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History (歴史)






Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

[natural sciences, geological timescale, anthropology]

Remote ages (古代)


The classification of ages follows the European opinion

BC499-449: the Persian Wars

BC478: siege of Byzantium
BC450: Battle of Salamis (サラミスの大海戦)

A naval battle fought between an alliance of Greek city-states under themistocles and the Persian Empire under King Xerxes
→ Greek amry won

BC460-445: First Peloponnesian War (第一次ペロポネソス戦争)

BC457: Battle of Tanagra

BC431-404: the Peloponnesian war (ペロポネソス戦争)

Delian League (lead by Athena) vs Peloponnesus League (led by Sparta, supported by Persia)
Peloponnesian League victory → Greek - lost the political power

BC280: Battle of Heraclea
BC279: Battle of Asculum
索引
BC222: Battle of Sellasia
BC146: the Roman Republic (Res Publica Romana or Imperium Romanum) occupied the Carthage and ancient Greece

Middle ages (中世, 5-15C)


from the fall of the Western Empire to pre-Renaissance
The Dark Ages (暗黒時代): Europe until the Late Middle Ages or in the Early Middle Ages

the Dark Ages ≠ the middle ages

Early Middle Ages (前期): 500-1000

962 the Empire (神聖ローマ帝国)

High Middle Ages (盛期): 1000-1300

The Renaissance (ルネサンス, Fr)
14th–17th centuries

Late Middle Ages (後期): 1300-1500

1303 Outrage of Anagni
1309-1377 Avignon Papacy
1339-1453 Hundred Years' War
1455-1485(1487) Wars of the Roses
The Age of Exploration (大航海時代)
from the middle of 15th cnetury to the middle of 17th century
Protestant Reformation (宗教改革)
16th century

Japan

Zuiganji temple caves
Originally used as an area for memorial services and a cinerarium to house the ashes of the deceased, making of these caves dates back to the Kamakura period (1192-1333) and they continued to use them until the Edo period (1603-1867).
In ancient times, Matsushima was called the "Koyasan of Tohoku (東北の高野山)" - a sacred, hallowed ground where many went to pray for safe passage to the Pure Land in their next life.

Modern era (近世・近代)


early 16C - early 19C
The early modern period (近世)

The French Revolution
The Industrial Revolution (産業革命)

← 1918 (the end of WWI - Europe) →
← 1945 (the end of WWII - Asia) →
The late modern period (近代)
Europe
17 c.: there are only four years without wars
1618-48 The Thirty Year's War (三十年戦争) → the largest religious war

Emperor + Catholicism (旧教徒) + Spain vs
Protestant (新教徒) + Danmark / Sweden / France

→ battle area = Germany
American War of Independence (独立戦争)
= Independence War, American Revolution and Revolutionary War
1775.04.19-1783.09.03: conflict between Great Britain and thirteen of its North American colonies
→ declared the independent United States of America
The French Revolution (フランス革命)
= Revolution of 1979
1789.5.5-1799.11.9
End of the ancient regime
Napoléon Bonaparte (1769.8.15-1821.5.5)
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770.12.16?-1827.3.26)
1655-60 The Second Northern War

Sweden vs its adversaries
1655-60 the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
1656-58 Russia
1657-60 Brandenburg-Prussia
1657-60 the Habsburg Monarchy
1657-58 / 1658-60 Denmark-Norway

1672-78 The Third Anglo-Dutch Wars (第三次英蘭戦争)
1701-14 The War of the Spanish Succession (スペイン継承戦争)
1733-35 The War of the Polish Succession (ポーランド王位継承戦争)
1735-39 Austro-Russian-Turkish War (露土朝戦争)
1740-48 The War of the Austrian Succession (オーストリア継承戦争)

Japan


Ishi masu and wooden condults of waterworks in Edo period

Water
Shimizudani Park on
November 24 2017

This ishi masu (a square box made of stone to connect the water pipe) is a part of mainline (main pipe) of Tamagawa Aqueduct which was excavated from the road around 2-3 Kojimachi Chiyoda-ku during construction work for widening Kojimachi Dori in 1970. It is said that construction of Tamawaga Aqueduct began in 1653 and was completed in June, 1654.
The found aqueduct is a mainline of clean water towards Edo Castle, as shown in the figure, it connects the wooden conduits to a few stacked stone masu. This large ishi masu showss the size of the mainline of waterworks in the Edo period and is reminiscent of the actual city facilities of the time.
The wooden conduits which were excavated with the ishi masu are on display at Chiyoda City's Hibiya Library & Museum.

