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Nature in the eco-campus of Hokkaido University (エコパン)
Introduction to botany

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

[books for plant taxonomy, field equipment, field training, plot]

My turn

see Japanese site for detalis

Basic flow

  1. Ice break
  2. Measure tree sizes to understand CO2 flux [P Handout ]
    (wood density)
  3. Measure vegetation and the environments to understand the relationships between them (1)
    • light intensity
    • soil hardiness
  4. Measure vegetation and the environments to understand the relationships between them (2)
  5. Presentation on each group
130711 This program is closed in 2018 but has been taken over by "Course in environmental education. Scheme of terrestrial ecosystems (2013-)".

Nature in the campus (北大構内)

Sakushu-Kotoni River

Forest on the banks of the Sakushu-Kotoni River (森林)

Gobo This forest on the Sakushu-Kotoni riverside is somewhat wet and semi-natural. It is composed of native trees, e.g., Ulmus davidiana var. japonica and Morus australis, which are mixed with exotic tree species such as Acer negundo and Populus spp.

Gobo The herbaceous plants found at this site comprise native species such as Urtica plathyphylla, Cardiocrinum cordatum var. glehnii in addition to many invading exotic and escaped horticultural species, i.e., Aegopodium podagraria, Geranium robertianum, Arctium lappa, Symphytum × uplandicum.


Ono Pond (大野池)


This pond along the stretch of the Sakushu-Kotoni River was named after Porf. Kazuo Ono, of Faculty of Engineering, for his endeavor to maintain it. In ancient times, this pond was surrounded by tall trees, such as Ulmus davidiana var. japonica and Phellodendron amurensis entwined with Vitis coingnetiae, as well as shrubs such as Sambucus racemosa ssp. kamtschatica.
The herbaceous species observed in this area include Lysichiton camtschatcense in April and Nymphaea cv. plantings during July-August. Among the birds seen in this area area Parus palustris (throughout the whole year), Ficedula narcissina (during summer), and Anas platyrhynchos (from spring to fall).

Keiteki Wood (恵迪の森)

This site with the best preserved natural environment was once called "Genshi-rin" meaning primeval forest. Representatie tree species occurring here are Cercidiphyllum japonicum, Acer pictum ssp. mono, and Ulmus davidiana var. japonica. The herbaceous vegetation growing on the wood floor is characterized by Corydalis ambigua, Gagea lutea, Trillium camschatcense - the symbol mark of Hokkaido University, and Anemone flaccida.
The following birds can be commonly observed in this area: Parus palustris and Dendrocopos major all year round; Sturnus philippensis during summer, and Turdus naumanni during the winter monthds.


⇒ the forest structure recorded by belt transect in 1984
Summary: The present paper, based on a study made in 1988, examines the types of woods and trees on the Sapporo campus of Hokkaido University. These woods are important as remnants of pre-Meiji era (pre-development times of Hokkaido) forests and have a very important position as a large-scale green space in Sapporo, the largest city north of Tokyo.
1. Tree species except shrubs for garden greening comprised 30 families, 49 genera, and 92 species. The percentage of deciduous broad-leaved tree species on the campus was very high; 78.3%. The percentage of tree species introduced from foreign countries including deciduous trees was 31.5%. The percentage of spontaneous tree species was 50.0% of the broad-leaved trees found in Hokkaido, and 29.3% of the total species on the campus.
2. The number of individuals over 6 cm in DBH (diameter at breast height) was 6,670. The numerical proportion of major species individuals was as follows: Ulmus davidiana var. japonica 21.2%, Populus spp. (Poplar) 9..6%, Betula platyphylla var. japonica 9.4%, Taxus cuspidata 8.5%, Fraxinus mandshurica 5.1%. The percentage of spontaneous tree species was approximately 45 %.
3. The location and size of the tallest tree individuals are clarified in this paper and the tree-lined avenues are outlined.
4. The species composition and regeneration of 9 wood stands (Sl-S9) over 25 m × 25 m on the campus were investigated.
5. The physiognomy of woods on the campus has been changed by various anthropogenic agencies such as disturbance of surface soil, lowering of water level, felling, and decline of wooded areas. In order to preserve such large-scale remnant spaces in Sapporo, long-term, well-planned management of the environment should be carried out based on scientific research.

