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Social science (社会科学)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

[ agroforestry ]

The academic disciplines concerned with society and human nature
Subjects (by personal choice)
sociology, law, economics (including management), politics, human geography, history, anthropology (including archaeology and linguistics), and the other sensitive subjects

Sociology (社会学)

The study of social behavior or society, including its origins, development, organization, networks and institutions

Economics (経済学)

Smith Adam 1720-1790, Scotland

The Wealth of Nations (国富論) (1776) → modern economics
→ the principles of neoclassical economics (古典派経済学) → influenced Recardo, Marx
→ the price is determined only by the factors derived from supply side (output side)
→ labor value theory (労働価値説): the value of goods is determined by labor quantity required for the production

Recardo D 1772-1823
Cournot A 1801-1877

marginal revolution (限界革命) = economy based on marginal concept
→ value of production goods, i.e., price, is determined in the market

Walras L 1834-1910

equilibrium theory of market (economy) (市場均衡理論)

Pareto 1848-1923

heir on equilibrium theory of market → exchange theory

Menger C 1840-1912
Walras, Pareto and Menger → marginal utility theory (限界効用理論), proposed independently

commodity value → measured by marginal utility

Marshall Alfred 1842-1924

Principles of Economics (1890)
proposed supply and demand, marginal utility, and costs of production
initiated neoclassical economics

Marx K 1818-1883
Jevons William Stanley 1835-1882, England

A general mathematical theory of political economy (1862)

Menger C 1840-1912
Pigou AC 1877-1959

heir of Marshall

Keynes JM 1883-1946: criticize traditional economics

= Keynesian revolution

Hicks JR 1904-1989, Samuelson PA 1915-2009

→ established the fundamental concept of modern economics

Market economy (市場経済)

Def. Market (市場): a medium that allows buyers and sellers of a specific good or service to interact in order to facilitate an exchange
Def. Goods (商品): a consumable item that is useful to people but scarce in relation to its demand, so that human effort is required to obtain

↔ free goods: (ex. air ↔ CO2 trade)

Def. Market transaction (市場取引): goods, services, information, currency or any combination of these things passing from one party to another in exchange for one of these or another combination

Open-market transaction
Clsoed-market transaction

Correspondent agreement (arrangement, or contact) (コルレス契約)
an agreement between the company (or a subsidiary of the company) and a person, primarily relating to such Person acting as a money transmission paying agent

In the case of Japan: foreign exchange contracts between Japanese bank(s) and overseas bank(s)

Depository correspondent (デポ(ジタリー)・コルレス): Banks that have deposit accounts

Correspondent relation (コルレス関係)
Correspondent banking relationship (コルレス銀行関係) – correspondent banking system (コルレス銀行組織)
Correspondent bank (コルレス先(取引先銀行) - (foreign) correspondent bank (海外コルレス先銀行)
Correspondent account (abbrev. corres. account) (コルレス勘定(他店勘定))
Depository correspondent bank

Non-depositary (-depository) correspondent (ノンデポ・コルレス): 預金勘定をおいていない取引銀行先
Banking correspondents ((銀行の)取引先銀行) - correspondent banks worldwide

Econometrics (計量経済学)

Def. The testing of the performance of economies and economic theories using statistical and mathematical methods
Frisch, Ragnar Anton Kittil (1895-1973)

establishing economics as a quantitative and statistically informed science

Kuznets, Simon (1901-1985)

a decisive contribution to the transformation of economics into an empirical science and to the formation of quantitative economic history

Klein, Lawrence Robert (1920-2013)

creating computer models to forecast economic trends in the field of econometrics

Game theory (ゲーム理論)

Strategy (戦略)
Pure strategy (純粋戦略): an action aAi
Mixed strategy (混合戦略),πi is a probability distribution over the action space Ai
Def. Bimatrix game (双行列ゲーム): a simultaneous game for two players in which each player has a finite number of possible actions
Q. Battle of the sexes (男女の争い)
• Where to go on a date, baseball (1) or theater (2)?
• Requirements: be at the best place + avoid to be alone

