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Information science (情報科学)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

An interdisciplinary field primarily concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval, movement, dissemination, and protection of information

with the aim of creating, replacing, improving, or understanding information systems
→ tightly related to computer science

Information (情報)

GIGO, garbage in garbage out

if the quality of data put into a computer is low, then the quality of the information produced from that data will be low

= the Big Four, Gang of Four or Four Horsemen
= Google + + Facebook + Apple

their effects promote the revolution of social systems

DX (digital transformation)

2004 Stolterman, Eric: proposed DX

Information technology and the good life

Extracting net information (ネット情報を取り出す)

Look up information on the W3 (W3で情報を見る)

Activate web browser on computer → display the configured initial screen
URL, uniform resource locator

Shiro TSUYUZAKI (露崎史朗)
(media) _____________________________________
⇑ First page shown by the web browser
Fig. The structure of URL. Page "Shiro TSUYUZAKI"

http = hypertext transfer protocol
https = hypertext transfer protocol secure: encrypted protocol

Network and protocol (ネットワークとプロトコル)

Request For Comments (RFC)

• Locate online RFC by number, title, or author
• Current protocol Standards (STD 1)
RFC Sources (with search capability):
• Information Sciences Institute (from US).
Search by number, title or keyword. Has a list with all RFC's with links by RFC number. Also serearch by category.
Note: PostScript files are ‘available’ WWW via anonumous ftp …

図1.13 RFC内容

Social data analysis (社会データ分析)

Social research

= field work, s.l. or social survey
= the study of social trends, dynamics and principles that exist between individuals and within societies
applying to psychology, sociology, anthropology, etc.
Usually comprising two key steps:
1) gathering data generated from social networking sites (or through social applications)
2) analysis of that data, in many cases requiring real-time (or near real-time) data analysis, measurements which understand and appropriately weigh factors such as influence, reach, and relevancy, an understanding of the context of the data being analyzed, and the inclusion of time horizon considerations.
1. Primary research: gathering (new) data through the creation of an experiment or study
2. Secondary research: analyzing and generating conclusions from data that already exists
3. Qualitative research: gathering information through non-numerical means, such as observation and interviews
4. Quantitative research: using numerical data to arrive at conclusions
Case studies (事例研究)
Focus groups (filtering)
Structured interviews
Longitudinal studies
Surveys and questionnaires
Statistical analysis, e.g.,

correlation studies
Delphi method (technique) or estimate-talk-estimate (ETE)

Triangulation method

Questionnaire (アンケート)

= enquete (French)
a set of written questions designed to gather (standardized) information
survey ⊃ questionnaire (アンケート)
Open and closed questionnaire formats
Open format: to collect exploratory information

exploring the range of possible topics arising from the research
understanding and generating hypotheses on a topic

Closed format (multiple choice): to acquire quantitative data

easy and quick to complete
ensures all respondents receive same stimuli
easy to record and analyze results quantitatively

Questionnaire design
  1. Identify the research aims and the goal of questionnaire
  2. Define the target respondents, e.g, longitudinal design or cross-sectional design
  3. Develop questions
  4. Choose your question type
  5. Design question sequence and overall layout
  6. Run a pilot

Interview (インタビュー)

Face-to-face interview: the interviewer works directly with the respondent to ask questions and record their responses

Group interview (focus group)
Telephone interviews
Internet interviews