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Thermodynamics (熱力学)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

The study of the effects of work, heat and energy on a system

conserned with large scale observaitons without the consideration of molecular structure

Zeroth law: thermodynamic equilibrium and temperature
First law: work, heat, and energy
Second low: entropy
Symbols for buget change
Δ: finite change
δ: minutely-small change
d; instantaneous change

Ex. Q: heat quantity (specific heat) → ΔQ, δQ, dQ

History of thermodynamics (熱力学史)

[ temperature (climate)]


Heat engine (熱機関)

First law of thermodynamics (熱力学の第1法則)

= the law of conservation of energy
≡ the total energy of an isolated system is constant
Mayer, Julius Robert von 1814-1878, Doctor in Germany

one of the scientists who established the first law

Reaction heat or heat of reaction (反応熱)

exothermic reaction (発熱反応) ⇔ endothermic reaction (吸熱反応)
Sorts of reaction heat
formation heat or heat of formation (生成熱), same as below
combustion heat (燃焼熱) - exothermic reaction

H2 + 1/2·O2 = H2O + 68.3 kcal

decomposition heat (分解熱)
neutralization heat (中和熱)
(dis)solution heat (溶解熱)

Bond energy (結合エネルギー)

Bond energy of C-H: (1661.7 KJ/mol)/4 = 415.4 KJ/mol

bond energy

Kinetic theory of matter (物質の分子運動論)

Enthalpy, H (エンタルピー)

Def. specific heat (比熱), C: the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1°C (cal or J/g/°C

Water: 1 cal (or 4,186 J)/g/°C


温度 (temperature)

Celsius (摂氏)
Celsius (temperature) scale, or degree Celsius
t (°C) = T (K) - 273.16 (K)
Fahrenheit (華氏)
Fahrenheit (temperature) scale, or degree Fahrenheit
°F = 1.8 (= 9/5) × °C + 32 ⇔ °C = (5/9)·(°F - 32)

°F: -40___0___50__100
°C: -40_-17.8__10__37.8

Phase, three phases of a substance ()