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How to write reports (レポート様式)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

Exam · Report

A few pointers on reports and exams
Reports [ 00 | 01 | 02 | 09·08 | 10·11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | Excellent reports | Entrance exam ]

A few pointers for the submission

The basic rules for the submission of reports on my lectures.
  1. Keep the deadline.
  2. Write in Japanese or English. When the length limited option is available, keep it. In general, two Japanese letters are equivalent to one word in English, e.g., 400 Japanese letters = 200 English words
  3. Do not forget to indicate report title, name (often missed), affilitation, and studnet ID.
  4. The reports can be submitted by e-mail attachment (most preferable), printout, or handwriting. When you use word processor, the font size should be greater or equal to 12 pt. If you write by your hand, adopt such letter size.
    You shlould provide the reports made by plain text、Micro$oft Word or PDF, when you submit the reports by e-mail. You do not have to give me the printout. The subject on e-mail should indicate the title of lecture. I reply you the acceptance ASAP for the safety reasons. If you do not recieve any replies from me, please contact me.
If I deem that you make the following matter(s) in your report, I will not accept the report.
  1. finding out "copy and paste" of books, references and/or webpagess
  2. written by joint authors
  3. all the reports of which contents are identical


Environmental conservation (reports)

  • Select one paper that contains difference and/or constradiction with the paper as indicated above.


Students of which major is ecology
  1. Read the two reference papers (a and b) shown below.
    1. Walker LR, Wardle DA, Bardgett RD, Clarkson BD. 2010. The use of chronosequences in studies of ecological succession and soil development. Journal of Ecology 98: 725-736
    2. Johnson EA, Miyanishi K. 2008. Testing the assumptions of chronosequences in succession. Ecology Letters 11: 419-431
Students of which majors are not ecology
  1. Read the two reference papers shown below.。
    • Select two papers that are related to envorinmental conservation viewing from (somehow) ecology. The two papers should focus on the same or similar envorimental conservation issues but the conclusions are (somewhat) different.
All students
  1. Summarize each of the papers within 400 Japanese letters or 200 English words. When you summarize the papers, focus on the differences and/or contradictions in results and discussion between the two papers.
  2. Solve the differences and/or contradictions between them logically within 800 Japanese letters. To support your proposals, you should refer (a few) paper(s) written by the other authors. You should indicate the cited reference(s) based on the format of any scientific journal, because I may check the references if needed.


  1. Select one paper published after 2013 in the webpage. If you can not download the pdf, please let me know. I send it to you.
  2. Select one paper that contains difference and/or constradiction with the paper as indicated above.
  3. Summarize each of the papers within 400 Japanese letters or 200 English words. When you summarize the papers, focus on the differences and/or contradictions in results and discussion between the two papers.
  1. Solve the differences and/or contradictions between them logically within 800 Japanese letters. To support your proposals, you should refer (a few) paper(s) written by the other authors. You should indicate the cited reference(s) based on the format of any scientific journal, because I may check the references if needed.


In this term (second term, 2014), your scores are graded based on the reports. The reporting assignment is described below.

  1. Read the two reference papers shown below.
    • Titus JH, Bishop JG. 2014. Propagule limitation and competition with nitrogen-fixers limit conifer colonization during primary succession. Journal of Vegetation Science 25: 990-1003
    • Uesaka S, Tsuyuzaki S. 2004. Differential establishment and survival of species in deciduous and evergreen shrub patches and on bare ground, Mt. Koma, Hokkaido, Japan. Plant Ecology 175: 165-177
    If you can not download the pdfs, please let me know. I send it to you.
  1. Summarize each of the papers within 400 Japanese letters or 200 English words. When you summarize the papers, focus on the differences and/or contradictions in results and discussion between the two papers.
  2. Solve the differences and/or contradictions between them logically within 800 Japanese letters. To support your proposals, you should refer (a few) paper(s) written by the other authors. You should indicate the cited reference(s) based on the format of any scientific journal, because I may check the references if needed.


In this term (second term, 2013), your scores are graded based on the reports. The reporting assignment is described below.

  1. Read the reference paper shown below. If you can not download the pdf, please let me know. I send it to you.
  2. Summarize the paper within 400 Japanese letters (equivalent to 200 English words). When you summarize the paper, focus on why the restorations did not succeed well.
  3. Briefly propose a technique that improves the restorations.
  4. Explain logically why you propose the technique within 800 Japanese letters. To support your proposal, you should refer (a few) paper(s) written by the other authors. You should indicate the cited reference(s) based on the format of any scientific journal, because I may check the references if needed.


The reporting assignment is described below.

  1. Read the two reference papers (a) and (b), shown below.
    1. Fox JW. (in press) The intermediate disturbance hypothesis should be abandoned. TREE. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2012.08.014
    2. Mayor SJ, Cahill Jr JF, He F, Solymos P & Boutin S. 2012. Regional boreal biodiversity peaks at intermediate human disturbance. Nature Communications 3: 1142 | DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2145
    If you can not download these pdfs, please let me know. I send them to you.
  2. Summarize each of the two papers within 400 Japanese letters (equivalent to 200 English words). So the total is less than 800 letters. When you summarize the papers, consider the focuses for the following discussion.
  3. Summarize the conflict(s) between the two papers with less than 400 Japanese letters.
  4. Vote the paper that you conclude it is more plausible and supportable. Here, just write the author name(s).
  5. Explain logically why you advocate the paper within 800 Japanese letters. To support your conclusion(s), you are able to refer (a few) paper(s) written by the other authors. You should indicate the cited reference(s) based on the format of any scientific journal, because I may check the references if I need.


