(2019年3月6日更新) [ 日本語 | English ]

英語会話 (English conversation)

有珠山 / サロベツ泥炭採掘跡
1986年, 2006年の有珠山火口原. ワタスゲ・エゾカンゾウ

口語英語 (spoken English)



別に英語に限った話ではない (岩田 1976)
1. 省略
"Are you hungry?" "Yes, I am very hungry." → "Hungry?" "Very." (日本語でもこうだよね
Why (are you) so blue? そんなにショゲてどうしたの
2. 語順の転換
"Are you going back home?" → "You're going home?" (上げ調子)
3. 口語的言い回し
I can not understand him no longer. → I can not understand him any longer.
I fear (that) it will rain → I am afraid it'll rain.
Let's rest. → Let's have a rest. Cf. have a look, have a drink, have a swim

What's your hurry (n.)? ← Why do you hurry (v.)?

I couldn't but laughing. → I couldn't help laughing.
Come to see me. → Come and see me. 遊びにおいで
4. 口語表現
a) 優しい動詞

overtake = catch up with, encounter = come across, yield = give in, agree = get along

b) 状況比喩: 状況によって使われる比喩的表現

There's the door. 出てけ! Where are your eyes (ears)? どこに目(耳)をつけでんだ!

c) 口語用語

pal = friend, mate
Go ahead. どうぞ(それ行け)
Never say die. 頑張れ. There're lots and lots of girls. Never say die, cheer up.

He's sick of people trying to cheer him up.

Watch your step (head). 足元(頭上)注意
What do you say to …? What do you say to a drop of something? 一杯どうだい

(セイン・岡 2010)


(1) フレーズ自体の選び方・使う状況を間違える

相槌: [ポジティブ] Oh, I see. > Oh, I know. > I see. Yeah. > I know. > I know that. > Yes, yes. [愛想なし]

(2) 必要以上に丁寧、慇懃無礼、嫌みな感じ
名前を聞く    ↑ [控え目・感じ良い]

I'am Shiro Tsyuzaki. And you are ...? (... 失礼ですが、お名前は)
May I ask your name, please? (お名前をお伺いしても宜しいですか)
I'm sorry, you're ... (失礼ですが、お名前は...)
Now you're? (さて、あなたは...)
Could I have your name? (お名前を教えて頂けますか)
What's your name? (君々、名前は)
I need your name. (名前をおくれ)
Who are you? (あんた誰)
             ↓ [不躾]

確約 (なんとかします)    ↑ [肯定的]

Your wish is my command. (畏まりました)
I'll do it. (やります)
No problem at all. (問題なし)
Don't worry about anything. (ご心配なく)
It shouldn't be a problem. (問題ありません)
Probably. (まあ、いいでしょう)
I guess. (まあ、大丈夫かな) [Guess what? 何だと思う]
Maybe. (どうかな) - 不確定を表す (できないかも)
I'll manage. (大変ですが、(嫌だけど)なんとかやりましょう)
Okay, if I have to do. (はい、(嫌だけど)どうしてもというなら)
Do I have a choice? ((不満だけど)やるしかないんでしょ)
                              ↓ [否定的]

I (completely, quite) agree with you.
I couldn't agree with you more …
I'm all for …   I'm with you on …   I'm in favor of … ⇔

I don't agree with you. I'm against … I'm opposed to … I object to …

不信感    ↑ [遠回しに反対]

I kind of think he didn't say that. (kind of: ちょっと)

○ I don't think he said that. × I think he didn't say that.

Are you sure he said that.
I can't believe he would say that.
He probably didn't say that.
I doubt he said that.

doubt vs suspect
I suspect that he stole the money. (金を盗んだのは、彼だと思う)
I doubt that he stole the money. (金を盗んだのは、彼ではないと思う)

You're wrong.
You're lying.
        ↓ [率直に反対・非難]

No comment.
It's none of my business.
No one can tell.
I can't say which one is better.
It depends.  It all depends.  That depends.  That's all depends.
I'm not telling. That would be telling. (cf. Time will tell.)
It's up to you. (あたなに任せます/それはあなた次第です)

It's up to you to decide. (全てあなたにお任せします)
I leave it up to you.

感謝    ↑ 感謝感激

Oh, you really shouldn't have done that. (えっ、そこまでしてくれて)
Oh, you shouln't have. (えっ、そんなことまで)

I shouldn't have done that. (やるんじゃなかった)

I'll never forget this. (ずっと忘れないよ)
Thank you very much. (どうも、ありがとう)
Thanks a lot! (とても、ありがとう)
Thanks a million. (すごく、ありがとう)
Wow, thanks! (わっ、どうも)
Thank you. (ありがとう)
Okay, thanks. (どうも)
    ↓ あっさり

(3) イントネーションにより雰囲気(ニュアンス)が変わる
聞き返す ↑ [丁寧]

I'm sorry, what did you say?
Could you say that again for me?
Sorry, I didn't catch that.
I beg your pardon?

