(Upload on October 15 2016) [ 日本語 | English ]

Lens (レンズ)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

[ optics | microscope | camera ]

Optics (光学)

A branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it
The circle of least confusion (最小錯乱円)
circle circle

⌈ L1 × 90 = +0.75 × 90 ⌉
⌊ L2 × 180 = -3.25 × 180 ⌋

point X
Appearance of the image of point X on a screen parallel to the lens


Microscope (顕微鏡)

Instrument used to see objects that are too small for the naked eye
Optical microscope (光学顕微鏡)
Electron microscope (電子顕微鏡)

Transmission electron microscope (TEM, 透過型電子顕微鏡)
Scanning electron microscope (SEM, 走査型電子顕微鏡)

Ultramicroscope (限外顕微鏡)
Scanning probe microscope (SPM, 走査型プローブ顕微鏡)

Scanning tunneling microscope (STM, 走査型トンネル顕微鏡)
Atomic force microscope (AFM, 原子間力顕微鏡)

Fig. Types of microscopes

Fixation and dye (固定・染色)

Tracer (トレーサー)

substances making easy to trace the target substances, etc.
Methylene blue (メチレンブルー)
MB IUPAC name = 3,7-bis(dimethylamino)- 5-phenothiazinium chloride
stainin nucleus
insoluble in diethyl ether, soluble in water, alcohol such as ethanol, and chloroform
redox indicator (酸化還元指示薬)
Giemsa stain =
mixture of methylene blue and eosin ← staining red blood cell, platelet, etc.

Trypan blue (トリパンブルー)
diazo dye ← a vital stain used to selectively color dead tissues or cells blue
Evans blue (エバンスブルー)
Uranine (ウラニン)
Rose bengal (ローズベンガル)
Solution staining nucleolus
azur B (black stain), prorin (pink stain) ← staining RNA and histones = RNA
methylgreen: nucleoplasm staining violet = DNA

mixtures of azur B and methylgreen of which raito is depending on the objectives are used for cytobiological experiments

stain and fixative (固定染色剤)
acetocarmine (酢酸カーミン): staining nucleus and chromosome in red
acetic orcein (酢酸オルセイン): staining nucleus in red

Embedding (包埋)

Camera (カメラ)