The score will be graded based on the results of reports described below.

All attendance must answer the relevant question.

Select question 1 or 2, and answer it.

Question 1

Submit your report that indicates the evidences on faults and corrects the faults, as follows.
Select one reference paper that I have published to write your report, and summarize the content where you will show the faults.
If you write your report in English, the other paper written by Tsuyuzaki after 2005 is acceptable.
Summarize a (few) paper(s), that you read, to demonstrate why the sentences summarized in #1 are inccorrect.
Show how the differences and/or conflicts are found between #1 and #2.
Conclude how the faults should be corrected.
Show the references you used in the tail end, followed by scientific format.

The number of references must be less than 4.
Do not include any figures and tables.
Reject the conclusion 'no faults'.

Question 2

Visit websites managed by Tsuyuzaki. Select a couple of pages that are related the this lecture (in the broad sense), and correct the mistakes. You may point out typographical and/or grammatical erros. However, grade will be higher if you point out logical errors.

Write the name of website(s).

Copy the part(s) that you want to correct.

Explain why that is incorrect.

Show the amendment.


How to write the term paper is explained in Japanese on that page, because all the students who take this course are Japanese in this term.


This year a few quizzes were provided every talk.


October 9 2001

1) Show an example of "ecotone" and explain why you think that is an ecotone. B
2) What plant community do you image if you were in Australia or Africa? Explain why do you say that is plant community.

October 16 2001

1) Find out one environmental gradient that determines plant community pattern. Explain how you consider that gradient affects the pattern.
2) Let's imagine you are now on a hot lava in Hawaii! What plants can you see? Explain why you think so. B

October 23 2001

Part 1.
Select one environmental factor that greatly influences plant community structure. Then, explain how large scale is the most related to the factor and why the scale is related to the factor. A
Part 2.
1) Let's find out a plant community that makes belowground competition more than aboveground competition! Explain why you think the belowground competition is heavier. B
2) Find out any herbivores in the field. How do they affect the plant growth?

October 30 2001

1) If you have not enough money, how do you create the most diverse ecosystem? A
2) Let' s find out the ecosystem that is regulated by 'intermediate hypothesis'. Explain what and how the factor regulates the ecosystem.

November 6 2001

1) How can you apply "diamond graph" on your research?
2) Show the case study on plant community damaged by human impact. Do you think if the natural revegetation is possible? Explain why?

November 13 2001

1) Cluster analysis is not used for community ecology only. Show one example of cluster analysis that is applied to analyze in the other research areas. Explain the results.
2) Tell the merits of cluster analysis by divisive method. Show the case study. B

November 20 2001

1) Report the difference between DCA (or CA) and PCA. Explain when we should apply PCA rather than DCA. B
2) Research the history of skislope development in the other prefectures, or countries. Summarize what problems are the common. Say your opinion on the problems.

November 27 2001

1) Ordination is often used for social science. Show one example of that. Then, explain how the result is.
2) Report any bug in software you are handling. How do you try to eliminate the bug?

December 4 2001

1) Show one example of GIS analysis. Explain why it is interesting for you.
2) Consider when you make a reservation area. Based on the island biogeography theory, please explain how you make it. B

December 11 2001

What is the largest disturbance in Hokkaido? Indicate one and explain why you think that is the largest. A

January 15 2002

1) What is 'biotope'? Is this a kind of 'restoration ecology'? Answer. Then, explain why you think so. B
2) How many exotic species do you see in the campus? List them up, as many as you can. Then, explain why they can establish there.

January 22 2002

Part 1.
Summarize the characteristics of primary succession, based on:
1) changes in life form spectra with time.
2) successional pace.
Part 2.
1) Let's find out more than five examples of long-lived seeds recorded previously using textbooks and/or papers! Show what characteristics are common to see the seeds.
2) Find out an area where the high seed mortality may occur. Show the example, and explain why the mortality is high and what species can survive in the area. B

January 29 2002

1. Consider the most abundant seedbank. Where do we find out it? Explain why you think so.
2. Point out three advantageous on the monitoring of long-term permanent plots. B
3. Let's find out nurse plants in coastal sand dunes, such as Ishikari Coast. Explain what species are the nurse plants and how they behave.
4. Summarize the relationships between plants and fungi. When and where we can observe the mutualism and parasitism, and why. A

How to write the paper for evaluation (2001)

Explained in Japanese
In the winter semester of 2001, a paper for evaluation is given to you instead of a writing examination, as follows:
1. Select "three" quizes that you answer.
2. Summrize the answers within one page for each quiz.
3. Indicate the references you read.
The challenge to answer the difficult quizes indicated by "A" (most difficult) and "B" (difficult) in quiz section will be scored higher.
Attention for exam in 2001
  1. The references should be indicated in the last paragraph of your paper.
  2. You are required to hand in your papers by ____.

How to write the paper for evaluation (2000)

In the winter of 2000, a paper for evaluation is given to you instead of a writing examination, as follows:
1. In the lecture, I did not introduce some items shown by "!" in the contents above. Select one item and summarize it based on a couple of references, i.e., scientific papers and/or textbooks.
The scientific papers must be originated from: Nature, Science, American Naturalist, Ecology, Ecological Applications, Ecological Monographs, Journal of Ecology, Journal of Applied Ecology, Journal of Vegetation Science, Plant Ecology, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, and Biological Conservation. (All of those journals have kept in the GSEES library.) Papers must be new!!! This means the papers must be published after 1995.
2. After the summary, write your opinion on the paper.
I have seen a few papars that express "I just agree all!!!" This kind of opinion is not scored. You should propose "constructive suggestion". There are no restrictions of number of pages. However, it is desirable and fine that the explanation should be concise and to the point.