もう一度、言ってください (I beg your pardon? ↗)

Come again.
Please repeat that.
Please say it again.
One more time, please.
        ↓ [不躾]

(4) 文化の違い
プライバシー: 以下の様な質問は避ける(知りたければ、まず自分から)

How much money do you make? What's your job? (職業・給料)
How much do you weigh? (体重)
When were you born?
Are you married? Do you have children? (家族構成)
Where did you go to school? Do you have a college degree? (学歴)


♀ She is my girlfriend. (友達) She is my partner. (レズ)
♂ He is my boyfriend. (ゲイ)
女言葉: lovely, rosy

反語; 日本語より頻出

A: I have a bad news. I lost my tickets.
B: That's nice (great). (ひどいね)

発音 (pronunciation)


  1. 子音発音練習は舌位置、唇形など目で確認し、母音発音は耳を頼りに音色を聞き分けるようにして行うとよい
    (a) 子音 ↔ 母音

    think [θ] ↔ hot [∂]
    five [f] ↔ hut [Λ]
    long [l] ↔ hat [æ]

    (b) 無声子音(声のない子音) ↔ 有声母音(声のある子音)

    pin [pin] ↔ bin [bin]
    time [taim] ↔ dime [daim]
    kite [kait] ↔ guide [gaid]

  2. 有声子音よりも無声子音のほうがより強い息で発音される
  3. 母音はその次に有声子音が来た時、無声子音が来た時より長めに発音される傾向がある 有声子音前 ↔ 無声子音前
    bad [bæt] ↔ bat [bæd]
    mode [moud] ↔ moat [mout]
傾向: 米語は綴字の[r]は全て発音 ↔ 英語は母音前の[r]のみ発音

Ex. car [ka:r] (Am), [ka] (En)

代名詞のhe, him, her, hisが強勢のない所に表れると、[h]音が脱落し[i:], [im], [ə: or ɚ:], [iz]のように発音される

I’ll tell her when I see her.

動詞と副詞が結び付いて、pick - upのように一つのまとまった意味を表わす時は、その両方が強く読まれる



... that would make the clothes extra clean. She bathes every morning.

[p], [t], [k]で終わる語の次に同じく[p], [t], [k]で始まる語が続く時、前の方の[p], [t], [k]は弱くなり飲み込むように発音され殆ど聞こえない

We do it to cleanse our spirit., Don’t talk like that., deep pond, black cat


Aren't you efficient!, meet you, get you, might you


Ex. What would you like?

[d], [t]直後に[l]が続くと、その[d], [t]は舌先を離さず舌の両側で素早く発音され[l]の音にそのまま移行する

To put it mildly, their financial condition is not good. That'll be a big help.
lit ↔ little, bat ↔ battle, set ↔ settle

[d], [t]直後に[n]が続くと、その[d], [t]は舌先を動かさず(歯茎から離さず)鼻中で破裂して発音される

I didn't see any sign of trouble. What a beautiful garden! What a lovely kitten!


Can you find out how ...? Can I have one of them? one of them. in it.

[m], [p], [t]直後に母音で始まる語が続く時、[m], [p], [t]と母音は切り離さず一音のように発音される

I wish I could come and get you. Will you tape it?
But I'm afraid I bit off more than I can chew. Please hand it in.


sew [sou] ↔ sole [soul], bow [bou] ↔ bowl [boul], toe [tou] ↔ toll [toul]

リズム (Rhythm)

強い所がほぼ等間隔に表れる性質 = 強い所と弱い所が交互に表れる性質

→ 強弱がはっきりし、強い所はゆっくりと弱い所は早めに発音する傾向

文中の一般動詞は他の語よりも強く読まれる傾向にある → (文中のbe動詞、have動詞はさほど強くならない)

Do you have enough time?


The chances are very good.


That's a port city like Sydney, isn't it?

「v + adv」の形で一つのまとまった意味を表わす時その両方、もしくはあとの副詞の方が強められる

Wow, it's coming down in buckets!

Be動詞が文の最後で、そのあとに補語の省略がある場合、そのbe動詞は強められる。同様に助動詞will, wouldや「have動詞」の後に何か省略されている場合そのwill, wouldは強められる

Be serious (I am).

助動詞のdo, does, didは通常弱く発音される

How do you look at it, Mr. Roberts?

  1. Be動詞のis, was, are, wereおよびisn't, wasn't, aren't, weren't
  2. 助動詞のdo, does, didおよびdon't, doesn't, didn'tが代動詞として
  3. 現在完了形に用いられるhas, haveおよびhasn't, haven't が相槌の返事の中に用いられた時は強められる
    It sure is. No, it really doesn't○. No, I haven't.
疑問文を作るdo (does, did) + 主語の形は通常強勢をとらない
他動詞、前置詞の目的として用いられる代名詞(it, him, her, us, them等)は通常強勢をとらず、前の動詞と一所になり一語のように発音される

O.K. Let's hear it. Do you want to have it transferred?

There's -, There're - の形は通常弱く発音される
再帰代名詞(myself, yourselfなど)は一般に強められる傾向にある
疑問詞で始まる疑問文は通常最後で声を下げる。一般疑問文(yes, noで答えられる)は通常最後で声を上げる

What’s the matter? Is anything the matter?


Where would you like to go?
Where? Everywhere.
What does that mean?


That’s for what. He came when?

疑問詞で始まる疑問文の後にI wonderが来ると下がり調子になり文の始めに来ると高くて平坦な調子になる

How do Japanese schools foster individual creativity, I wonder?
I wonder how Japanese schools foster individual creativity.


Why if it isn’t my favorite teacher! Why? /Because I want it.


You mean the spiritual side of it? You mean the spiritual side of it?