Designated an Important Cultural Property (building) on June 7, 1961

Sakurada-mon Gate of Edo castle

桜田門 Currently called Sakurada-mon, this gate is officially named Sotosakurada- mon, soto meaning "outer" as opposed to the "Uchisakurada-mon" or "inner" Gate (Kikyo Gate) near the citadel. These gates were named Sakurada-mon because the area was called Sakkurada-go (town) in the past.
The Sotosakurada-mon Gate has a dual structure consisting of the Korai Gate on the outside and the Watariyagura Gate on the inside with a square in-between. It covers an exceptionally large area (approx. 1,056 m²) as highly defensive castle gate for the Nishinomaru (west compound). The Sotosakurada-mon Gate was originally built in the Kanei era (1624 to 1644), while the existing gate is based on a gae reconstructed in 1963. The gate was damaged by the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923 and repaired it.
On March 3, 1860, the Japanese Chief Minister Tairo Ii Naosuke was assassinated by a group of samurai who seceded the Mito-han feudal state outside of the Sotosakurada-mon Gate in an event known as the Sakuradamon Incident.

Industrial revolution (産業革命)


1837 Louis Auguste Blanqui firstly used this term → Arnold Toynbee used the term in his work = fixed to a scienific term
Past interpretation: the Industrial Revolusion independently occurred in each country →
Present interpretation: economic discrepancy (e.g., North-South issue) was issue in question, industrialization and economic takeoff
Background
18th century: England
capital accumulation by the woolen industry, etc.
  1. accumulaiton of capital induced by the woolen industry, etc.
    mechanization of spinning for cotton thread → mass production of high-quality cotton thread + steam engine improved by Watt as input in practical use
    early stage of industrial revolution
    → huge business investment was not required = confidence was more important than the accumulaiton of capital (stock)
  2. Labor force that has flowed into the city is disconnected from the agricultural land by the second enclosure
    First enclosure: leading to urban population influx deprives the rural employment
    Second enclosure: Introducing new technology → more labor force necessary → not generating the surplus labor force

    growing the populations in entire Europe

    Capital accumulation and population growth → common in Europe rather than only in UK
  3. supply of abundant feedstock trough trianglar trade on the Atlantic Ocean
  4. overseas market possible for commodity export = protection of demand and market
    occurrence of demand on woven cotton fabrics made in India → prohibition on the import of calico from any production regions
    = conservation measures of the industry of native woven cotton fabrics → breakthrough of native woven cotton fabrics
    + life revolution → dramatic increasing the demand of various industrial products
    → the formation of domestic market leading industrialization
(1)(2) [Past research] major factors of industrial revolution → [Recent research] not determinants (not important)
1760-early 19C First Industrial Revolution
Origination of Industrial revolution
technological innovation

industry by simple device (eg, factory-system handicraft industry) → industry-system, machine-driven industry using complex device and machine
→ mass production → the development of capitalism → extreme fluctuations of society and politics
cotton textile industry: solved by power loom invention → mechanization of the processes of weaving clothes delayed
→ the revolution propagated to iron manufacturing, transportation facilities, etc.

Cotton textile industry and slave trade
England: active cotton textile industry ↔ the industrial revolution started from cotton textile industry
17C: cotton made in India → popular

cotton requirekd for slave trade → barter cotton for slave

18C: cotton demand↑ →

invenstion and improvement machines to produce cotten that was cheaper than cotton made in India
→ the development costs supplied from the benefits of slave trade

Breadth of industrial revolution
England: capitalist-labor structrue = establishing capitalist society in the early stages →

aggravation of interest opposition between capitalists and labors

+ middle of 19C: workshop of the world = prosperity ↔

India became immiseration derived from bankrupt of textile trade, owing to the high dependence of raw cotton export rather than cotton porducts

→ Industrial revolution followd by France, Germany, USA, etc.

→ These countries colonized countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America to obtain cheap crude materials and to sell enormous amounts of goods

Japan (日本)

The development of light manufacturing based on the power sources of coal and steam engine

England (18C): spontaneity developed → follwed by
France and Germany (19C): controlled by the governments in their countries

Case England
The industrial revolusion occurred firstly in the world (the delay of industrial revolution in the other countries was induced by the fast development of industrial revolution in England - one opinion)
1760-1830 (the opinion is divided)
The fuel revolution (燃料革命) and the improvement of iron-making technology
→ the explosive consumption of wood coal → rapid deforestation
→ fuels changing from wood coal to pit coal = fuel revolution
iron-making process using coke mede of pit coal discovered by Darby A → the production of machines made of iron became easily
the development of power sources: coal mining (the treatments of ground water were obstacles)

1712 Newcomen T: steam-engined drain pump in practical use
1785 Watt J: success in chanigng from piston motion to circle motion on the energy of steam engine → the applications of steam engine