More than five years have passed ... [ English exam ]

Postgraduate exam (院試)

Guidance for Online Entrance Exam (English)
The entrance exam will start at 16:00 on February 21st 2022 (JST) via zoom.
The procedure is:
1. Oral exam (interview) will be done for 30-45 min. (Caution: During the exam, you keep your PC camera (video) must be always on. Access to other applications and web site is perfectly prohibited.)

Connect to the zoom URL 5 to 10 minutes before the start (16:00).
You have 15 minutes for your presentation.
We have 15-30 minutes for Qs and As.

2. English exam (start just after the oral exam).
We send you the question sheet and answer sheet (on this e-mail), created by Microsoft Word. The files cannot be opened without the password.
At the start of English exam, firstly I give you the password to open the file.
Open the file by using the password. Then, start the test. You write your answers directly on the answer sheet(s) in the Word file by typewriting.
You have 45 minutes to answer the questions.
Immediately after the exam, you have to send the word file to me ().
Entrance exam for the DC examinees of Biodiversity Science Course, Division of Biosphere Science (English)
Answer all three questions shown below. Less than 150 words are preferable for each answer, although not strictly.
Q1. Introduce one of the important ecosystems in your possible research sites, viewing from "ecosystem services". Then, explain why that ecosystem has high values of ecosystem services. Do not use Bangladeshi or local names to explain the ecosystem.
Q2. Explain the history of the development of GIS and remote sensing (RS) from 1980s to the present shortly. Then, explain how we obtain normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) using GSI/RS.
Q3. Intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH) is one of the important concepts to make a plan of appropriate ecosystem conservation and restoration. Firstly, explain what IDH is. Then, propose how you apply this hypothesis to ecosystem conservation and restoration.

Ecology: Division "Be ambitious", Master Course (Aug 2021)

Question 6 Answer all the questions (1) to (3).
(1) Explain each of the five ecological terms (i) to (v).

(i) life history_______(ii) net primary productivity___(iii) food web
(iv) nitrogen fixation_ (v) greenhouse effect

(2) Answer the questions (a) to (c), based on the text.

(i)Sun tree forest develops in the late states of succession in regions where precipitation is plenty, and then the forest is replaced by (ii)shade tree forest in many cases. Shade tree forest is often fit into climax forest. (iii)Species diversity in climax forest is sometimes lower than that in seral communities.

(a) On the underlines (i) and (ii), show a representative tree species of each category.
(b) On the underlines (i) and (ii), explain why such succession occurs by using "light saturation", "respiration rate", and "photosynthetic active radiation". Underline these three words in the answer. (c) On the underline (iii), explain why such pattern occurs.

Ecology: Division "Be ambitious", Master Course (Aug 2020)

Written examination was not conducted.

Ecology: Division "Be ambitious", Master Course (Aug 2019)

Question 6 Answer all the questions (1) to (3).
(1) Explain or define each of the five ecological terms (i) to (v).

(i) assimilation efficiency__(ii) biological species___(iii) edge species
(iv) relaxation___________(vii) population

(2) Answer the questions (a) to (e), based on the figure and text.
Figure 1. Relative abundance data (in terms of cover) for plant species in old fields in 5 stages of abandonment in southern Illinois, USA.

Modified from Instant Notes in Ecology (2012)

A community can be characterized by its (i)diversity which is expressed as a (ii)function of species richness (the number of species) and of the evenness of species abundance. Communities in which the species are all more or less equal in abundance exhibit evenness, whereas communities with one or a few abundant species and many rare ones show[__(X)__].One way of demonstrating species richness and evenness is to plot the relative abundance of species against their rank order, as shown in the above figure. This yields either a (iii)straight line or a characteristically-shaped curve.
(a) Fill an appropriate word(s) in the blank (X).
(b) On the underline (i), explain why (i) is important for applying ecological service.
(c) On the underline (ii), show the representative index.
(d) On the underline (iii), explain any mechanisms that a straight line is fitted.
(e) Explain the characteristics of succession in the old fields after the abandonment, based on the figure.

Ecology: Division "Be ambitious", Master Course (Aug 2018)

Question 6 Answer all the questions (1) and (3).
(1) Explain or define each of the five ecological terms (i) to (v).

(i) soil, (ii) litter, (iii) C3 plant, iv) β-diversity, (v) keystone species

(2) Answer the questions (a) to (f), based on the text.

In a late-[___(X)___] community such as a forest, dominated by (i)K-selected species, disturbance opens up gaps that are colonized by (ii)pioneer species. These are later (iii)replaced by other species. Species richness in the gap is (iv)initially low, reaching a peak in mid-stage and falling by climax species takes place.
In fresh gaps, regrowth occurs from three sources: [___(Y)___], plants established prior to gap formation and the growth of branches of trees on the gap periphery. Larger gaps remain open sufficiently long for (v)buried seeds to germinate and contribute to the gap community.

Modified from Instant Notes in Ecology (2012)

(a) Fill an appropriate word(s) in each of the blanks (X) and (Y).
(b) On the underline (i), show the opposite term and then explain why (i) are dominant.
(c) On the underline (ii), show the three characteristics.
(d) Explain the mechanisms of underline (iii) by using "resource ratio hypothesis".
(e) On the underline (iv), explain why we see this fluctuation pattern of species richness.
(f) The underline (v) can be classified into two types: persistent and transient. Explain which one is more important for ecosystem recovery after disturbances and why it is more important.