Yes, no疑問文を下げ調子で言えば、何かを訊ねるというよりむしろ新たな話題として提案をしていることになる

Could you explain why? May we ask him first?


You drank a lot, didn't you? It's almost noon, isn't it?

Shall we ---? で始まる ⇒ 最後で声を上げる。Let's ---? ⇒ 声を下げる

Shall we take five? Let’s take five.


all those tropical fish


I have a sleeping bag, (or) a canteen(or) and a flashlight.


If you want to learn anything, you have to ask questions.


Oh, splendid! Good!

感嘆文: 文形に関わらず下げ調子。形は疑問文でも下げると感嘆文になる場合もある

What a charming thought! How nice it was!

何かを思い出した時のOh, yes.はと下がり調子で言う。また相槌として更に話を促す時にはと上げ調子になる

1. Oh, yes. Now I remember.
2. So he met the lawyer. /Oh, yes?

相手と同様な挨拶を交わす ⇒ 少し調子を変えyouを際立たせる傾向

Good to see you. Good to see you, too.


We're passing through that area. ⇒ a. Oh, are we?, b. Oh, are we?


軽く上げる: 普通の呼び掛け Hello, Alex.
高く上げる: 遠くにいる人を呼ぶ時 Alex,→↗ where are you?
一気に下げる: 相手をたしなめる時 Alex! Be serious.


Best wishes on your marriage. Merry Christmas!

  • 伊藤ケリー. 1984. 日本人英語の改造講座. JICC出版局, 東京. 64 p
  • 岩田一男. 1976. 最新入試英語. 口語の時代が来た. 光文社(Kappa Books), 東京. 217 + 19 p

NHKラジオ 英語会話 (東後勝明)

A week in Washington

Words & Phrases
senator (米)上院議員, (the) Capitol (米)国会議事堂, public service 公務/議員としての職務
(be) sought after 追いかけられる (cf. seek after ... [...を追いかける] )
Lincoln Memorial ギリシャ風の建設。リンカーンが椅子に座っている代理石像で有名。National Gallery (of Art) 国立美術館。Smithsonian Institution スミソニアン協会。英化学者James Smithson遺贈金を基に1846年に設立された国立研究所。Washington Monument 169 mの石の塔。エレベーターで152 mの展望台まで登れる
guided tour ガイド付きツアー
miss (ある場所・物・人物から離れた後で)恋しくなる
negative side 否定的な側面/好ましくない面
stepping down = leaving the post (議員を辞めることを指す)
for good = forever
(the) media = mass media マスコミ
in the making 製作中/執筆中
insider's novel 内情に通じた人が書いた小説/内幕もの, reveal 暴露する
  1. Well, your reasons for leaving are a bit unusual, if I may say so. 何かをするにあたり「相手の理由がやや変わっている」と伝える表現。親しい間柄でなければ, if I may say soと言う気配りも必要。
  2. But before we get into that, let's step outside. 相手が何か話題を持ち出した際、「でもその件に入る前に、...しましょう」と提案する表現。会議席上でも使える。
  3. Maybe we'd better settle for the Washington Monument. 迷った際、やや不満はあるが「...あたりにしておくのが無難なところだろう」と表現するのが、Maybe we'd better settle for ...
  4. I'm not all that familiar with Washington. 「...についてはさほど詳しくはない」 = I'm not familiar with ...
  5. You seem to know every inch of Washington. 相手の話しから判断し、ある場所を隅から隅まで知っているようだったらこれ
  6. Everyone forgets that there's more to life than power. 「人生には...以上の物があるということを誰もが忘れるものなのです」と大人びた口調で諭すような表現。
  7. Will your new work ever bring you here?
  8. I plan to reveal everything as it is. I plan to ... everything as it is で「全てをありのまま...する予定です」
• Enrich your vocabulary

行政関連用語: the Federal Government 連邦政府, Chief Executive = President, Capitol Hill 国会議事堂のある丘(時事用語でCongress[米国議会]を指すこともある), the White House 大統領官邸, the House of Representatives/the House下院, member of the House (of Representative)下院議員, Speaker of the House (of Representative)下院議員, President of Senate 上院議長, Democratic Party/Democrat 民主党/民主党員, Republican Party/Republican 共和党/共和党員


A Vote for the Family

Words & Phrases
the Senate (米)上院
best-paid 最高の給料をとっている
legislator (議会・国会等、立法府の)議員
conscientious 良心的な
be convinced 確信している
act on ... に基づいて/...に従って行動する
run for office 議員に立候補する
  1. Are you dissatisfied with your job? 相手が何かに不満を持っていると思ったらこの文
  2. Every interesting job has its pressures. 仕事がつまらない、という相手を諭すのに有効
  3. So you began to think more about your family life? 相手が、以前より何かを重視するようになったきっかけを話したら、この文で確認
  4. Last year I missed my daughter's high school graduation. 乗り物に乗りそこなったり、行事に出席しそこなったりしたときにmiss
  5. You seem to feel strongly about the father's role in the family. 相手の言動から、何かについて強い意識を持っているようなら
  6. I've asked myself whether I was not abandoning this great nation. 自分の下した決定や、結論にいたる過程を説明する表現。「...かどうか自問自答したこともあります」という感じ。直接話法では、
    I've said to myself, "Am I not abandoning this great nation?"
  7. Now I'm convinced that my action will have a real impact. a) I'm convinced that 強い確信・信念を持つ。b) have a real impact 強い影響を与える
  8. I'm putting my kids above power and money. put ... above ~ 「...を~の上に置く」とは「...を~より優先させる」という価値観を表わす表現。I'm puttingは近い未来を表わす
• Enrich your vocabulary

