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Introduction to natural sciences (自然科学概論)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

Natural science
A branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena → natural philosophy

biology (or biological science)
↓↑ chemistry
physics (or physical science)
geoscience (or earth science)

→ interdisciplinary research (or science), e.g., environmental science

Citizen science, CS (市民科学)

= community science, crowd science, crowd-sourced science, civic science and volunteer monitoring
Def. scientific research conducted, in whole or in part, by nonprofessional and/or amateur scientists

European Commission. 2013. Green Paper on Citizen Science

[ Logics | History ]

BioBlitz or bioblitz
counting species through citizen science

a snapshot of the living species of a given natural area which allows the scientific community to learn more about biodiversity richness and health

History of natural sciences (自然科学史)

Primitive society (原始社会) or primeval time (太古)

science = field biology to survive
Cosmic view
BC 6000 Mesopotamia (Babylonia)

astronomy = astrology → constellation (BC 3000)

BC 8c: 36 asterisms drawn on clay tablets

combine decimal and sexagesimal: 1 year = 360 days → circumference
sequence (数列)

Remote ages (古代, BC7 c - AD4-5 c)

Ancient Greece (古代ギリシア)

BC600- meridian of ancient Greek civilization

→ forming the foundation of western philosophy, science and ethic

tried to explain the world in terms of natural sciences that place emphasis on materialist philosophy → history of natural sciences

↔ ideological philosophy that places emphasis on idea (sensu Plato) that is as non-materialist eidos

Ionian/Milesian School (イオニア学派)
Thales of Miletus (BC624?-546): merchant (chapman)/pre-Socratic Greek philosopher and mathematician

patriarch of western philosophy (Milesian)
the father of Greek mathematics
Seven Sages of Greece

Ex. measured the height of pyramids

doxastic that the water is the arche (universal principle on all of the nature, 動力因)

Anaximandros (Eng. Anaximander, BC c. 610-BC546): pupil of Thales

The apeiron (= indefinite, infinite, boundless or unlimited) is the arche (= eternal and ageless)

diverse substances are born from the metamorphosis of aperion

the Earth = cylindrical form
evolutionary view of living things → primitive organisms emerged from mad and human originating from fish-like organisms

Anaximenes (BC585-525/528)
Helakleitos (Eng. Heraclitus, BC c. 535- BC c. 470/475): fire is the arche

everything flows → all things come into being by conflict of opposites

Ex. soul = the mixture of fire and water

Anaxagoras (BC c. 500- c. 428)

Cosmic mind (Nous, ≈ mind ヌース/理性): arranging all other things in the cosmos in their proper order, started them in a rotating motion, and controlling them somehow, having a strong connection with living things

all substances can be divided infinitely into atoms
the area of circle (S) is proportional to the square of raidus (r)

Summarizing Ionian philosophy: all things existed in this mass, but in a confused and indistinguishable form

BC480 Battle of Salamis
Eleatic (エレア学派)
differences between the thoughts of ideology and materialism became clearly
Pythagoras of Samos (BC582-493/497, aged around 75), southern Italy

the spherical land, earth and universe with antipodes → sphere is the most perfect solid
→ celestial motion (天体運動) → circular motion
all things are numbers (万物は数である)

→ systematization of numbers Ex. prime number

→ Pythagorean (ピタゴラス学派)

having an overtone of religious meanings

the forms are more important than the components to explain the structures of matter
→ the soul is the most important → body = the grave of soul

difficulties in finding out discoverers becasue of the esoterica
Ex. the Pythagorean (ピタゴラスの定理)

it was known about 1000 years before the report
Pythagorean triples: c2 = a2 + b2a, b and c exist

Ex. proved that there are only five regular solids, n = 4 (regular tetrahedron), 6 (regular hexahedron), 8 (regular octahedron), 12 (regular dodecahedron), and 20 (regular icosahedron)

regular polygons exist ad infinitum

Parmenides of Elea (BC500/475-?): founded Eleatic school

On nature (a poem): Thought and being are the same

the movements and substances are likely to be seen as an existence

→ founder of metaphysics or ontology

  • Pythagoras and Parmenides established the foundation of ideology that characterized the late Greek philosophy
Zenon (Eng. Zeno of Elea, BC c. 490-BC c. 430?)