Ecology: Division "Be ambitious", Master Course (Aug 2017)

Question 6 Answer all the questions (1) to (3).
(1) Explain each of the five ecological terms (i) to (v).

(i) founder effect, (ii) carrying capacity, (iii) biome, (iv) trade-off, (v) bioremediation

(2) Answer the questions (a) to (e), based on the table and text.

Table The results of succession for 320 years after a catastrophic disturbance, confirmed by permanent plots in a given area

      Years since disturbance       5  10  20  40  80  160  320
      Number of species             5  12  18  24  20   18   18
      Number of immigrated species  5   9   8  12   2    3    1
      Number of lost species        0   2   2   6   6    5    1

The community is an assemblage of species populations that occur together in the same place at the same time. The community is characterized by the diversity. The diversity is classified into three types, (i)α, β, γ-diversities, based on the spatial scale and depends on species richness and on the (___X___) of species abundance. Complexity increases as the number of interacting species in the community increases. In the most of succession, (ii)α-diversity (number of species in this case) fluctuates as shown in the table. Community stability involves two components: (___Y___) and resistance. However, (iii)it has been controversial if the complexity increases the stability.

(a) Fill an appropriate word in each of the blanks (X) and (Y).
(b) On the underline (i), α-diversity means the diversity of species within a habitat or community. In an analogous way, explain β-and γ-diversities. Then, explain the relationships between these three types of diversities.
(c) On the underline (ii) and table, explain the mechanisms.
(d) On the underline (iii), explain the reason(s).
(e) On the table, explain the common characteristics of species observed only in the early stages of succession based on resource ratio hypothesis. Also, explain the common characteristics of species observed only in the late stages of succession based on r-K strategy.

Ecology: Division "Be ambitious", Master Course (Aug 2016)

Question 1. Answer the questions (1) and (2).
(1) Answer the questions (A) and (B).
(A) Describe each of the five ecological terms (i) to (v).

(i) negative density effect, (ii) interspecific competition, (iii) landscape, (iv) keystone species, (v) biomass <,/p> (B) Answer the questions (a) to (e), based on the figure and text.

Fig. Grime’s triangle

Grime classifies plant species into three types based on (i)disturbance and stress. These types are: (C) competitors that establish on (ii)habitats with low stresses and weak disturbances, (R) ruderals that establish on habitats with low stresses and severe disturbances, and (S) stress-tolerators that establish on habitats with high stresses and (___X___) disturbances. The relationships of (iii)productivities between these types are shown by the above figure. This graph can be applied to (___Y___). When the nutrients increase from the pioneer to climax stages, the replacements of species types are shown by the arrow drawn in the figure. By the same token, we can predict (iv)the case that soil nutrients are abundant.

(a) Fill an appropriate word in each of the blanks (X) and (Y).
(b) On the underline (i), explain the mechanisms of ecosystem maintenance after a forest fire with using a concrete example.
(c) How do we call conservation and restoration by the construction of underlined (ii) that saves endangered species, etc?
(d) On the underline (iii), define "net biome productivity".
(e) Show the arrow that predicts the underline (iv) with writing Grime’s triangle on your answer sheet by freehand drawing.

Ecology: Division "Be ambitious", Master Course (Aug 2015)

Question 1. Answer the questions (1) and (2).
(1) Answer the questions (A) and (B).
(A) Describe each of the five ecological terms (i) to (v).

(i) ecological niche, (ii) intra-specific competition, (iii) acclimation, (iv) boreal forest, (v) Raunkier’s life form

(B) Answer the questions (i) to (iv), based on the figures (a) to (e) and text.
Fig. Layout methods in setting up a nature reserve. Black areas indicate the nature reserves.
(i)Number of species (species richness) increases generally with increasing the area of habitats, although the species richness is influenced not only by the area of habitats but also by the shape. Therefore, it is common that the nature reserve (b) supports more species than the nature reserve (a). However, area is not the only important item for the design of nature reserves. For instance, (ii)the nature reserve (c) has the same sum total area of nature reserves with that of nature reserve (d) but shows different species richness in the reserves. As well, (iii)the species richness is different between the nature reserves (d) and (e). In particular, the selection of single large nature reserve, as shown in the reserve (b), or several small nature reserves, as shown in the reserve (e), had been controversial. This issue is called as (iv)SLOSS (a single large or several small). Nowadays, it is concluded that the suitable design of nature reserves is dependent on the objectives of nature reserves.

(Source: Key Notes in Ecology 2001, slightly modified).

(i) Write the relational equation between S (number of species) and A (area).
(ii) Which does higher species richness show, the reserve (c) or (d)? Explain the reasons of selection.
(iii) Which nature reserve shows higher species richness, the reserve (d) or (e)? Explain the reasons of selection.
(iv) Explain what cases we should apply the design (b) and what cases we should apply the design (e).

Ecology: Division "Be ambitious", Master Course (Aug 2014)

Question 1. Answer the questions (1) and (2).
(1) Answer the questions (A) and (B).
(A) Describe each of the five ecological terms (i) to (v).