米国の省 Departments: the Department of the Treasury, the Department of the Interior, the Department of Justice, the Department of State, the Department of Defense, the Department of Commerce, the Department of Labor, the Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Department of Transportation, the Department of Energy, the Department of Health and Human Service, the Department of Housing and Urban Development

Song: 英語学習で覚えた記憶のある歌(リンク)


  • Scarborouh Fair (18th century folk song): リンク先の歌詞は英語BIIでやったのと若干違うけど
  • We are the world (Lionel Richie and Michael Jackson)
  • Let it be (sing by Beatles): 前置詞を知るのに手頃と言われたが、そんなに前置詞が出てくるわけでもない

Pure and Simple

Words & Phrases
meet with ... と約束し会う, (be) in the way 邪魔する, audience 聴衆・観衆, take (音楽・演奏等を)録音(する), sure thing sureよりやや砕けた応答, better yet (それよりも)最良いのは, take two = second recording, work out 首尾良くやる/うまくやる, buff ファン・熱中している人, confess 白状する・告白する, lyrics 歌詞
  1. I'm here to meet with Ms. Bonnie Rydell. ここで...さんと会う約束になっている
  2. We've been expecting you. expectには「人が来るのを待つ」という意味がある。待ち人があらわれたら、I (We)'ve been expecting you. 「お待ちしておりました」と伝える
  3. You mean I'm the first to hear it? 相手の話しから、自分が何かをする最初の人だと思ったらこう聞こう。
  4. Remember this song when it hits the top of the charts. 「...する時には~を覚えていてね/思い出してね」
  5. How did you like "My Hungry Heart?" 相手がどの程度気に入ったか訊ねるときに使う
  6. It's too soon to ask him that. too ... to構文の典型
  7. I must confess I know very little about it. 「正直に言うと...」
  8. Bonnie's music is a good introduction. 「...は入門として丁度良い」
Enrich Your Vocabulary
Music Business
  1. record industry/music industry
  2. the latest single
  3. release a new album
  4. the American pop music scene
Country-and-Western Music
  1. country music = country-and-western music
  2. folk song/music 本来は「民謡」。ポピュラー音楽では、1960年代のBob Dylan, Joan Baez等のprotest songやPeter, Paul and Mary等の歌を指すことが多い
  3. bluegrass カントリーの中でも電気楽器を使わない素朴なスタイル
  4. hillbilly music ブルーグラスに似るが、アパラチア山脈を中心とした山岳地帯の音楽

A Forgetful Star

Words & Phrases
session 何人かで音楽演奏すること
talk over a meal 食事をしながら話す
(be) screwed on ネジで留める
joint 気軽に食事でき酒も飲める店
two of the usual いつもの2つ
cozy 居心地良い
range 山脈
Yessir - Yes, sir短縮形だが本来の敬称ではなくおどけた感じ
haystack(s) 積み上げた干草
twang (ギター・バンジョー等の弦楽器が)鳴る音
plain life 平凡な/普通の生活
fancy 派手な・飾りたてた
  1. Why don't we go somewhere and talk over a meal? 「…しませんか」
  2. I was hoping you'd suggest that. 「あなたが…してくれたらいいと思っていたんだ」
  3. There's a song in everything for you, isn't there? (洒落た表現)
  4. Music's always been my life. これまで自分のすべてを賭けて打ち込んできたものを表わす表現
  5. I grew up on a farm. 簡単だがすぐに口に出てくるかが問題
  6. I can still see the sun setting over the cornfields. 現在分子の形容詞的用法
  7. So that's what I sing about. 前述のことを指し「ですから、それは私が...する内容です」と表現するとき
  8. I forget where I parked the car. whereをwhen等の疑問詞と変え応用

A Job Well Done

Words & Phrases
overlooking 見渡している
clear away 片付ける
superb 飛び切り上等(最高)の
here's to ~に乾杯
in ages vs for ages:

for: ~の全期間にわたって (1) I haven't seen him for three years. ← for ages = for a long time
in: ~の間に (2) I haven't seen him in three years.
during: ~の期間中に (3) I haven't seen him during the past three years.

  1. The oysters were superb. 料理を誉めるときにはこれ
  2. (Please) Take your time and enjoy the evening. 「ごゆっくり...を楽しんでください」
  3. Time flies when you're having fun. cf. Time flies like a bow.
  4. I've had lots of fun working with you. 過去分子で言うところに注意
  5. Can I bring you some after-dinner drinks? 飲み物や食べ物をすすめる表現の一つ
  6. And another martini for you, 相手にお代りをするめる表現
  7. I just heard from the head office in Tokyo. 「...から連絡があったばかりだ」
  8. They're very pleased with my work. 「とても気に入っている」
Enrich Your Vocabulary

Cocktails: Manhattan = ウイスキー+ベルモット, salty dog = ジン + グレープフルーツ・ジュース(グラスの縁に塩を付けそれを舐めながら飲む), old-fashioned = 角砂糖 + 水少々 + ビター + ウイスキー, Bloody Mary = オッカ + トマト・ジュース, screwdriver = オッカ + オレンジ・ジュース

American or Irish?