paradox of Zenon (ゼノンの逆理)

Empedokles (Eng. Empedocles, aged ≈ 60, BC c. 490-BC c. 430)

materialistic interpretation = the facts (of life) are permanent

→ the everlastingness is formed accidentally by binding the four elements (arche): water, earth, air and fire

origin of life = abiogenesis (自然発生説)
observation of the volcano Etna → the inside of earth consists of melted substances

Leukippos (date of birth and death unknown, active in BC440-BC430)
Demokritos (Eng.Democritus, BC c. 460-370?): the peak of materialism

atomism: the diverse morphology of substances is determined by the sizes and/or arrangements of atoms that are the composition elements of substances
materialism is daily applied

philosophy of Sophists, including Protagoras, active in BC5 c were influenced greatly by the atomism

Epikouros (Eng. Epicurus, BC341-BC270)

Hedonism (快楽主義): the only thing that is intrinsically valuable is one's own pleasure

pleasure must be persistent

the basic constituents are atoms - uncuttable bits of matter

Protagoras (BC c. 490-BC c. 420)

Sophist as teacher for hire, Man is the measure of all things

= there is no absolute truth, but that which individuals deem to be the truth

→ the purpose of life is material success rather than truth (veritas)

Hippokrates (BC460?-370?): doctor in the ancient Greek

patriarch of medical science → medical treatments proposed by observations and experiences → ethic of medical doctor (bioethics)
human body consists of four types of fluids (black bile, blood, yellow bile and mucus) → disease when they are unbalanced

Sokrates (Eng. Socrates, ソクラテス, BC469-BC399), death by drinking hemlock

the thought is a contrast to the thought of sophist

Greek philosophy was the peak under him

Socratic method (elenchus): a negative method of hypothesis elimination, in that better hypotheses are found by steadily identifying and eliminating those that lead to contradictions
soul - most important for human

→ transgression (culpa) = ignorance (darkness)

Socratic irony: the dissimulation of ignorance as a means of confuting an adversary
I know that I know nothing

Antiphon (BC430?-): mathmathics professor of Platon

solving doubling the cube (立方体倍積問題)

Theodoros (BC410?-): mathmathics professor of Platon
Athenai (アテナイ)
BC431-404: the Peloponnesian war

Greek - lost the political power

Platon (Eng. Plato, BC427-BC347): Timaeus (on the nature)

theory of forms or theory of ideas (イデア論) - systemized Socratic idealism
→ understanding idea and teach the knowledge obtained by idea

virtus (virtue, 善): something spiritual beyond all the feeling
idea: the material world as it seems to us is not the real world, but only an "image" or "copy" of the real world
the apparent world of forms (constantly changes) ↔ an unchanging and unseen world (probably the cause of what is apparent)

Plato's tripartite theory of soul

psyche = logical (logistykon) + spirited (thymoeides) + appetitive (epithymetikon)

The Academy (Platonism, プラトン学派)

Arkithas (Eng. Archytas, BC428-BC347)
Theaitetos (BC415-369): math.

proven that only five types of regular bodies are present

Eudoxos (BC409-355), astronomer, mathematician

proportion, sectional mensuration (区分求積法)
Eudoxan planetary models: mathematical interpretation of planetary motion

Aristoteles (Aristotle, Aristote, アリストテレス, BC384-BC322)

pupil of Plato, pedagogue of the Great Alexander
Historia Animalium
Organon (Organum) - collective designation of logic described by Aristoteles, including:

Categoriae, De Interpretatione, Analytica Priora, Analytica Posteriora, Topica and De Sophisticis Elenchis

Menaichmos (BC350?-): conoid
→ The birth of 3-4 schools that are materialism and individualistic

The schools of Greek philosophy (ギリシア哲学学派)

Eudemos (BC320?-): geometry
Theophrates (BC372-287/288)

"Historia Plantarum", "De cauris plantarum"(「石について」)

Aristarchus of Samos (BC 310?-230?)