(i) biomagnification
(ii) climax
(iii) guild
(iv) net primary production
(v) seed bank

(B) Answer the questions (i) to (iv) based on the text.
Because the volcanism became extremely high under the sea near (i)Iceland (N63°) in 1963, a newly-emerged island, of which area was more than 3,000 ha, was born. The volcanism ceased on the island by 1967. (ii)Plants had already established on the island in 1965 before the volcanism terminated. Although number of plant species is increasing until now, (iii)the number will not increase and have peaked in time. After nest building by birds was confirmed in 2003, (iv)the plant community structure altered drastically through various bird activities.
(i) Mark down one of the major terrestrial biomes. Then, describe the characteristics of climate, lifeform, diversity and productivity in the biome.
(ii) Show one taxon or species group and explain why the taxon or group establishes.
(iii) Explain why such a pattern occurs based on the theory of island biogeography. Set "immigration rate" and "extinction rate" in the answer.
(iv) Show the two reasons, and explain each of them.

Ecology: Division "Be ambitious", Master Course (Feb 2014)

Question 1. Answer the following questions (1) to (3).
(1) Define the two words shown in each of the four lines (a) to (d). Note that the differences between the two words should be clarified.

(a) ecosystem, biome
(b) acclimation, adaptation
(c) exotic species, invasive specie
s (d) keystone species, umbrella species

(2) Answer the following questions with reading the sentences.
Consider succession on lavas in temperate regions where the precipitation is plenty. The bareground is covered with mosses and lichens soon after the disturbance, and then a grassland develops(i). Thereafter, the successional stages from young to old ages are ordered as: grassland, shrubland, sun-tree forest, and shade-tree forest(ii). However, such successional sere is not found in steppe(iii) and desert(iv).

(a) Explain the mechanisms of succession underlined as (i), using all the five words shown below. Underline the five words written in the answer sheet.

"seed dispersal, pioneer, soil nutrients, diversity"

(b) Explain the mechanisms of succession underlined as (ii), using all the five words shown below. Underline the five words written in the answer sheet.

"Climax species, interspecific competition, shade tolerance, diversity"

(c) Explain the characteristics of the word underlined as (iii), based on landscape, productivity, and environments.
(d) Areas underlined as (iv) are often dominated by annuals. Explain the reasons.

(3) Answer the following questions, based on the sentences and figures.
When mycorrhizal fungi grow on and/or in the roots of plants, the fungi and plants get benefits to each other that are called as [____(a)____]. Mycorrhizal fungi are classified into endomycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungi. The former fungi contribute more to the absorption of phosphorus, and the latter do more to the absorption of [____(b)____]. Three experiments shown in Figs. 1-3 were conducted to understand the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that is one of the endomycorrhizal fungi on plants.
Fig. 1. The effects of AMF on plant shoot biomass. Fig. 2. The effects of AMF on soil phosphorus concentration. Fig. 3. The effects of AMF on total plant phosphorus content. In the figures, the symbols indicate mean and vertical bars standard error. The lines show significant regressions. (Modified after van der Heijden et al. 1998)

(a) Fill in the boxes (a) and (b) by appropriate words.
(b) Explain the most plausible mechanisms of plant growth, by combining with the results of the respective experiments well.

Env.Sci: Division "Be ambitious", Master Course (Aug 2013)

Question 1.Answer the questions (1) to (5), based on the following sentences.
(i)Biodiversity has been obviously decreasing. The direct factors of decreasing biodiversity is summarized into four categories: the first crisis owing to human activities including landuse, the second crisis occurring in (ii)satoyama (village forest), the third crisis induced by (iii)exotic species and chemical substances, and the forth crisis is so-called as "the crisis of (iv)global warming" by increasing greenhouse effect gas. We are now finding out ways out of global warming, by promoting (v)afforestation and other efforts.
(1) On the underlined term (i), write the three levels.
(2) On the underlined section (ii), explain why the high biodiversity was maintained.
(3) On the underlined section (iii), show each of the animals and plants on Japanese river reservations in English, Japanese or scientific names.
(4) On the underlined section (iv), the effect is conspicuous in the alpine zones of terrestrial regions. Explain the reason(s).
(5) On the underlined section (v), it has the effects of weakening global warming. In addition, it is expected that biodiversity is conserved. Show an example of the effects, and explain the reason(s).

Ecology: Division "Be ambitious", Master Course (Aug 2013)

Question 1. Answer the questions (1) and (2).
(1) Describe each of the five ecological words (a) to (e).

(a) life table
(b) density dependence
(c) competitive exclusion rule
(d) ecotone
(e) acid rain

(2) Answer the questions (a) to (c) related to ecological succession, based on the figure.

Fig 1.Pattern diagram on xeric primary succession in temperate and cool temperate regions.

(a) Explain why seed plants do not establish on bareground in the early stages of succession.
(b) Explain the mechanisms of successional changes from sun-tree forest to shade-tree forest.
(c) There are three hypotheses on succession – facilitation, inhibition and tolerance. Select one hypothesis that explains most on the successional sere shown in Figure 1. Explain why you select the hypothesis.

Ecology: Division "Be ambitious", Master Course (Aug 2012)

Question 1. Answer the questions (1) and (2).
(1) Describe each of the five ecological words (a) to (e).

(a) fitness
(b) field capacity
(c) temperature coefficient (Q10)
(d) rhizosphere
(e) allelopathy

(2) Dr. Gause observed the fluctuations of numbers of individuals on two Paramecium species in an aquarium as shown in the figure below. A single feed was supplied into the aquarium sufficiently during the experiment. Answer the questions (a) to (c), based on the figure.

Fig 1.Daily fluctuations of numbers of individuals on two Paramecium species, P. aurelia and P. caudatum (Gause 1934).

(a) The two species increased the numbers of individuals from 5th to 8th days. Explain why the increases occurred.
(b) P. caudatum decreased the number of individuals after 8th day, and finally became extinct. Explain ‘Gause’s law’ based on these results.
(c) There have been few reports that the patterns of population dynamics in the nature are interpreted by Gause’s law. Explain the reason(s).

