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(Upload on June 10 2014) [ 日本語 | English ]

Pinaceae (マツ科)






Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

⇒ Engler's syllabus (エングラー体系), Plant taxonomy, References

索引

Order Coniferales (球果植物目)

Conifer: 9 genera (210 spp.)
Abies (モミ 5, fir), Picea (トウヒ 6, spruce), Juniperus (juniper, red cedar), Pseudotsuga (トガサワラ 1), Pinus (マツ 6, pine), Sequoiadendron (Sierra red wood, big tree), Larix (カラマツ 1 , larch, tamarack), Taxodium (イトスギcypress), Tsuga (ツガ 2, hemlock) [n = number of species in Japan]

Pollen
Fig. 1. Pollen of Pinus sylvestris. 2-4. Pollens of Pinus laricina. Fl = saccus (気嚢) (or air chamber 気室) → effective to pollen analysis

Leaf
shoot
Cross section of leaf
Seed
pine
Fig. A seed of pine → cone developed by the aggregation of seeds (→ Cycas: 1 cluster = 1 flower)

Abies Mill. (モミ) in Japan


A. firma Sieb. et Zucc. (モミ)
A. homolepis Sieb. et Zucc. (ウラジロモミ)

var. umbellata Wilson (ミツミネモミ)

A. mariesii Masters (オオシラビソ/アオモリトドマツ): alpine and subalpine zones (1500-2000 m a.s.l.)

f. hayachinensis Hayashi (ホソミノアオモリトドマツ)

A. sachalinensis (Fr. Schm.) Masters (トドマツ)
A. veitchii Lindle (シラベ/シラビソ)

var. komagatakensis Hayashi (コマガタケシラベ)
var. sikokiana (Nakai) Kusaka (シコクシラベ)
f. olivacea (Shiras.) Kusaka (アオシラベ)

Transplantation
A. alba Mill. (オウシュウモミ)
A. balsamea (L.) Mill. (バルサムモミ)
A. concolor (Gordon et Glendinning) Hildebr. (コロラドモミ/コンコールモミ), somhow transplanted in southern Hokkaido
A. fraseri Poir. (アメリカオオモミ)
Table. Distribution of Abies species in Japan
  Location          Hokkaido  Hn Sh Ky
  Species           N  C  S  
  A. sachalinensis  +  -  -   -  -  -
  A. firma          -  +  +   +  +  +
  A. homolepis      -  +  +   +  +  -
  A. veitchii       -  +  +   -  -  -
  A. mariesii       -  +  +   +  +  -
  Total             1  4  4   3  3  1

Remarks: N = north, C = central and S = south. Hn = Honsyu, Sh = Shikoku and Ky = Kyushu

Cedrus Trew (ヒマラヤスギ, cedar) transplanted in Japan


C. atlantica (Endl.) Manetti ex Carrière (atlas cedar), northern America
C. deodara (Roxb.) G. Don (ヒマラヤスギ)
C. libani A. Rich. (Lebanon cedar), Turkey - Morocco

Larix Mill. (カラマツ, larch)


Common characteristics

Lifeform: deciduous tall tree
Seed dispersal: wind

IUCN Red List, LR/lc (Lower risk/least concern)

L. czekanowskii Szafer
L. decidua Mill. (オウシュウカラマツ)
L. gmelinii Rupr. ex Kuzen. (ダフリアカラマツ)
L. cajanderi Mayr [syn. L. gmelinii var. gmelinii]
L. griffithii Hook. f.

var. griffithii
var. speciosa (W.C.Cheng et Y.W.Law) Farjon

L. kaempferi (Lamb.) Carrière (カラマツ)
L. kongboensis R.R.Mill
L. laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch (アメリカカラマツ)
L. lyallii Parl.
L. mastersiana Rehder et E.H.Wilson
L. occidentalis Nutt.
L. olgensis A. Henry (チョウセンカラマツ)
L. potaninii Batalin

var. australis A.Henry ex Hand.-Mazz.
var. chinensis L.K.Fu et Nan Li
var. himalaica (W. C. Cheng et L. K. Fu) Farjon et Silba

var. potaninii

L. sibirica Ledeb. (シベリアカラマツ)
L. kaempferi × gmelini (ホッカイドウカラマツ) x x
at an arboretum of the Experimental Forest of Kyushu University in Ashoro Town, eastern Hokkaido, on June 6 2914

Picea A. Dietr. (トウヒ, spruce)


Japan
P. abies (L.) Karst. (ドイツトウヒ)
P. alcockiana (Veitch ex Lindl.) Carrière (マツハダ)

f. chlorocarpa (Hayashi) Yonek. (ミドリイラモミ)