The improvements of weaving machine (loom) and spinning machine (spinner)

1733 Kay John: invented flying shuttle (飛び杼) that is a part of weaving machine → speeding up = productivity enhancement → cotton yarn shortage
1764 Hargreaves James: invented spinning jenny (ジェニー紡績機)
1769 Arkwright Richard, Sir: water frame (水力紡績機)
1779 Crompton Samuel: spinning mule (ミュール紡績機) → having the characteristics of both spinning jenny and water frame
1789 Cartwright Edmund: invented power loom of which power source was steam engine (improved from spinning mule)
→ rapid growth of productivity

Development of transportation capacity

1802 Trevithick Richard: invented steam locomotive called Penydarren
1807 Fulton Robert: invented commercially successful steamboat called Clermont
1814 George Stephenson George: improved steam locomotive invented by Trevithick

1865-1900 Second Industrial Revolution
the heavy industry developed by the power sources working with oil and motor
England
cotton production area = USA → after the autarky (economic independence) peformed by the American War of Independence (1775-1783) and the Civil War
→ supply center of raw cotton changed to India

Second Industrial Revolution in England was lead by overseas colonies for import of materials and export of artifacts
+ one more cause of second industrial revolution in England was that England won France the battle of obtaining overseas colonies
got worldwide hegemony on fiber industry
↔ delay of the development of the heavy chemical industry in late 19th Century
→ caught-up by Germany and USA

Factors
  1. new industry was not required because of the success in the light industry
  2. transformation to the heavy industry delayed becasue of the industry structure that was made by numerous minor businesses
  3. no governmental protective blanket, e.g., no customs, under liberalism (↔ protective blanket and industrial development promoted by Germany Government
→ customs requested for overseas products by English industrial arena
→ promoting reform of custom duty (central character, Chamberlain Neville
↔ the government had not adopted the custom duty because of the policy of liberal trade

possible to interpret that England depressed because of the liberal trade
one cause that the breakdown between the industrial capital and finance capital

→ a matter of life or death for the industrial capital

Small problem: England market occupied by manufactures made in Germany
Big problem: decline in German industries → non-salvageable capital

Ex. late 19 c-early 20 c: deficit balance of merchandise trade in total

black-ink balance: distribution service (marine transportation business) and insurance business, such as government bond and equity
→ black-ink balance in current account (that compensate the slackness of transportation and industry business)

England became an industrial nation at the first brush

high market share of light industry manufacture
↔ it does not mean the exclusion of the other countries

Factor

→ current-account surplus → compensating the slackness of manufacturing business on importation
different perspective: emerging potential demand by importing high-quality and high-price manufactures → market expansion → contributing the industrialization of newly-industrializing countries the had produced low-price and low-quality manufactures

Germany: industrial revolution, established by high economic domain occurring with the background of custom-duty alliance (often compared with England)
  1. expansion investment
  2. occurrence of monopolies
  3. innovation in technology based on scientific evidences
achievement of chemistry and military affair → becoming a major nation, as well as England
USA: industrial revolution due to the surge of industrial regions in northern USA induced by protective trade after the Civil War

big cities were developed in the western and eastern edges of broad continent → the boom of the construction of coast-to-coast railroads → developing industrialization
+ monopolies developed on each industrials
+ glory and envy to business people → attractive not only to interior but also abroad
→ major driver of development

Effects on societies
Social government affected by monopolist capitalists → market expansion for enlarging activities

re-realizing the importance of occupied territories as market
→ imperialism → the first world war

Mass production → price down
→ work under adverse environment + urbans falling into slum wino (+ hygiene issue)
generalizaiton of factory work induced by the industrial revolution → formation of laboring class

people in laboring class could not get the voting right even by the first amendment of election law
→ backlash → Chartism to get the voting right
→ birth of socialism (to improve the malady of capitalism)
1867: the second amendment of election law (Chartism failed)

laboring-class people in urban areas got the voting right

Urbanization
urbanization progressed by the concenetration of labors

newly-emerged social problems: foul living conditions, over-population, worsening security, etc.