Words & Phrases
sip (ちびちび)飲む
make a good start 良いスタートを切る
stare into space じっと空(くう)を見つめる
get at ...をほのめかす
(be) confused 混乱している
  1. You have a telephone call from your boss. 「...さんからお電話です」
  2. He can't stand it when I'm not working. ... can't stand it when 「...は~しているのには我慢できない」
  3. I did everything I could to become American. 「...するためにはできることは何でもやった」。現在形や過去形にして応用
  4. I can't change the fact that I'm Irish. 「...という事実は変えられないのだ」
  5. I'm not sure I can continue our project. 何かをする自信がないときに使う
  6. That was before I talked to Jeannie. Thatは自分の言ったことや自分が前に述べたことを指す
  7. Which is the "real" Jeannie, the American one or the Irish one? Which is ..., A or B?
  8. Let's clear our heads with some coffee. 「...で頭をすっきりさせよう」

A Flying Doctor

Words & Phrases
Charleville, Queensland: Flying Doctor Serviceがある
relief work: 救助活動
be stung by a hornet: スズメバチ(クマンバチ)に刺される
do the trick: うまく行く/~がよい
kiss it better: うまく行くようにキスする(おまじない)
hornet sting: 蜂刺され
home remedies: 家庭療法 ↔ folk medicine: 民間療法
conventional: 通常の
prescribe: (薬等を)処方する
to go into labor: 陣痛が始まる
bystander(s): 野次馬
  1. Did you become a flying doctor right away? 「すぐに...になったんですか」
  2. I've been doing this for the past six years. 現在完了進行形の見本
  3. Rubbing on a little honey may do the trick. 何かするコツや方法が分からない相手にそれを教えてあげる時に使うくだけた表現
  4. Be sure to kiss it better. 「必ず...してね」
  5. I hear meat tenderizer is good, too. 自分自身が体験したり、確認したわけではなく、他人から伝え聞いた様なことを言う時に使う
  6. Then you go in for folk medicine? go in for: ...に興味がある(口語)
  7. While you were talking with Mrs. Wiley, Phil Norton called. 電話の取り次ぎ
  8. Here's our chance to watch a flying doctor in action! 自分一人ならmy chance
Enrich Your Vocabulary

Medicine: ambulance 救急車, first-aid 応急手当, internal medicine 内科, surgery 外科, otolaryngology (ENT) 耳鼻咽喉科

New Life in the Outback

Words & Phrases
outback 内陸部・アウトバック
magnificent 素晴らしい・壮大な
on hand 手元にある
heat up 温める・沸かす
calm ... down ... を落ち着かせる・なだめる
infancy 幼少(時)
deliver 出産を助ける
calf 子牛, cattle 牛(家畜用
) Why ここでは喚起の声。本当か・信じられない、といった感じ
Phrase: just in time ⇒ in time Ex. in time for: I got to the theater (just) in time for the last show.
  1. You seem confident in your flying ability. 相手がなにかの技能に自信を持っている時に
  2. I could fly this craft with my eyes shut. このcouldは「...しようと思えばできる」という意味。「できた」ではない。このcouldが使いこなせれば助動詞は恐くない
  3. What can we do to help? 手伝いや援助を申し出る常套語
  4. (Please) Try to calm Phil down, if you can. 「できたら...してみてくれ」
  5. Will this be your first child? 時制の問題(本文で良く考えよう・子供はまだ生まれていない)
  6. Delivering a child is not like delivering a calf. A is not like B 「AというのはBとはわけが違う」とはAは大変なのだ、という意味で使える
  7. Don't tell me the baby's already born! 「まさか...だなんて言わないでくれ」という感じ
  8. Helping deliver a baby was quite an experience. なかなかできない体験をしたらこれ
Enrich Your Vocabulary

Childbirth: pregnant 妊娠している, labor pains 陣痛, painless delivery 無痛分娩方, Caesarean section 帝王切開, midwife助産婦

Back Out to the Outback

Words & Phrases
head (for ...) (...へ)向かう
corrugated roads でこぼこ道
sturdy 頑丈な
car agent レンタカー営業所従業員
convince ... を説得する
sheep-shearing 羊毛刈取
station hand ヒツジ世話役・牧場の働き手
sheep station ヒツジ牧場
in four runs of two hours each 4回、各2時間ずつ
jackeroo 農場見習い
apprentice 見習い
merino sheep メリノ種のヒツジ
  1. We'd like to rent a small, compact car, please. [sedan. convertible, van, limousine], [compact, subcompact, full-size], [two-door, four-door], [automatic, manual] などを選択
  2. You'll need something sturdy. 必要となるものを教えてあげる時に
  3. I've never seen roads like these 現在完了の経験的用法
  4. It's your turn to open it. あなたの番ですよ
  5. Were you ever a sheep shearer? Were you ever ...? 過去において一度でも...だったことがありますか
  6. I started out as a jackeroo forty years ago. キャリアを積んだ人が駆け出しのころを語る時にぴったりの表現
  7. Best wool you can find. This/It is the best ...の省略形
  8. Does Australia still lead the world in wool production? still まだ今でも