(Haruki et al. 1989 J/E)

Archeological site (遺跡庭園)

This site has somewhat wet forest composed of tall trees such as Alnus japonica and Fraxinus mandhurica var. japonica, low trees or shrubs such as Morus australis, and climbers like Euonymus fortune. In early spring, the forest floor is covered by many yellow flowers of Gagea lutea, but tall herbaceous Heracleum dulce and alien Rudbeckia laciniata growing in clumps are remarkable in summer.
Among the native birds, Parus palustris, Parus major, Sitta europaea, Dendrocopos major are seen throughout the year, whereas one can observe also Cyanoptila cyanomelana and Emberiza spodocephala during the summer time.


Model Burns area (モデルバーン)

The grove in this area has somewhat moist vegetation predominated by trees like Ulmus davidiana var. japonica, Fraxinus mandshurica var. japonica, and Juglans mandshurica var. cordiformis. In early spring, the forest floor is covered by many yellow flowers of Gagea lutea, but alien Ranunculus acris are remarkable in early summer.
Birds commonly found here all year around are: Parus palustris, Parus major, Sitta europaea, Parus varius, Dendrocopos major, etc. Also, Anas platyrhynchos is seen from spring to fall.


model burns

Trail of man sites (人類遺跡トレイル)

Satumon Potteries Originated from Haji Ware

Locality: Student Hall <Sarkuru-Kaikan>, K-39 site)
  • Period: Satsumon culture
  • Character: Settlement
  • Topographical setting: Floodplain along the right bank of Seronpetsu river
  • Archaeological features: Pit dwelling (3) and hearths (6)
  • Excavation: 1980
Potteries (around 8th Century) of the Early Satsumon originated from Haji ware of Tohoku district were discovered from this site.

Engraved pottery
Locality: <Keiteki-Ryou>, K-39 site (刻書土器)

  • Period: Satsumon culture
  • Character: Settlement and facility for fishing
  • Topographical setting: Floodplain at the junction of the Sakushu-Kotoni and Seronpetsu rivers
  • Archaeological features: Pit dwelling (5) and wooden stake row
  • Excavation: 1981 and 1982
Engraved dish, which as manufactured in Tohoku district, was discovered from this site. Wooden stake row, about 12 m long, constructed in the ancient riverbed of the Seronpetsu river was recovered here. This row was used as a facility for fishing.

Beads of glass and steatite (ガラス玉と滑石製平玉)

Locality: East of the row of poplar trees, K-39 site
  • Period: epi-Jomon culture
  • Character: cemetery
  • Topographical setting: floodplain along the right bank of the Sakushu-Kotoni river in its upper reaches
  • Archaeological features: pit burials (7) and hearths (2)
  • Excavation: 1984
Many potteries, recognized as Hokudai-I types (ca. 5th Century), and end scrapers made of obsidian were discovered from the area surrounding the pit burials. Three glass beads come from No. 1 pit burial. Nineteen beads made of steatite were discovered from No. 4 and No. 5 pit burials.

Burned Pit Dwelling (焼失住居跡)

Locality: Japanese Archery Training Hall (Kyudoujou), K-39 site
  • Period: Satsumon culture
  • Character: Settlement
  • Topographical setting: Gentle slope along left bank of the Sakushu-Kotoni river in its upper reaches
  • Archaeological features: Pit dwelling (1), dumps of charcoal (2)
  • Excavation: 2006
There is one pit dwelling (ca. 10th Century) belonging to the Middle Satsumon in this site. Carbonized woods that originated from roof and walls of house were unearthed here. Walnuts and other carbonized seeds were also found in this pit dwelling.

Kouhoku C2-D Type Potteries (後北C2-D式土器)

Locality: Student Gymnasium, Gakuseibu-Taikukan, K-39 site)
  • Period: Epi-Jomon culture
  • Character: Temporary camp
  • Topographical setting: Floodplain along the right bank of a tributary of the paleo-Kotoni river
  • Archaeological features: Hearths (4)
  • Excavation: 1986
Many of the Kouhokku C2-D type potteries were discovered at this location. Hearths have yielded lithic fragments produced while making the stone implements, and remnants of food such as the small pieces of faunal remains and the seeds of walnut and grape.