Economic structure
Industrial revolution → development of capitalism → emergence of monopolist capital mixed with finance capital and industrial capital

monopolist capital → influenced the politics, because monopolist capital tried to expand the "market" with the government


The Opium War (阿片戦争)
1840-1842 The First Opium War

Qing (清, 1644-1912) vs British Empire
→ Treaty of Nanking (南京条約)

1856-1860 The Second Opium War

Qing vs British and Second French Empire (1852-1870)
→ Treaty of Tientsin (天津条約) and Treaty of Peking (北京条約)

World War I
1914-1918

The Balkan Peninsula = powder keg of Europe

⇒ 1920 established League of Nations
1917 Russian Revolution

February Revolution
October Revolution

Providence (プロビデンス号)

The British ship "Providence" Lands in Abuta
On September 15, 1796 (Aug. 14, 1796 of Kansei Calendar), the Her Majesty's Ship Providence, lead by the British explorer Capt. William Robert Broughton, arrived and anchored off Abuta (Irie).
Receiving an urgent message, the Matsumae Clan dispatched one of their clansmen but he was unable to communicate with the crewmen verbally. On September 26 (Aug. 25 of Kanssei Calendar), another clansman, who had experienced with receiving Russians, was dispatched, and inspected the ship, gave them permission to copy the chart of the northern Japanese islands and asked them to leave.
In the meantime, the crewmen of the Providence went ashore at the mouth of the Horonai River by boat, drew drinking water, cut firewood from Mt. Horonai-nupuri (Mountain of SHIMIZU) and returned to the ship.
The whole story is handed down throught the yukar oral epic told by Taneranke Toshima.
On September 29 (Aug. 28 of Kanei Calendar), the Providence moved to Cape Etomo, surveyed the port of Mororan (Muroran), and on October 1 (Aug. 30 of Kansei Calendar), set sail for Cape Esan.
Captain Broughton is remembered as the person who named Funka Bay (Uchiura Bay).

Locust Mounds at Teine-Yamaguchi

- Designated historic site of Sapporo -

locust hill The Ainu have passed down stories of "swarming of locusts" breaking out every few decades in Hokkaido, even before agriculture spread all over the island. The largest outbreak never recorded occurred in 1980 in the Tokachi district and spread to the Hidaka, Iburi, Shiribeshi, and Oshima districts, causing tremendous damage to agricultural crops through 1885.
These swarms consisted of Locusta migratoria migratoria which devastated the farmers who had just set about reclaiming the land.
The Meiji Government defrayed the expense of controlling the pest, about \50,000 a year, in order to keep the farmers, newcomers to Hokkaido, from abandoning all hope, and also to keep the locusts from migrating across the Tsugaru Straits to Honshu.
At first the Government adopted extermination methods used in the U.S., Europe, and the Middle East, which resulted in a number of locust mounds. Now, however, few of these mounds still exist.
The snady ridges found at Teine-Yamaguchi are examples of such locust mounds. It is assumed that an enormous amount of egg castings was collected within an 8 km radius of Sapporo and was laid in about 100 rows on the barren sandy ground, probably in 1883. Then, each row was covered with 25 cm or more of sand raked up from the sides of rows. In 1967, a part of this area was presented to the City of Sapporo by Tokyo Takuchi Ltd. and it is preserved here now. It was designated a historic site by the City of Sapporo on August 21 1978.

City of Sapporo
バッタ塚 (in side trip to see Zenibako Wind Power on November 18 2017)

Modern ages (現代)


The global economic crisis (世界恐慌)
1929-
1936-39 Spanish Civil War
1939-45 World War II (WWII or WW2, 第二次世界大戦)

1939.09.01 German invasion of Poland

1945 United Nation (HO, New York)
1949 People's Republic of China founded (= Mao Tse-tung, 毛沢東)

The government of the Republic of China escaped to Taiwan (= Chiang Kai-shek, 蒋介石)

1970 Muskie Act

European Union, EU (ヨーロッパ共同体)

1952 May 9: European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) → origin

the inner six: France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg (Benelux)
free trade on coal and steel, walfare

1958: European Economic Community, EEC (ヨーロッパ経済共同体)

free movement of persons and trades

1958: European Atomic Energy Community, Euratom (ヨーロッパ原子力共同体)

development and utilization of nuclear power in Europe

1967: EU → ECSC + EEC + Euratom → no economical barrier

12 countries = ECSC + Ireland, England, Denmark, Portugal + Spain

1992 European Union, EU

Security: security policy based on NATO
Diplomatic policy: unanimous vote on common diplomatic policies
Currency system: established European Central Bank, European currency (Euro)

→ expanded European Union

1995: 15 countries = 12 countries + Austria, Finland and Sweden
2002: 25 countries = 15 countries + Czech, Esthonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia

Present
28 member states for an economic and political union
Problems
authorization of each natio bicoming weak + difficulties in building a consensus among the nations = regional disparities
agriculture policy: agricultural protection → excess production = financial crisis

Global warming (地球温暖化)

100 years
CO2 concentrations over the past 1000 years recorded in ice core samples taken at D47, D57, and the siple base and the South Pole, and from CO2 concentrations recorded at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii since 1958. All ice core samples were collected in the Antarctica. The smooth curve shows 100 year moving average changes (IPCC 1995).
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