♂ \ ♀_____baseball__theater
baseball___ (2, 1)___ (-1, -1)
theater____(-1, -1)___ (1, 2)

A.__s = (s1, s2), s1 + s2 = 1, s ≥ 0

s = (s1, s2), s1 + s2 = 1, s ≥ 0
E(s s) = 2s1s1 - s1s2 - s2s1 + s2s2
________ = 5s1s1 - s1 - 2s1 + 1,
E(s s) = s1s1 - s1s2 - s2s1 + 2s2s2
________ = 5s1s1 - 3s1 - 3s1 + 2 ⇒
E(s, (1, 0)) = 3s1 - 1,___ E((1, 0), s) = 2s1 - 1
E(s, (0, 1)) = -2s1 - 1,__ E((0, 1), s) = -3s1 + 2 ⇒

Based on the minimax and maxmin strategies, the solution is:
s = (2/5, 3/5), E = 1/5, s = (3/5, 2/5), E = 1/5

Def. Pareto optimality (パレート最適): is one such that there is no other outcome where some players can increase their payoffs without decreasing the payoff of otherplayers
Simultaneous or sequential: play simultaneously: each player makes a decision in turn (game tree)
Perfect/imperfect information: ability to observe the actions of the opponent(s)
Complete/incomplete information: complete information: knowledge of the structure of the games (payoffs matrices)
One stage/multistage game: the outcome of a joint action can be a new game

Repeated game

a game M (= stage game) is played over and over again

one shot game ↔
finitely/infinitely repeated game

In the repeated game, a pure strategy depends also on the history of play thus far
Tit for Tat strategy: play the action played by the opponent the last round

Tit for tat strategy can be an equilibrium strategy in PD or Chicken

Prisoners' dilemma (PD, 囚人のジレンマ)
1950 Tucker AW

simultaneous, perfect, complete game
one stage or multistage game
__A \ B____cooperate__defect_____________i = A, B, …
cooperate___ (3, 3)____(10, 1) ⇒_(SA, SB)__(WA, BB)
defect______(1, 10)____(8, 8)____(BA, WB)__(TA, TB)

Def. prisoner's dilemma type game (囚人のジレンマ型ゲーム) ⇒

Bi > Si > Ti > Wi

Def. standardized prisoner's dilemma game (標準的SDゲーム) ⇒

Si > (Bi + Wi)/2

Game tree (ゲームの木)
a type of recursive search function that examines all possible moves of a strategy game, and their results, in an attempt to ascertain the optimal move ⇒ applied to AI
Q. Gary and Helen are planning on running competing restaurants. Each (G or H) must decide whether to rent space (R) or buy space (B)

__↱ R →H1 → R → A(16, x)
_G________↳ B → B(8, 12)
__↳ B →H2 → R → C(6, 6)
________ ↳ B → D(9, 7)

(1) If x < 12, or (2) If x > 12, what terminal node will the subgame perfect Nash equilibrium path lead to?
(3) Suppose that x = 11 but that it is now possible for G to make a side payment of value V to H that will boost her payout at decision node A from x =11 to x = 11 + V. What is the minimum amount that V can be such that the subgame perfect Nash equilibrium path will lead to terminal node A? Assume that V can take on only discrete units (0, 1, 2, 3, …).
A._ (1) (B, B). (2) (R, B). (3) V = 2

Environmental economics (環境経済学)

≠ ecological economics
studies on the financial impact of environmental policies

Tragedy of the commons (共有地の悲劇)

a shared-resource system depletes the resources via the selfish collective actions of each user
1833 Lloyd, William Forster: Lloyd pamphlet indicates "the commons"

= the effects of unregulated grazing on common land (in Great Britain and Ireland)

1968 Hardin, Garrett: "Tragedy of the commons" on Science

under conditions of overpopulation, freedom in an unmanaged commons brings ruin to all
"the tragedy of the 'unmanaged' commons" published in 1991

1990 Ostrom, Elinor (1933-2012): Governing the Commons

how local communities can manage open-access resource systems without top-down regulations or privatization

Applicaiton: digital commons, pollution, etc.