Ecology: Division "Be ambitious", Master Course (Mar 2012)

Question 2. Read the following text, and answer the questions (1) to (8).
It is questionable that (i)ecosystem (ii)diversity is expressed by (iii)an indicator, such as diversity index, when ecosystem conservation is studied. The following species are considered to contribute the conservation of biological diversity directly through the conservation of the species.
  1. Ecological indicator species: Species that represents the functional group of the specific habitats and environments. For example, roundleaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) is the indicator species of (iv)bog.
  2. __________(a): Key species to maintain the community. If the species is lost from the community, the community is not persistent. (v)Elephant in African (vi)savanna is such species.
  3. __________(b): Species that requires a large area for the inhabitation. When the species is conserved, many other species are resultantly assured to be conserved.
  4. Flagship species: Species that is chosen for attractiveness and/or distinctiveness to conserve the specific habitats for the public at large.
  5. (vii)Vulnerable species: Species that is categorized into be in rare and/or endangered stages. By conserving the favorable ecosystem for the species, the habitats for many species are provided. Conservation International has assigned Japan to one of the __________(c) in 2005, because of many vulnerable species.
  1. Fill in the blanks (a) to (c) using the most suitable word.
  2. Define the underlined portion (i).
  3. On the underlined portion (ii), the diversity is often classified into three types: α, β, and γ diversity. Explain each of the three diversity types in around three lines.
  4. On the underlined portion (iii), explain the reasons in around three lines.
  5. On the underlined portion (iv), explain the characteristics of environments and floras in bog as compared with these in fen in around five lines.
  6. On the underlined portion (v), how does the ecosystem change when the species is removed? Explain the predicted changes in around four lines.
  7. On the underlined portion (vi), explain the characteristics and productivity of the ecosystem in around four lines.
  8. The method to select species shown by the underlined portion (vii), population vulnerability analysis (PVA) may be applied. Explain the basic principle of PVA in around 6 lines.

Botany 455

First Midterm Study Guide

1. Definitions - You will be asked to define or demonstrate your understanding of many of the following terms: ecotone, vegetation zone, azonal vegetation, corridor, patches (disturbance, remnant, resource, regenerated, etc.), climax community, individualistic hypothesis, climax climax hypothesis, indicator species, Grime strategies (ruderal, competitive, stress-tolerant), edge effect.
2. Critique this statement: Climax communities in the forests of western Washington are rare or absent. Is it true or false? Support your answer.
3. You have information available to you in several places concerning the locations and characteristics of several vegetation zones. For any two zones observed thus far during this course, you may be asked to complete a table or questionnaire that could include such information as: typical associated canopy, shrub and ground layer species, geographic locations, environmental requirements (precipitation, temperature, snow, etc.), and typical associations.
4. You may be asked to provide examples of species we have observed that indicate particular extremes of environmental conditions. Such conditions might include: temperature (hot or cold), moisture (wet or dry in particular locations), salinity, or soil pH. We may also ask you to identify species that might indicate particular disturbance regimes (e.g., over-grazing, fire, logging, trampling, etc.).
5. The biota of a particular location is determined by many factors. One less-appreciated factor pertains to patch qualities. Several patch qualities may be listed and you will be asked to comment on how that factor influences the number of species or some other aspect of diversity in the patch. Such patch qualities include: patch size, shape (ration of edge to area), number of similar patches in a landscape, degree of patch isolation, level of patch resources, condition of patch ecotone, age of patch etc.
6. You may be asked to draw, label or discuss a Grimean triangle. You may be asked to place either species or associations within such a triangle.
7. You should understand the geographic and environmental relationship among the tree species of western Washington.
8. We may provide you with a graph showing the distribution of species vs. some environmental gradient and ask that you answer questions concerning the graph.
9. Place associations from one side of the Cascades into their proper relative position on a mosaic chart, that is with respect to both moisture and elevation (temperature-growing season).
10. Many factors control species richness (see Q.5). Explain how each of the following may control the number of species in a habitat: habitat diversity, resource abundance, disturbance, patch size and age, patch isolation, patch shape, and ecotone qualities.
11. Most vegetation in our region is dominated by trees. Describe at least four types of vegetation in our area dominated by shrubs and four more dominated by herbs. Briefly suggest the reasons for these departures and whether the condition will persist through time. 12. We will provide you with groups of several species that you have seen and ask you to arrange each group in several ways. For example, we might list several ferns and ask you to rank them in order of drought stress. We might list several common understory species and make the same request.
13. Contrast the views of Clements and Gleason with respect to the degree of community overlap, the degree of coevolution and the role of competition.
14. Suggest a particular Washington plant community that would occur near each of the apices of a Grimean triangle.

Second Midterm Study Guide

1. A new super weed appears from outer space to terrorize human kind. What might its five most important characteristics be? List five (5) weed species that are extremely nasty in western Washington and stage why.

List five ways in which weeds in general can be useful and for each use list two species that are so used.
What biological characteristics would you expect to find in species growing in a habitat of high productivity and chronic disturbance? What do we usually call such a plant? What other name might apply to such a plant?