A 2000-yrs Old Camp Site (2000年前のキャンプ地)

(Locality: Guest-house <Gesuto-hausu>, K-39 site)
  • Period: Jomon culture and Epi-Jomon culture
  • Character: Temporary camp
  • Topographical setting: Floodplain along the right bank of the Sakushu-Kotoni river in its upper reaches
  • Archaeological feature: Hearths (3)
  • Excavation: 1994
In this location, there are three hearths associated with faunal and floral remains of the Epi-Jomon (around 2000-yrs BP). Faunal remains mainly consist consist of salmon, herring and deer. The seeds of hemp and walnut mainly represent the floral remains.

Preserved pit dwellings (Locallity: Stable <Baba>, K-435 site)

  • Perido: Epi-Jomon culture and Satsumon culture
  • Character: Temporary camp and settlement
  • Topographical setting: Floodplain along the right bank of a tributary of the paleo-Kotoni river
  • Archaeological feature: Hearths (6) of Epi-Jomon culture, and pit dwellings (8) of Satsumon culture
  • Excavation: 1998
Hearths (ca. 3rd Century) of the Late Epi-Jomon culture were excavated from the racing stable of the horsemanship section. Many pit dwellings of Satsumon culture have been confirmed to be present in this stable, and these are preserved in their original state.

From temporary camp to residential settlement

(Locality: Educational and Research Hall of Humanity and Social Science, K39 site)

  • Period: Jomon culture and Epi-Jomon culture
  • Character: Temporary camp and settlement
  • Topographical setting: River channel and floodplain along the right bank of the Sakushu-Kotoni river in its upper reaches
  • Archaeological features: Pit dwellings (12), hearths (128), pit burials (9)
  • Excavation: 2001 and 2002
This site was used as a temporary camp during the Final Jomon (about 2500 yr BP). On the other hand, it was used as a residential settlement during the Early Epi-Jomon (about 2000 yr BP). Flat disc-shaped beads made of amber were discovered from the cultural layer of the Epi-Jomon.

Unusually large size flue built in ancient cooking stove

Location: Reconstruction area of the Central Library, K39 Site
  • Period: Satsumon culture (c. 8th century)
  • Character: Habitation site
  • Topographical setting: along the left bank of the Sakushu-Kotoni Creek
  • Archaeological features: 1 pt dwelling
  • Excavation: 2009-2010
The coolking stove associated with unusually large size flue dting to the Early Satsumon culture (ca. 8th century) was found from the southeastern wall of the pit dwelling. The flue extending from the wall was probably covered and arranged with split timbers. The cooking stove and the flue have been reconstructed by the remarkable method (named 3D Relief-peels) for future exhitits inside.

Trail of architectural heritage (建築遺産トレイル)

(the former gatehouse of Sapporo Agicultural College)

Year of construction: 1904
Structure type: wooden
Designed by: Sapporo Branch of Construction Section of the Education Ministry
Constructor: Kiichiro Ohsima
This building was built as a gatehouse of Sapporo Agricultural College together with the former Front Gate that is actually the South Gate at present. Originally, it was located on the opposite sidee of the road, as pointed by the red circle on the photograph; and the inner wooden gate was built in front of the former structure. In the Taisho Era, it was moved to the present location and subjected to extension, while the inner gate was removed. Originally, the building was half of the present size. The decorations such as a crest on the gable roof and the scroll of brackets under eaves in the original building have been removed. Red gateposts and the white old gatehouse together give the the feeling of the atmosphere of the Sapporo Agriculture College days.