A Sheep Farmer's Worst Enemy

Words & Phrases
bloke 人・奴 (manの砕けた言い方)
take off 勢いに乗る
ostrich ダチョウ
dingo 犬の一種
keep out 防ぐ・締め出す
  1. I can't remember the last time I took it so easy. そのくらい久しぶりだ、という意味
  2. With 30,000 sheep on 60,000 acres of land, there's not much time to relax. Withがポイント。With...で「...を抱えた状態では」の意味
  3. Well, the story goes that a bloke named John MacArthur imported them ... goは「...という次第です」
  4. But they never took off like sheep did. A never ... like B. として2つのものを比較して伝える表現
  5. Get out of here, or I'll shoot you. 命令文or ... 「...しなさい、さもないと...」という構文
  6. Because their favorite food is sheep. 超決まりがた。Why ... ? Because ...
  7. What do you do about the dingo problem? 「...についてはどうしているのですか。」
  8. My biggest problem is I'm allergic to wool. My biggest problem is (that) ...
Enrich Your Vocabulary

Sheep vs. Lamb: sheep dog ヒツジの番犬, sheepish (ヒツジのように)おどおどした・内気な, lambkin 小さい子ヒツジ, lamblike 子ヒツジのような=おとなしい, (the) Lamb of God 神の子ヒツジ = キリスト

Autumn in April? (1)

Words & Phrases
drop into ...に立ち寄る
check ... out (図書館で本を)借出す
spring person 春型人間
a bad case of ... ...のひどい病状
spring fever 春に浮かれ仕事(勉強)が嫌で、じっとできないこと
what if I asked = what would you say/do if I asked
international exposition 国債見本市(博覧会)・万博
cover 取材する
  1. It's a pity to stay inside on a beautiful spring day like this. 残念な気持ちを伝える表現
  2. I'm determined to read them all. 強い決意を伝える表現
  3. I came to America to discover real Americans. ある場所にやってきた目的を伝える表現
  4. That must be the call I'm expecting from my head office. 一度は使ってみたい!
  5. That's why I have such a bad case of "spring fever." Thatは先に伝えたことを指す
  6. What if I asked you to give up your entire spring this year? あることを仮定し、それに対する相手の反応を見る表現
  7. I want to use this opportunity to search for real Americans. 「この機会に...したい」
  8. Please help me take all these books on America back to the library. to不定詞のtoが省略された形
Enrich Your Vocabulary

Spring: spring (over) coat, spring training, spring-cleaning, spring roll

Autumn in April? (2)

Words & Phrases
ethnocentric 自民族中心的
refined 洗練された
marsupial(s) 有袋動物
wombat(s) オンバット
platypus(es) カモノハシ
aura 雰囲気
get a bit carried away 少し夢中になり過ぎてしまう
suspiciously 怪訝そうに
detective novel 探偵小説・推理小説
  1. Quite honestly, I've never been very interested in Australia. 正直言って
  2. I just feel America and Australia have so much in common. 共通点を感じる
  3. They're primitive and, at the same time, so refined. 同時に正反対の性質を持つ人や者を表現
  4. I can feel a mysterious aura, even in the photograph. evenの使い方 「...ですら」
  5. Pardon me, but could you speak a little more softly? 丁寧な依頼。下降調で発音
  6. It seems the Australian countryside has a lot to offer. ...にはいろいろ面白いものがありそうだ
  7. I wonder if I should take a wool sweater. ...したほうがいいかしら
  8. I want something fun to read on the long flight over. something to ...(動): ...するための何か

Better Journalists than Detectives (1)

Words & Phrases
a plane bound for Sydney シドニー行飛行機
flight attendant 客室乗務員 (古 steward/stewardess)
customs declaration form 税関申告書
fill out 記入する
briefcase 書類鞄
ticking sound (時計等の)カチカチいう音
act rather suspiciously やや不審な行動をとる
restless 落ち着きが無い・そわそわしている
relief 安心・安堵
  1. Here's your customs declaration form. 相手に何かを手渡す時
  2. You might as well take a long nap. 相手が何か気が進まない事をすすめるときに
  3. Maybe he's stretching his legs somewhere. 会話で良く使う: maybe ... (現在進行形) ... somewhere
  4. You've been reading too many detective novels. 相手が何かのしすぎでそれに影響されていると思ったら You have been too many (much) ...
  5. Now that you mention it, he did act rather suspiciously. 「そういわれてみれば...」
  6. Should we call the flight attendant? 自分達が何かをすべきか訊ねる表現
  7. Can you imagine mistaking an alarm clock for a bomb? 「...するなんて想像できますか」
  8. Good thing we're journalists, and not detectives. It is a good thing that ...が省略された形
Enrich Your Vocabulary

: overnight bag (=overnighter), wallet, attache, carryall, beauty case.

Better Journalists than Detectives (2)

Words & Phrases
bicentennial 200年記念の
shimmer 光揺らめく
entertain 楽しませる
clown 道化役者
descent 降下
  1. Are you going to Australia to visit Expo '88? Are you going to ... (場所) to ... (動詞)
  2. I imagine those are great performing opportunities for you. 自分の言う事がまったくの想像である時
  3. You're going to love Australia. ...がきっと気に入りますよ
  4. So it's the beaches you love. それではあなたが...なのは-なんですね
  5. Ladies and gentleman, we will soon be presenting our in-flight movie, "Star Wars." 超有名フレーズ
  6. Can't fight progress. (We) can't fight ... ...とは争えない
  7. Looks like we'll arrive right on schedule. (It) looks like ...
  8. Thank you for flying with us today on QF28. Thank you for proofreading my speech (script).
Enrich Your Vocabulary
bi = 2 Ex. 1. bilingual. 2. binoculars. 3. bilateral. 4. bicameral.