2. Arrange a given set of shrubs (herbs, weeds) along a moisture (temperature) gradient.
3. Be prepared to discuss why a given species occupies a significantly different portion of the available landscape in different parts of its geographic range. Examples of such species include Arbutus, Abies grandis, and Tsuga heterophylla. You should come up with several others.
4. Be prepared to locate specific plant associations with respect to one another in relationship to the environment. For example, you may be asked to diagram the distribution of common associations that we will name on a mosaic diagram.
5. You should know what a weighted average is and suggest ways in which the concept is used. You'll probably be asked to calculate a weighted average, given some sample data.
6. For common species (those demonstrated in lab), you should be able to indicate those zones where the species typically occurs and additional zones in which it would not be unexpected. It is likely that such a question will be a matching type.
7. Discuss at least six ways in which a landscape is influenced so that succession does not result in climax communities similar to what occurred prior to European settlement. 8. What is a rationale for identifying plant associations and for constructing keys to these associations? What are some problems associated with such keys?
9. Discuss the method of naming plant associations. In particular, from looking at the array of associations on a mosaic diagram, why might you sometimes get the mistaken notion that a species has a bimodal distribution? If associations are meant to reflect close fits to the environment, what would be the ideal type of species to use to name an association?
10. Your pasture is infested with a single noxious weed. List 5 strategies or techniques you might use. Discuss why some these would be ineffective if you had a mixture of several noxious weeds.
11. Describe three mechanisms of succession. In particular, what does each predict will be the mechanism of species replacement. Also, contrast the initial floristic composition model with the relay model of succession.
12. Early succession is affected by several factors. Be prepared to discuss how each of the following might influence succession: disturbance size, intensity and frequency, degree of isolation, habitat stress, residual species.
13. Describe what is meant by: arrested succession, accelerated succession and deflected succession. What factors might militate against several successions in the same area converging to a similar vegetation type (association)?
14. Indicators may be of several sorts. These include taxonomic (species, genera, families, etc.), strategies (ala Grime), and growth-forms. You should have a good working definition of each type and be prepared to suggest the virtues and short-comings of each. For example, growth-forms are very useful if little is known about the flora, but cannot be used on a fine scale.
15. List the categories of a simple descriptive classification of growth forms and compare to a functional classification. What are the fundamental differences in the intentions of these two approaches? What are the implications for using either of these systems for interpreting the landscape.

Second Midterm - Autumn 1992 (in part)

3. List 4 actions that you could take to increase the rate at which a vacant lot could be improved into a natural area. Do not include such factors as picking up the discarded bottles or washing machines.
4. Define each term, then state how each may best be used and what is its major drawback. (12 pts).

a. Taxonomic Indicator: Best Use: _____Major Drawback:
b. Strategy Indicator: Best Use: _______ Major Drawback:
c. Growth-form Indicator: Best Use: ___ Major Drawback:

Lab Final, Study Guide Autumn 1992

1. You should know the main wetland systems and the major classes within each system. For each class of palustrine wetlands, what are some common associations and dominant species?
2. List three non-seral shrub-dominated associations found in western Washington. For each, list the dominant species and indicate the environmental conditions controlling the vegetation.
3. You could be asked to fill in the mosaic chart. High-elevation associations and forest types are examples.
4. There will be about 20 species in an identification quiz. For each, you could be asked any or all of the following questions: name one or more associates; which zone; name an association; what is indicator value; what are its uses?
5. You could be asked to fill in a table with species that indicate particular conditions.
6. I could list some associations, then ask for typical species found in the association, other than those named.

