris (内鼻孔) are not developed

Superorder Chondrostei軟骨上目: mostly extinct

Order Palaeoniscida パレオニスカス: Middle Devonian-upper Jurassic. Cheirolepis
Order Acipenserida チョウザメ
Order Polypterida 多鰭
Superorder Holostei 全骨上目
Order Amiida アミア
Order Lepidosteida レピドステウス
Superorder Teleostei 真骨上目
interior skeleton is developed well
flourished rapidly
Division Clupeichthyes ニシン魚群
Order Clupeida ニシン

Engraulidae カタクチイワシ: Engraulis (E. japonicus Temminck et Schlegel カタクチイワシ, E.encrasicolus L. アンチョビ anchovy: the fish and its salt cured products, mostly captured in Italy and Spain)

Order Salmoniformes サケ

Salmonidae サケ salmon, trout: 9 genera, 70 species
Osmeridae キュウリウオ: Osmerus
Plecoglossidae アユ
Salangidae シラウオ

Order Cyprindia コイ
Order Anguillida ウナギ

Anguilla ウナギ(鰻)
Conger マアナゴ
Muraenosox ハモ
Muraena ウツボ

Division Mesichthyes 中生魚群
Order Cyprinodontidaメダカ
Order Belonidaダツ

Ablennes ダツ(Tylosurus crocodilus crocodilus Le Sueurダツ, T. acus melanotus Breekerテンジクダツ), Cololabis サンマ(秋刀魚), Hemiramphus サヨリ, Cypselurus トビウオ flying fish

Order Gasterosteidaトゲウオsticklebacks
Order Syngnathida ヨウジウオ
Division Perichthyes スズキ魚群
Order Mugilidaボラ: Sphyraenaカマスbarracuda、Mugilボラ mullet
Order Channidaタイワンドジョウ: Channa タイワンドジョウ China fish
Order Berycidaキンメダイ: Beryx -, Monocentris マツカサウオ(発光する) pine-cone fish
Order Lamprida アカマンボウ
Order Gadida タラ

Gadus マダラ cod, whiting
Theragra スケトウダラ
Eleginus コマイ

Order Percida スズキ

Suborder Percoidei ススキ
Sparidae タイ
Percichthyidae スズキ
Sillaginidae キス
Suborder Scombroidei サバ
Scombridae サバ
Thunnus (South 1845) マグロ(鮪), Katsuwonus pelamis (Linaeus 1758) カツオ(鰹)
Istiophoridae マカジキ
Xiphiidae メカジキ swordfish
Trichiuridae タチウオ
Suborder Carangioidei アジ
Carangidae アジ
Coryphaenidae シイラ

Order Synbranchia タウナギ: Monopterus タウナギ
Order Tretaodontida フグ: Fugu フグ(河豚), Diodon ハリセンボン, Mola マンボウ
Order Cottida カジカ
Order Echeneida コバンザメ: Echeneis コバンザメ sucker-fish
Order Pegasida ウミテング: Zalises (= Pegasus) ウミテング sea-moth
Order Pleuronectida カレイ flat-fish

Citharidaeコヒラメ
Paralichthyidaeヒラメ: Paralichthys - flounder
Bothidaeダルマガレイ
Pleuronectidaeカレイ: Limandaマ-plaice
Soleidaeササウシノシタsole
Cynoglossidaeウシノシタ

Order Lophiida アンコウ
Subclass Choanichtyes 内鼻孔魚亜高 lobe-finner fish
the pair fins on thoracoabdominal body (胸腹) are archipterygium (原鰭) internal naris (内鼻孔) are developed
Superorder Crossopterygii 総鱗上目
Order Rhipidistia 扇鱗: Middle Devonian - middle Carboniferous(the origin of amphibian), freshwater
Order Coelacanthida シーラカンス: Upper Devonian-Cretaceous (one species, Latimeria is present)
Superorder Dipponi 肺魚 lung fish
Order Dipterida ジプテルス
Order Ceratodida セラトダス

Ecology (生態)


Fishing is an important technique to measure fish characteristics

Field trip on integrated environmental research (統合環境調査法実習): Fauna and flora (魚類出現種リスト)

Fish1 Fish2
[1] a grayling captured for the research of river ecosystems near Fairbanks, AK, on August 17 2009 [2] a red salmon captured by Harada K at the Seward Peninsula on August 20 2008, by Harada K.

Western Australia

rod
Fig. Pylons, bridges and casting to snags
Ichthyochory: seeds dispersed by fish
Permission
Crawdad (crawfish) (ザリガニ/伊勢エビ)
Flathead Legal Length: 30cm, Bag limit: 20 per angler per day (combined bag with flounder)
Flounder Legal Length: 25cm, Bag limit: 20 per angler per day (combined bag with flathead)
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