日本紹介 (Introduction to Japan)

It's such a bother. あれは実に厄介だ
Can I feed the hamster? 餌をやってもいいかな?
First catch your hare (and [then] cook it [him]).

まず材料(兎)を手に入れなさい。料理はそれから → とらぬ狸の皮算用

[ 時制 ]


話法 (narration)

直接話法 He said [伝達動詞], "I will do my best." [被伝達部 reporting verb]

↓↑ 話法の転換

間接話法 He said [伝達動詞] he would do his best. [被伝達部]

This (these)__that (those)
Today_______that day
Yesterday____the day before (or on) the previous day
Tomorrow____the next day (or (on) the following day)

He said to me, "I will leave here tonight."

He told me that he would leave there that night."

She said, "I was ill, but I am quite well now"

She said (that) she had been ill, but that she was quite well then.

He said to me, "Who is she?"

He asked me who she is?

I said to him, "When did you come to Japan?"

I ask him when he had come to Japan.

He said to me, "Do you like fruit?"

He asked me if (whether) I liked fruit.

She said to me, "May I come in?"

She asked me if (whether) she might come in.

He said to me, "Shut/Don't shut the door."

He told me to shut/not to shut the door.

[感嘆文] 定型はない
She said, "What a beautiful sunset (it is)!"

She said (that) it was a very beautiful sunset.
She exclaimed (cried out) what a beautiful sunset it was.

He said, "She is in France."____He said (that) she was in France.
He said, "She was in France."__He said (that) she had been in France.
He said, "She will be in France._He said (that) she would be in France.
He asked, "Is she in France."___He asked if she was in France.

仮定法 (subjunctive mode)・比喩


仮定法 subjunctive

1) 仮定法現在

If ~ 現在(古くは原形) -, 未来・現在・過去等 「もし~するならば, … する(だろう), した」
If you are right, then I am (was) wrong.

2) 仮定法過去
If ~ 過去(be動詞はwere) -, would + 原形 「もし~するならば, … するだろうに」

If he asked me, I would help you.

if ~ should: 万一(ひょっとして) ~ なら

If you should see him, tell him I want to see him.

if ~ were to -: 仮に ~ なら

If some one were to give you a million dollars, what would you do?

If it were not for = were it not for = if it were not for = but for = without

But for (Without) your advice, I should be deceived. 君の忠告がなければ、騙されていたね

If it had not been for = had it not been for = if it had not been for = but for = without

But for (Without) your advice, I should have failed. 君の忠告がなければ、失敗してたね

3) 仮定法過去完了
If + 過去完了 -, would have + p.p. 「もし~したならば, …しただろうに」

If he had asked me, I would have helped him.

4) 仮定法未来
I wish/O(h) that/Would (to God) that/If only + 仮定法過去(完了)

I wish I were a bird and could fly to you. I wish I had known your distress.
O that he would succeed! Would that the storm had not been so violent!
If only they could survive the storm! 彼らが嵐を乗り切ればいいんだがね

provided, providing: (~の条件が)揃わねば

I will come provided (providing) that I am well enough.

suppose, supposing: ~と仮定せよ(すると)

Suppose (Supposing) your father saw you, what would you say?

in case (口語) = if: ~した場合には in case it should rain = if it should rain

In case I should fail, I would try again.

on condition that: ~という条件で

You may use this camera on condition that you handle it carefully.

so long as (as long as): ~する限りは

I am happy so long as you are happy.

given: ~が与えられれば

Given a common language in which to talk, we can understand each other much better.

granting (granted) that: ~ということを認めるとして

Granting (Granted) that he was drunk, that is no excuse for his conduct.

仮定法 → 帰結法(直接法・命令法)
I would tell you if I knew it. → I do not tell you because I do not know it.
If I were a bird, I would fly to you. → As I am not a bird, I will not fly to you.
I should have written to you if I had known your address. → I did not write to you because I did not know your address.
The roads would not be muddy if it had not rained heavily. → The roads are muddy as it rained heavily.
I wish I had some time to spare. → I am sorry (that) I have no time to spare.
I wish I had had money. → I am sorry that I had no money. (I am sorry, I regret, it is (to be) regretted, or it is the matter for regret)
If you are faithful, they will be rely upon you. → Be faithful, and they will rely upon you.
Unless you make a not of it, you will forget it. → Make a note of it, or you will forget it.
if ever (there is one): もしあるとすれば → まさしく

He is a linguistic genius if ever (there is one).

if (it is) a day: もし一日あったら → 少なくとも → 確かに

She is twenty, if a day.

if only: ~さえすればなあ

If only I could pass the exam. 試験に通りさえすればなあ

if I can help it: できれば

I don't want to make an air trip if I can help it.

if you please: 1. どうぞ、失礼ですが, 2. 驚いたことに

(2) She was wearing her boyfriend’s nightgown – orange see-through, if you please.

what if: 1. もし~だったら, 2. したら大変だ

(2) What if she comes home. 彼女が帰ってきたら大変だ(帰って来たって構うものか)


1) 直喩simile
- as, likeを使う
may (might) as well ~: ~する方がよい(≈ had better)

He will come by the next bus. You may (might) as well wait here.

may (might) as well ... as ~: ~して良いと同様...して良い。~するより...した方が良い
might as well ... as ~: ~するのは...する様なものだ。~する位なら...した方がましだ

You might as well throw your money into the sea.
You might as well talk to a post as explain the matter to him.

as if = as though: まるで-のように [as (+ S + would) if ···]

The man talked as if (though) he knew the truth.
He was staggering as if drunk. [= if (he were) drunk.]

