(First upload on July 1 2014. Last on June 10 2024) [ 日本語 | English ]

Transplanted pines in Japan

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

Pinus L. (マツ) transplanted
P. banksiana Lamb. (バンクスマツ)
P. bungeana Zucc. ex Endl. (シロマツ)
P. mugo Turra (モンタナマツ)
P. nigra J. F. Arnold (オウシュウクロマツ)
P. palustris Mill. (ダイオウマツ)
P. sylvestris L. (オウシュウアカマツ)
P. rigida Mill. (リギダマツ)
bark (樹皮)

Pinus banksiana Lamb. in Japan

Bankusumatsu (バンクスマツ), jack pine, grey pine or scrub pine
Lifeform: evergreen tall tree ≈ 20 m high
Distribution: eastern North America
Habitat: diverse, e.g., nutrient-poor and/or well-drained soils
Stem: non-straight form
Leaf: two per bundle
Cone: serotinous (> 50°C)
Use: timber

[1-4] transplanted in front of an apartment, N28W3, North Ward, Sapporo. [1-3] on April 28 2016. [4] on December 24 2016. Broken down by heavy snow.

Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl. in Japan

Shiromatsu (シロマツ, 白松/白皮松), lacebark pine
Hakusyou (ハクショウ, 白松), Sankonomatsu (サンコノマツ, 三鈷ノ松)
Lifeform: evergreen tall tree ≈ 30 m high
Distribution: central to northwestern China
Habitat: mountains in the native regions
Leaf: three per bundle
Use: gardening, street tree, etc. → a few cultivars

holly tree in China → planted in temples and palaces

[1-3] at Yushima Temple (seido), Tokyo, on May 30 2014. Record: in the Koishikawa Botanical Garden (小石川植物園), the University of Tokyo, on March 16 2017.

Pinus mugo Turra in Hokkaido

Montanamatsu (モンタナマツ), mountain pine
Mugomatsu (ムゴマツ/スイスコウザンマツ/スイスミヤママツ)
Etymology: montano (Italian) or montagne (French) → mountain
Lifeform: evergreen shrub (= ssp. mugo) < 3 m high in Japan
Distribution: southwestern to Central Europe (introduced to Japan after Taisho Era)
Habitat: high elevation
Leaf: two per bundle
Use: groundcover

Pinus montana Mill.
Pinus mugho Laichard., spelling variant
Pinus mugo var. mughus (Scop.) Zenari

Pinus mugo Turra var. pumilio (Haenke) Zenari, dwarf mountain pine

ssp. mugo, dwarf mountain pine → dwarf < 6 m high, in southern and eastern Alps, Balkan Peninsula
ssp. uncinata (Ramond) Domin, mountain pine → straight ≈ 20 m high, from the Pyrenees northeast to Poland

[1] close to Banya Spa in Ishikari Coast on March 31 2024. [2/3] a parking lot between Kushiro and Akkeshi along the National Route 44 on June 30 2014. [4-6] in front of the HU Central Coop Restaurant on May 11 2019. Records: at a hedgerow in front of a building in N8/W2 close to JR Sapporo Station on July 29 2020.

Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold in Hokkaido

Oushukuromatsu (オウシュウクロマツ, 欧州黒松), European black pine, or Austrian pine
Yo-roppakuromatsu (ヨーロッパクロマツ)
Lifeform: evergreen tall tree ≈ 25 m high
Distribution: southern and eastern Europe, and east Asia
Habitat: drained, sunny sites
Stem: straight ↔ P. thunbergii = winding
Leaf: two long leaves per bundle
Use: street tree, windbreak forest, etc.
Varieties: several

[1-3] near Faculty of Engineer at the Main Street of Hokkaido University on June 21 2014.

Pinus palustris Mill. grown at a greenhouse in Hokkaido

Daioumatsu (ダイオウマツ, 大王松), longleaf pine
Daioushou (ダイオウショウ)
Lifeform: evergreen needle-leaved tree with 30-35 m in height
Distribution: native to the southeastern US

IUCN Red List: endangered

Habitat: forests and savannas

pyrophytic (resistant to wildfire)

Leaf: long and droopy, three leaves on a spur shoot
Use: resin, turpentine and timber

[1-3] in Tomakomai Sun Garden glasshouse on January 10 2022.

Pinus sylvestris L. in China

Oushuakamatsu (オウシュウアカマツ, 欧州赤松), European red pine
Lifeform: evergreen, needle-leaved, tall tree
Habitat: monotonic or mixed forests
Use: wood
var. sylvestris, the type distributed in Europe (Scotland - central Siberia)
var. hamata Steven., Balkan Peninsula - Caucasia
var. mongolica Litv., (樟小松 in Chinese) Mongolia - southern Siberia - northwestern China, long leaf ≈ 12 cm
var. nevadensis D. H. Christ., Sierra Nevada (Spain), etc.

var. mongolica

[1-3] in the animal and plant park, Changchun City, Jilin Prvince, northeastern China, on June 6 2017.
Changbai Scotch Pine, Pinus sylvestris Linn. var. sylvestriformis is a kind of evergreen tree narrowly distributed at 800-1600 m altitude of the north slope of Changbai Mountain. It can grow up to 25-30 m high with 25-40 cm DBH. The trunk is straight and smooth. The bark is light yellow brown to dark brown, and the annual branch is light brown. The long needles in bunches of two are 4-9 cm, coarse and slightly twisted. The female cones are ovoid and bent downward. It is fond of light and resistant to barren soil, and deep-rooted. It is also called Meiren (美人, Beauty) Pine because of its straight trunk beautiful shape.

at APP, June 5 2017

Pinus rigda Mill. in Japan

Rigidamatsu (リギダマツ), (northern) pitch pine, ritch pine or picky pine, (Amerika)mitsubamatsu (アメリカミツバマツ, 亜米利加三葉松)
Distribution: eastern America (Maine - Ohio)
Habitat: shallow soil and/or sand gravel
Leaf: three per bundle
Use: tree resin uased as medicine (diuresis, stimulant and deworming)

[1-3] at Hibiya Park, Tokyo, on December 27 2014. [4-6] on November 16 2020. [3-5] on April 15 2023. [6] on May 4 2024.