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Physics (物理学)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

The study of matter and its motion and behavior through space and time along with related concepts such as energy and force

(Crease 2003)

The ten most beautiful experiments in physics
Eratosthenes: measurement of the circumference of earth
Galileo: dropping the ball (the legend of the leaning tower)
Galileo: the alpha experiment (the inclined plane)
Newton: experimentum crucis - decomposition of sunlight with prisms
Cavendish: weighing the world - austere experiment
Young: light a wave - lucid analogy
Foucault: seeing the earth rotate - sublime pendulum
Millikan: seeing the electron - oil-drop experiment
Rutherford: dawning beauty - discovery of the atomic nucleus
Army: the only mystery - the quantum interference of single electrons


Cell (電池)
a) 1次電池 primary cell - development of electrolyte (電解液)

Ex. zinc chloride cell (塩化亜鉛乾電池)
Ex. alkaline manganese dry cell (アルカリマンガン乾電池)
Ex. photovoltaic cell, photoelectric cell (photocell) (光起電力電池(光電池)
Ex. solar cell (太陽電池)
Ex. electrochemical cell (電気化学電池)

generator (dynamo) (発電機)

Ex. Van de Graff generator (ファンデグラフ発電機)

b) 2次電池 secondary cell = storage cell, battery (蓄電池)

Dynamics (s.l.) or mechanics (力学)

= dynamics (s.s.) + statics

Newton's three laws of motion (ニュートンの3大法則)

Planetary motion (惑星運動)

Kepler's laws of planetary motion (ケプラーの惑星運動法則)

Kepler empirical rule (経験法則) → emipirical formula (経験(実験)式)
Law 1. planetary orbits are elliptical with the sun at a focus (惑星軌道楕円法則)
Law 2. A line segment joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time (面積速度一定法則)

constant areal velocity of revolution (公転), S(Ot1t2) = S(Ot3t4)

Law 3. The square of the orbital period of a planet (period of revolution, T, 公速周期) is directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit (l, 楕円長軸長) (調和法則)

T = k·l3/2 (k = constant)