2) 陰喩 metaphor
Man is a thinking reed, a heart of stone

I might here a pin drop. ピン一本落ちても聞こえそうだ → とても静かだ

3) 換喩 metonymy
"crown" stands for "king." (the cradle → childhood, the bottle → wine)
4) 提喩 synecdoche
bread → food, hand → workman
擬人法 personification
誇張法 hyperbole: gallons of tears
漸層法 climax
頓呼法 apostrophe



名詞: very Ex. This is the very dictionary that I want.
動詞: do Ex. He did write the letter himself.
by far 断然: He is by far the best player on our team.
whatever: There is no doubt about it whatever.
ever so (口語) たいそう、非常に: Thank you ever so much.


every inch 隅から隅まで I know every inch of the road.
be dying to ~: ~したくてたまらない I am dying to see you.
for God’s sake 後生だから
for the life of me どうしても, on my life 誓って
on earth, in the world 一体全体: What’s on earth going on? いったい何事だ (What the hell? Why the hell?)
to the bone 骨まで → 徹底的に
one’s head off 激しく(excessively)
raise (lift) the roof 大騒ぎする


It is that (which, who, when, etc.) + [強調部 = (代)名詞、副詞(句・節)]: ~するのは…である

It is a long lane that has no bending. どれだけ長い道でも曲がりはある (= 待てば海路の日和あり)

It happens that – たまたま-である, It follows that – (当然)-ということになる

It happened that he was away last night. From what he says it follows that he doesn't like her.
But it does not follow that science is a great evil to mankind.

It is – that ··· should: Ex. It is proper that you should treat him kindly.
It is necessary (right, wrong, important, etc.) that – should: -ということは必要(正当、不当、重要)だ
It is a pity (strange, no wonder) that – (should): -ということは遺憾(不思議、当然)だ

It is no wonder that he thinks so. 彼がそう考えるのは不思議ではない
It is no wonder that he should think so. 彼がそう考えるなんてことは不思議ではない。

倒置 (inversion)

副詞(句) + v + S + V: Never before had I seen such as big diamond. Down went the bus over the cliff.
目的語を文頭(O + S + V): Fires I have seen before, but nothing like this. A miserable condition he was in.
補語が文頭(C + V + S): Whether he will come or not, I can't tell.

the + 比較級, the + 比較級

So + S + V 「実際に~だ(indeed)」 So he does. 事実そうです
So + V + S 「~もそうだ(also)」 So do you. あなたもそうです Neither (Nor) am I. 私もそうでない

挿入語句 (parenthesis)

as it were (so to speak) いわば: Ex. He is, as it were, a walking dictionary. [仮定]
that is (to say) 即ち、換言すれば: He continued to work on the farm for a few years, that is (to say), till he was twenty-five.
what is better still さらに良いことに: She is beautiful, what is better still, very intelligent.
what makes the matter worse to make matters worse さらに困った(悪い)ことに

He failed in business, what makes the matter worse to make matters worse, he fell ill.

if anything: どちらかと言えば He is, if anything, smallish.

few/little ~ if any/anything/at all: まず殆ど~ない、もしあるとしても少ない

Few, if any, of his friends really understand him.
My father is little, if anything, better today.
There is little, if at all, hope of his recovery.

seldom/rarely ~ if ever: まずめったにない、もしあるとしても稀だ

He seldom (rarely), if ever, talks of his past.


I'm afraid … (残念ながら …)
I have to say, … (言い難いのですが …)
I need to tell you that … (話すべきことが …)

北大英語講義マニュアル (Manual for lectures in English, HU version)

  1. 語彙: 授業一般に必要な語彙 + 科目固有の専門語彙
  2. 文法: 講義や学生とのやりとりに用いる簡潔な表現に必要な文法
  3. 発音: 理解可能で、流暢、明瞭 (抑揚やアクセントは次の課題)
  4. 社会的側面: 「自信」。教師にないと学生参加が難しくなる。学生に、意図が伝わればよいと思ってもらうことも重要
欧州評議会言語政策部門(Council of Europe Language Policy Division)

Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, CEFR


(1) 知識、(2) 態度・習慣、(3) 技能

北大教育理念: 「開拓者精神」「国際性の涵養」「全人教育」「実学の重視」

行動目標: 一般目標に到達するための具体的な観察可能な目標

アイスブレーキング 能動的学習法: (1) 実験実習、(2) グループ討論、(3) セミナー、(4) ディベート


(1) 妥当性: 課した問題の難易度が適切か
(2) 再現性: "はかり"が検定済みかどうか
(3) 客観性: 誰が測っても同じかどうか
(4) 効率性: 経済的,時間的に実用的か
方法: 論述試験、客観試験、口頭試問、実地試験、レポート