P. engelmannii Parry ex Engelm. (エンゲルマントウヒ)
P. glehnii (F. Schmidt) Mast. (アカエゾマツ)
P. jezoensis (Siebold et Zucc.) Carrière (エゾマツ)
P. koraiensis Nakai (チョウセンハリモミ)
P. koyamae Shirasawa (ヤツガタケトウヒ)
P. maximowiczii Regel ex Carrière (ヒメバラモミ)
P. morrisonicola Hayata (ニイタカトウヒ)
P. pungens Engelm. (コロラドトウヒ), commonly transplanted
P. smithiana (Wall.) Boiss. (ヒマラヤハリモミ)
P. torano (Siebold ex K. Koch) Koehne (ハリモミ)

f. rubriflora (Yoshio Kobay.) Yonek. (ベニバナハリモミ)

Alaska
1. Needles 4-angled, with whitish lines on all sides

2. Twigs hairy; needles mostly < 12 mm long, resinous; cones egg-shaped or nearly round, mostly < 2.5 cm long, curved down on shoot stalks, remaining on tree________ P. mariana (P. Mill.) B. S. B. (クロトウヒ)
2. Twigs hairless; needles > 12 mm long, with skunk-like odor when crushed; cones cylindric, 3-6 cm long, falling at maturity ________ P. glauca (Moench) Voss (シロトウヒ)

1. Needles flattened but slightly keeled, with 2 whitish bands on lower surface; twigs hairless, cones cylindric, 5-9 cm long, falling at maturity ________ P. sitchensis (シトカトウヒ)

(Viereck & Little 1972)

Picea in Hokkaido

Pinus L. (マツ, pine)


P. amamiana Koidz. (ヤクタネゴヨウ)
P. armandii Franch. (タカネゴヨウ, s.l.)

var. armandii (カザンマツ)
var. mastersiana (Hayata) Hayata (タカネゴヨウ)

P. banksiana Lamb. (バンクスマツ)
P. bungeana Zucc. ex Endl. (シロマツ)
P. contorta Dougl. ex Loudon (コントルタマツ)
P. densiflora Siebold et Zucc. (アカマツ)
P. kesiya Royle ex Gordon (カシヤマツ)
P. koraiensis Siebold et Zucc. (チョウセンゴヨウ)
P. lambertiana Dougl. (ナガミマツ)
P. luchuensis Mayr (リュウキュウマツ)
P. massoniana Lamb. (タイワンアカマツ)
P. monticola Dougl. ex D. Don (モンティコーラマツ)
P. morrisonicola Hayata (タイワンゴヨウマツ)
P. mugo Turra (モンタナマツ)
P. nigra J. F. Arnold (オウシュウクロマツ)
P. palustris Mill. (ダイオウマツ)
P. parviflora Siebold et Zucc. (ゴヨウマツ, s.l.)
P. pinaster Aiton (カイガンショウ)
P. pinea L. (カサマツ)
P. ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson et C. Lawson (ポンデローサマツ)
P. pumila (Pall.) Regel (ハイマツ)
P. radiata D. Don (ラジアータマツ)
P. rigida Mill. (リギダマツ), pitch pine
P. roxburghii Sarg. (ヒマラヤマツ)
strobus P. strobus L. (ストローブマツ/ストローブゴヨウ), tolerant to coldness and moisture
P. sylvestris L. (オウシュウアカマツ), Scots pine or Scotch pine
P. taeda L. (テーダマツ)
P. taiwanensis Hayata (ニイタカアカマツ)
P. thunbergii Parl. (クロマツ)
Hybrids
P. × densi-thunbergii Uyeki (アイグロマツ)
P. × hakkodensis Makino (ハッコウダゴヨウ), Mount Apoi

Hokkaido

Spur shoot has two leaves _________________________ Subgen. Diploxylon

P. thunbergii Parlatore (クロマツ) [non-native to Hokkaido]
P. densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (アカマツ) [southern part of Hokkaido]

P. × densi-thunbergii Uyeki (アイグロマツ): consider to be effective to avoid damages by pine bark beetles

Spur shoot has five leaves _________________________ Subgen. Haploxylon

P. pumila (Pallas) Regel (ハイマツ)
P. parviflora Sieb. et Zucc. (ゴヨウマツ) [southern Hokkaido]

var. pentaphylla (Mayr) Henry (キタゴヨウ)

f. laevis (Hara) Sugimoto (トドハダゴヨウ) [Hidaka]

P. koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc. (チョウセンゴヨウ) [non-native to Hokkaido]
P. × hakkodensis Makino (ハッコウダゴヨウ) [Apoi] = P. pumila × P. parviflora

P. densiflora vs P. thunbergii
The identification of these two species is often difficult, in particular, on seedling stage.
Characteristics: P. densifloraP. thunbergii
Leaf:_________soft, green ↔ dark green
Resin duct:____close to epidermis ↔ in mesophyll
Bark:_________red brown ↔ blackish gray
Dormant bud:__red brown ↔ ash gray

Tsuga Carrière (ツガ)


Native
T. diversifolia (Maxim.) Mast. (コメツガ)
T. sieboldii Carrière (ツガ)
Transplantation
T. canadensis (L.) Carrière (カナダツガ)
T. chinensis (Franch.) E.Pritz. (チュウゴクツガ)

var. formosana (Hayata) H. L. Li et H. Keng (タイワンツガ)

T. heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. (アメリカツガ)
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