Business economics (≈ business management, 経営学)

VUCA (ブーカ)

  • Volatility: relatively unstable change
    Ex. Prices fluctuate after a natural disaster
  • Uncertainty: lack of knowledge, but the basic cause and effect are known
  • Complexity:
    Ex. The company operates in many countries, each of which has its own regulatory environment, tariffs and cultural values
  • Ambiguity: causal relationships are completely unclear
    Ex. The company decides to move into developing markets or to launch new types of products that are outside its previous experience

Collaborative process model (協働プロセスモデル)

IDEA cycle
Adaptive management
PDCA cycle (PDCAサイクル)
Future Earth
Loop: observe → orient → decide → act → observe → …

PDCA (cycle) (PDCAサイクル)

= plan-do-check-act (plan-do-check-adjust)
1950s Deming (business management consultant):

An iterative four-step management method used in business for the control and continuous improvement of processes and products

Plan (計画)
Define the problem to be addressed, collect relevant data and ascertain the root of problem cause cycle
Do (実行)
Develop and implement a solution: decide on a measurement to gauge its effectiveness
Check (評価)
Confirm the results through before-and-after data comparison
Act (改善)
Document the results, inform others about process changes, and make recommendations for the problem to be addressed in the next PDCA cycle

Meeting (会議)

a planned occasion when people come together, either in person or online, to discuss something
conference: a meeting at which formal discussions take place

congress: a large meeting that is held to discuss ideas and policies
convention: a large meeting of an organization or political group
convocation: a meeting or ceremony attended by a large number of people

colloquium (Latin), seance (French), conseil or council (French), sederunt (Scotish)
Productive meeting
How to make your meetings more productive
  1. Define the purpose of your meeting
  2. Set a meeting agenda
  3. Ensure someone leads the meeting
  4. Get the right people attending the meeting
  5. Consider competing priorities
  6. Set meeting ground rules
  7. Ensure participants understand any jargon
  8. Invite feedback
  9. Experiment and try new ideas
  10. Allocate housekeeping tasks by rotation
  11. Define takeaways and assign follow-up actions
  12. Share relevant documents post-meeting

Agroforestry (アグロフォレストリー)

agroforestry = agriculture + forestry:
to create sustainable landuse systems by an approach mixed with the technologies of agriculture and foerestry
1975 Bene, John (IDRQ, Canada): proposed agroforestry
1977 Bene et al.: published "Trees, Food and People"

problem = the interface of forestry and agriculture
proposal = the establlishment of International Centre for Research in Agroforestry, ICRAF, now the office in Nairobi, Kenya) to engage between forestry and agriculture

Agrofrestry in Los Banos, Philippines

[1] The upper layer is used for forestry, i.e., lumbers. The lower layer is for agriculture, e.g., banana cultivation (see the right). [2] Agroforestry system under construction. These two photos were taken on Mount Makiling, Los Banos, Philippines, on December 18 1997.
Taguiam & Tsuyuzaki 1998
Abstract. Agroforestry is the favored farming system farmers adopt in Bagong Silang, Makiling Forest Reserve, Philippines. It is a farming system whose origin can be traced from kaingin (swiddening), a fundamental form of agroforestry, handed down by the first batch of farmers to the present generation of farmers. Agroforestry is recognized as an age-old tool in the protection and stabilization of the ecosystem, at the same time it provides a stable source of income and basic materials to the rural folks. However, farmers in Bagong Silang refused to associate their farming system to agroforestry. From the farmers' perspective, agroforestry means reforestation that involves the sole planting of forest trees. Thus, there is a need to strengthen the dissemination of basic information on agroforestry as a farming system and as a conservation tool in order to protect the Reserve from other forms of human activity. Other sociological factors determined to influence the adoption of agroforestry include beliefs and practices, migration pattern, place of origin, occupation and income.

Key Words: agroforestry / cropping pattern / farming system / Makiling Forest Reserve / Philippines / social forestry.

Slash-and-burn agriculture (焼畑農業)

≈ shifting cultivation, bush-follow and swidden agriculture (local names)
traditional agriculture system in tropical-temperate regions dominated by forests