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Tree (木本植物)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily


evergreen tree, giant tree
Advanced course in environmental conservation. Plants and Plant communities in Japan

Morphological and taxonomical definition

a woody perennial plant usually with main trunk(s) which develop(s) branches
forest, life form, bark)


plants with one or more self-supporting, perennial woody stems that live for more than one year
Myrica gale vs Quercus glauca, both of the m are tree

rootanchors and absorbs nutrients from the soil
trunkgenerally straight and vertical, located between the root collar and the branches (stem)
branchsecondary woody stem arising from the trunk of a tree and bearing shoots
twigthe smallest division of a branch which bears the annual shoot
leaforgan in plants that has various forms (needles, scales, etc.) and that carries on photosynthesis, producing energy for life
flowerthe reproductive structure of plant consisting of the male and/or female parts

Plant trait database (TRY)

Basically for trees
  • Provide a global archive of plant traits
  • Promote trait-based approaches in ecology and biodiversity science
  • Support the design of a new generation of global vegetation models
  • phtosynthetic pathway
  • photosynthetic capacity
  • respiration
  • regeneration capacity
  • plant lifespan
  • growth form
  • leaf longevity
  • leaf area
  • specific leaf area (SLA)
  • phenology type
  • N fixing capacity
  • leaf N
  • leaf P
  • maximum plant height
  • wood density
  • seed mass

Evergreen tree (常緑樹)

Evergreen plant
A plant that has leaves in all seasons
Evergreen tree
A tree that is grouped into evergreen plant

needle-leaved evergreen tree, e.g., hemlock, and black spruce
broad-leaved evergreen tree

Leaves of broad-leaved evergreen trees

From left to right: Ternstroemia gymnanthera (Wight et Arn.) Sprague, Eurya japonica Thunb., Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc., Lithocarpus edulis (Makino) Nakai, Quercus acuta Thunb. ex Murray, Osmanthus fragrans Lour. var. aurantiacus Makino

Trees distributed in Hokkaido

These species could be seen in Hokkaido University Campus (*: transplantation)

Select trees, and explain why?

Sasa senanensis
Geum pentapetalum
Vaccinium oxycoccos
Salix reinii

Giant tree (巨木)

  • Japanese alder at Yachidamo Park (榛ノ木)
  • Japanese black pine at Daiganji Temple (黒松)
  • Japanese black pine at Hama-rikyu Gardens (300-Year Pine, 黒松)
  • Japanese lime at Tomamu skislope (科木)
  • Japanese yew at Takahashi Pass (一位)
  • Japanese zelkova at Inuzuka ()
  • Manchurian oak at Towa (水楢)
  • Manchurian oak at Zenko Temple (水楢)
  • Oriental planetree in the Koishikawa Botanical Garden (鈴懸ノ木)
  • Painted maple at Hokkaido University Campus (蝦夷板屋)
  • Round leaf holly conserved fro the memorial of the eruption of the volcano Sakurajima in Kagoshima City (黒鉄黐)
  • Sargent cherry at Zenko Temple (蝦夷山桜)
  • Yoshino cherry at Sophia Street (染井吉野)

Head-staking ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), 首賭けイチョウ

hby hby This large ginkgo tree stood at the Hibiya Approach (near the present Hibiya corssing) before Hibiya Park opened.
Around 1899, Dr. Seiroku Honda (the designer of Hibiya Park) was surprised to learn that this tree was to be felled due to the road expansion; he approached Toru Hoshi, Chairman of Tokyo Municipal Council, and it was agreed that the ginkgo tree should be transplanted.
The name derived from the successful move, which was thought to have been impossible. Dr. Honda had said, "I will have it transplanted even if my head is put on a stake.

Tulip tree in the Koishikawa Botanical Garden (Liriodendron tulipifera)

tulip tree tulip tree Liriodendron consists of two species, L. tulipifera L. and L. chinense (Hemsl.) Sarg., disjunctively distributed in North America and China, respectively. This tree was grown from seed received from USA in early Meiji Era and one of the oldest trees of this species in Japan.