Furukawa Memorial Hall (古河講堂)

Forestry Lecture Room of the Agricultural College of Tohoku Imperial University
Year of construction: 1909
Structure type: wooden
Designed by: Sapporo Branch of Construction Section of the Education Ministry (Heishiro Niiyama)
Constructor: Shintaro Shinkai
Designation: National registered tangible cultural property, Sapporo-Furusato Bunka 100-sen (one of the Best 100 hometown cultural properties of Sapporo), Kitaku 88-sen (one of the Best 88 within the North Ward of Sapporo City)
Furukawa Sapporo Agricultural College was reorganized into Agricultural College of Tohoku Imperial University in 1907. This memorial hall, the preparatory course hall, the animal husbandry hall, etc. were built after that. These buildings were constructed using the money contributed by the Furukawa family as shown by the inscription on the front façade to the second floor.
This building has a symmetric design centered at the door porch, with mansard roofs on the right and left wings. The decoration of the above the window and the peculiar design of “Hayashi” (meaning the forest) on the ranma and the wainscot of the entrance give a delicate and mischievous appearance.


Main Building of Faculty of Agriculture (農学部本部)

Year of construction: 1935 (stage I), 1936 (stage II); extension: 1951-1960
Structure type: reinforced concrete
Designed by: Building and Repairs Section of the Hokkaido Imperial University (Junsei Hagiwara and Koki Okada)
Constructor: Okura Doboku Co. Ltd.
The wings located at both sides of the main building were originally designed to form the Chinese character "Kita" but were converted to squares after the extension of the building. The building was used as the headquarters of Imperial military during the special and grand maneuver immediately after its completion in 1936; and the third floor was used as the emperor's temporary abode, such as bedroom and dining room. The complex underwent renewal in 2008, while the main building at the center was preserved.

Practical room for meat product manufacturing, Faculty of Agriculture (Tannery Plant)

Year of construction: 1937
Structure type: brick
Designed by: Building and Repairs Section of the Hokkaido University
Animal husbandry was introduced into the curriculum of the Department of Agriculture in 1900, while the Stock Raising Section was set up in 1907. The meat product laboratory, a section of the Animal Husbandry Department, was established in 1937. Through research on meat and meat products, it laid the foundation for development of the meat industry in Hokkaido. The building shown here was built on December 9, 1937, while its attic was extended the following year. It was used from 1987 to 2009 as a leather factory. The clinker bricks, produced by burning at temperatures higher than those for ordinary bricks, are shown on the spandrel wall under the window. And, the upper part made of bricks is finished with mortar.

Former Reading and Stackroom of Sapporo Agricultural College

旧札幌農学校 図書館読書室・書庫
stack room Year of construction: 1902
Structure type: wooden (former reading room and former laboratory), brick (former stack room)
Designed by: Sapporo Branch of Construction Section of the Education Ministry (Seiichiro Chujo)
Constructor: Itoh & Company (Heiji Abe)
Designation: National registered cultural tangible property
This building was first constructed a year before the campus moved to present location, and subsequently extended several times. The Agricultural Chemistry Department located in the neighboring west was partially shifted to the frontal part of this building, and the old entrance door and the surrounding part were removed in 1952. The newly added part, the original T-shaped reading room, and the brick stack on the back are still intact. The original roof was covered by tiles. Light grayish red colored pilasters and frames on white wall accentuate the building. This building was used as the central library of Hokkaido University until 1965, and also as the library of Department of Agriculture until 1986.

Former Specimen Room of the Agriculture Department of Hokkaido Imperial University

Year of construction: 1927
Structure type: stone and reinforced concrete
Designed by: building and repairs section of Hokkaido Imperial University (Otoji Masutani)

specimen room The first Entomology Laboratory in Japan was opened in Sapporo Agricultural College in 1896. Professor Shonen Matsumura, who took charge of the laboratory, filed a petition for the construction of a specimen room over many years, and as a result, the construction of this fireproof building was materialized. This building has a stone wall while reinforced concrete is used in the floor and ceiling. The windows are equipped with fire shutters. In the past, it was connected with other facilities such as he lecture hall in the south and the insect breeding room. Dr. Matsumura, who stayed in the laboratory since his graduation of Sapporo Agricultural College in 1895 and became professor in 1902, was the person that laid the foundation of entomology in Japan.