Study guide -- Final examination, Autumn Quarter 1992

Note: any subject covered on earlier guides are fair game for this exam. The final will concentrate on material from the last third of the course and on synthesis among aspects of the course.
1. List the values of particular types of wetlands, being sure to make a clear distinction between estuarine and interior fresh water wetlands.
2. Define these wetland terms: marsh, swamp, bog, meadow, mudflat, persistent emergent class, scrub-shrub class, forested class, etc.
3. You should be able to diagram or draw profile diagrams from open water to the uplands in either estuaries or fresh water systems and to name characteristic species.
4. In determining whether or not a site is a wetland, emphasis is placed on the "indicator" value of a species. First, what are the five indicator categories of the Fish & Wildlife service and how are they defined? Second, critique this concept, possibly with reference to the Klinka method.
5. You have the opportunity to reserve 10% of a large watershed from commercial logging for the purposes of preserving biotic diversity. How would you select the site, or sites? Consider both plants and animals in your answers. You should consider diversity, and answer such questions as the number, size and shape of reserves, the nature of ecotones and the availability of corridors (refer to SLOSS notes).
6. You should know the definition of these biogeographic terms: equilibrium, extinction, colonization, relaxation, disharmony, barrier, corridor.
7. A. Explain a) what is the species-area curve and b) why you should expect it to be an increasing function. Will it always be a smooth curve? Explain.
__B. You should be able to draw colonization/extinction curves and predict the relative equilibrium value for different kinds of islands, barriers, and species.
8. Why are there so many rare species in Hawaii? Why is the flora disharmonious there?
9. From a list of "islands" you could be asked to explain why the habitat is considered to be an island. (For example, an oak tree is an island if you are an oak leaf miner.) You could be ask to discuss ways in which it differs from a "real" island.
10. What is the "humpback model" of JP Grime? How can knowledge of the standing crop of a site relative to similar sites in the area be useful in management? If you know the relative standing crop and the nature of the curve for your type of vegetation, what management tactics could you apply to increase or decrease diversity? What problems might you face?
11. How might you go about converting a small vacant lot into a small park? Assume that you have 2 years for study, site analysis and installing plants, but that funds are very limited. 12. What is naturalistic landscape creation? What advantages might this approach have over traditional methods? What might be some drawbacks in our region?
13. Form a plant perspective, what is environmental stress? Explain several indices that measure aspects of stress. When a system has been under some type of stress for a long time, then the stress is terminated, what might happen to the system? You should consider the nature of resilience, landscape factors that might affect recovery, changes to the habitat that have resulted from the stress, etc. Do you think that diversity, per se, is a good index of stress when dealing with land plant communities? Explain.
14. Discuss the differences between persistence, resistance and resilience. Model these three system properties as richness vs time, given disturbances of varied intensity and in a Grimean triangle.
15. Discuss the ways in which vegetation might respond to global warming. What are some major constraints on the ability of species to cope with such changes?
16. List several distinctly different non-seral shrub-dominated community types and several herb-dominated community types. For each, state the environmental factor or factors that permit these growth-forms to dominate and to persist.
17. I may prepare two lists: canopy dominants and understory species dominants. You would be asked to match the lists and to place the associations on a mosaic diagram.
18. Distinguish between subalpine and alpine meadows. For each, describe three major associations. You may be given several associations and asked to characterize them in terms of growth form and to organize them along one or more environmental gradients.
19. I might provide you with a mosaic diagram in which the axes are not labeled and ask you to provide interpret the gradients implied by the locations of the plant associations.
20. Give some examples of arrested succession and discuss the mechanisms.
21. A city lot is undergoing succession. Your goal is to reestablish a forest community. Under each of the following (example) conditions, what would you do? a) succession has been arrested by strong dominance of an exotic shrub such as Scot’s bloom; b) there are serious barriers to immigration; c) soils have become compacted over the years; d) all of the above. Assess the nature of the succession if left alone, then determine if you will be accelerating, deflecting, or correcting the succession tract. Give brief examples of your tactics.
22. Name some stochastic events and give examples about how they might alter succession.
23. Contrast facilitation with inhibition as succession mechanisms. What does each predict concerning the order and structure of succession? Are these concepts mutually exclusive?
24. List five major factors or processes that would produce a plant association distinct from the climatic climax type in lowland Puget Sound.
25. List 5 (five) factors that have influenced the landscape of Central Whidbey Island.
26. The indicator species concept can be extended to higher taxa. In general, what might each of these taxa indicate in our region: Orchidaceae; Asteraceae; Poaceae; Carex; Vaccinium, shrub Rosaceae; Ericaceae. For each group, name a species that is an exception to the general rule.
27. For each of conditions listed, list several excellent indicators for low, medium and high levels of the condition: soil moisture, soil pH, salinity, grazing, trampling, nutrients, light, fire, and bioclimatic zone. List other conditions that could be inferred from species present on a site.
28. You may well be asked to write a question that does not significantly overlap any question on the test, then outline your answer. The question will be assessed for degree of difficulty, and the answer graded for how well it responds to your question. Therefore, a partial answer to an excellent question is likely to score higher than an excellent answer to an easy question. Questions are generally more important than answers.


Final examination - Autumn Quarter 1992

1. Consider a Palustrine Forested Wetland that is 10 ha in size and that surrounds a small pond with fringing vegetation. First, what two additional vegetation classes could be found between open water and the forest? (10 points)

Classes: 1. Palustrine______wetland.
________2. Palustrine______wetland.

List five functional and economic values likely to be associated with this wetland complex.

(Values a-e)

2. There are five (5) basic indicator categories in the US Fish & Wildlife Service system. List them: (10 points)

State one (1) good feature of this method of indicators:
State one (1) adverse feature of this method:

3. A. List five (5) reasons that plants might become extinct on an island: (11 points) (a-e)
__B. List three (3) factors that control or influence immigration rates to islands: (a-c)
__C. Assume that you are studying a habitat island that had its biota destroyed by fire many years before. You study it for several years and conclude that the flora has reached biogeographic equilibrium. What factors might lead you to predict that this equilibrium might change during the next 100 years? Would you expect the number of species to remain constant once equilibrium has been reached? Why?
4. Predict the relative equilibrium number of plant species within A and B of the following cases, by ranking the cases from low equilibrium to high equilibrium number. In part C, which situation normally has the higher diversity (Assume that the latitude and general climate is the same in each case) (12 points):
A. Oceanic Islands B. Habitat Islands

1. Small island distant from continent 1. Large climax forest surrounded by
2. Large island distant from continent recent clear-cut
3. Small island near the mainland 2. Small recovered forest surrounded
4. Large island near the mainland by the city
3. Small recovered forest surrounded
by recent clear-cut
4. Small climax forest surrounded by
recent clear-cut

A. Rank: (low), , , (high)
B. Rank: (low), , , (high)

C. Landscape Situations (which has greater diversity)

1. a. Several small reserves or b. Single large reserve of equal area
2. a. Patch isolated landscape or b. Patch surrounded by similar patches
3. a. Several patches in cluster or b. Several patches in row
4. a. Compact patch or b. Elongated patch of same size
5. What is naturalistic landscape creation? (8 points)

List 4 advantages that this approach might have over traditional methods?
Advantages: (a-d)
What might be one drawback in our region?
6. List five (5) diagnostic tools that you could use to infer that a community is under some form of stress (10 points)
7. Global temperatures have varied considerably over the eons, at least by 6oC. Why are so many people worried about the prospects of a mere 2oC change in the next 50 years? (8 points)
Give 1 single, best reason here:
We believe that many plant species will be threatened with extinction by global warming. List four reasons that a particular species might become extinct. (These could be biological populational, or biogeographic reasons.)
8. Please write an excellent question concerning material covered in this course that is not covered on exam. (This question will be rated on a degree of difficulty scale, 1 to 4).