Glassroom and wire net room for the crops
Glassroom and wire net room for the experiment on the effect of fertilizers

Year of construction: 1936
Structure type: iron frame and wooden
Disigned by: Building and Repairs Section of Hokkaido Imperial University (Tokichi Ochifuji and others)
Construction of two buildings, identical in shape, was completed within the experimental garden of Faculty of Agriculture on December 7, 1936. These buildings were used for theoretical research and practical exercises related to the common crops and the effect of fertilizers. The common crops studied were the general food crops produced in farm, such as rice, wheat, and the soybean. Beginning from the south, each of the buildings comprises a wire net room, a greenhouse (glass room), and a work room. The greenhouse for common crop studied is 5.4 m wide and 32.4 m long, whereasa the space for experiments on the effect of fertilizer has similar width but a length of 39.6 m.

The Hokkaido University Museum (Former Main Building of the Science Department

総合博物館 (旧理学部本館)
Year of construction: 1929
Structure type: reinforced concrete
Designed by: Building and Repairs Section of Hokkaido Imperial University (Atsumasa Hagiwara)
Constructor: Sanpei Ohboshi
One of the few large-scale reinforced concrete structures in Sapporo City, this building took 2 years for construction. The Romanesque style external appearance with scratched tiles is supplemented by an elaborate Gothic style design of the main entrance hall and the upper part of the central stair hall. The ribbed vault of the upper central stair hall is well known as “Einstein Dome”. In 1999, the building was re-opened as a comprehensive museum named the Hokkaido University Museum and its interior was repaired in 2001.

Wheat research monument (小麦研究記念碑)

Wheat genetics entered a fresh phase with SAKAMURA’s discovery (1918) that the species might have 14, 28 or 42 chromosomes (diploid) and with KIHARA’s work on the cytology of hybrids between species with different numbers of chromosomes. A.E. WATKINS. 1930

Main Building of the Administration Bureau (事務局本館)

(Former School Building of Preparatory Course of Hokkaido Imperial University)
Year of construction: 1935 (period I), 1937 (period II)
Structure type: reinforced concrete
Designed by: Building and Repairs Section, Hokkaido Imperial University
___________(Tohkichi Ochifuji, chief of the section)
Constructor: Higashiyama (period I), Okitsu & Company (period II)
Because of aging and deterioration of the former Building of Preparatory Course, this new building was reconstructed with reinforced concrete. The western part was built during the 1st period. After the Second World War, the building served as a school of the Law and Literature Faculty (established in 1947) and others, and since 1966 it has been used as the Administration Bureau. Exterior wall was finished with scratched face tiles same as those used in the main buildings of the Faculty of Science and the Faculty of Agriculture. However, the building has moderate decoration due to its construction during the war. The porch and eaves were attached to the main entrance in 1977



Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai (ハルニレ)

Hull elm donated by Mrs. Nitobe (新渡戸夫人寄贈のハルニレ)

This tree is called by the scientific name and by the name of Hull elm. Donated by Mrs. NITOBE Mary (Japanese name of Mari) they were planted in the spring of 1905.
Mrs. Nitobe was the daughter of the millionaire Elkington family in Philadelphia. The acquaintance between Inazo Nitobe, 24 years old, and Mary began while Nitobe went to the United States to study abroad. Nitobe finished 5 years of study in Germany and upon receiving a post at Sapporo Agricultural College, he and Mary married. Mary worked at "Enyuu Night school" with Nitobe for seven years in Sapporo. The two worked devotedly, establishing four schools, but returned for health reasons, to recuperate in California in 1897.
According to University Archives, after parting from Sapporo, upon the building of the Sapporo Agricultural College, Mrs. Nitobe donated 24 Hull elms, in fond memory of the students she dearly loved. Professor Ware Miyabe paid close attention to the planting of each of these elms as roadside trees. The five trees planted in the vicinity of main gate at that time, two in front of the Administration Building, and three facing south, are now approximately 100 years old.

"November 2002"

The Hull elm: of the elm family Acadamo Elm is the English name of the elm.
Prevalent throughout Japan, Sakhalin 1000 Islands, Korean peninsula, Northern China, Eastern Siberia, etc.
The large tree symbolizes the Northern Prefecture of Hokkaido and it blooms in the spring. The wood is a hard wood and is used for furniture floor material, etc.
Mary Mary
At the main gate of HU on February 17 2020.