280? the center of the world is sun = heliocentricism (地動説)

Euclid, or Eukleides (BC300-?): Euclidean geometry
Archimedes (BC287-212)

principle of Archimedes (= principle of buoyancy)

Apollonios Pergaeus (BC260-200?)
Eratosteres (BC275-194, or BC237-197, or 236-194)
Hipparchos BC150?
Heron BC100?
Menelaus BC100?
Galenos 129-199 or 131-201: Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher

"On the Elements According to Hippocrates"

[Development of mathematics]

Middle ages (中世, 4-5th c -13-15th c)

early (5 c-10 c) (terminal phase of Remote ages 2 c-8 c)
middle (11 c-13 c)
late (14-15 c)
The Dark Ages, not commonly used as scientific classification
Christian prejudice - religious delusion
Bacon, Roger 1214-1294

experimental sicence (sprout of modern science)

Paracelsus: autonym, von Hohenheim, Theophrastus 1493-1541

(Switzerland), Catholic
denied humorism (or humoralism) - archaeus (archeus)
syphilis - epidemic in Europe in the end of 15th cenctury

treatment with ferric oxide and mercury

Deism (理神論)
Static creationism (静的創造論) ↔ Dynamic creationism (動的創造論)

Deism = develped from static creationism

Modern age (近代)

Copernicus, Nicolaus (Kopernik, Mikołaj) 1473-1543, Poland
mathematician and astronomer (Catholic canon, believe in christianity)
1543 the Copernican theory (heliocentric theory, 地動説)

a model of the universe - the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe
developed independently from Aristarchus

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519): painter, draughtsman, engineer, scientist, theorist, sculptor and architect
Bruno, Giordano 1548-1600(stake) (Italy), Dominican friar and osmological theorist

1584 cosmic pluralism: stars are distant suns surrounded by their own planets, infinite universe

Galileo Galiei 1564-1642
1610 self-made telescope - "Sidereus Nuncius (星界の報告)"

idea about heliocentric theory

1632 "ialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo (天文対話)

galaxy = a cluster of stars / discovered 4 satellites of Jupiter

⇒ supported Copernican theory → suspension of publication due to the inquisition

God wrote two books, the Bible as well as the Book of Nature

industrial revolution (≈ 1760-1840) → philosophy revolution
Ohm, Georg Simon (1787-1854, Germany)

1827 discovered Ohm's law

The structures of atoms and isotopes (原子と同位体の構造)

Röntgen, Wilhelm Konrad 1845-1923, Germany: research on capillarity, etc.

1895 Discovered X-ray: the unit (roentgen) of X-ray, γ-ray is derived from his name

Antoine Henri Becquerel 1852-1908, Grandfahter of Becuqerel AC

1896 discovered the radioactivity of uranium (U)
the start point was the rejected hypothesis of the essence of X-ray

Becquerel, Antoine Cesar (1788-1878, France)

Fahter of Alexandre Edmond Becquerel(1820-1891)

Curie, Pierre (1859-1906, France): Novel Physics Prize (1903)
Curie, Marie (1867-1934, France, born in Poland): Novel Physics Prize (1903)、Novel Chemistry Prize (1911)

the unit of radioactivity, curie (Ci), is from Mr. and Mrs. Curie

Thomson (1856-1940, England)

1897 cathode rays (陰極線) = flow of electron (電子) emerged from the atom

Rutherford, Ernest (1871-1937)

Rutherford scattering (ラザフォード散乱) = repulsion force (反発力)
1899 radioactive ray emerged from radioactive element (放射性元素) = three types: α, β, γ-rays

α-ray (alpha ray, α線): +charge = 4He (alpha particle, α-粒子)

(Seerri 2011)

Periodic table (周期表)

= periodicity table, periodic law table, periodic system
1789 Lavoisier, Antoine-Laurent (1743-1794)

list of 33 elements

1815 Prout, William (Scotland)

atomic weights seemed to be multiples of that of hydrogen (H)

1817 Döbereiner, Johann Wolfgang

tried to formulate one of the earliest attempts to classify the elements
1829 triads (三組元素): some of the elements into groups of three, with the members of each group having related properties

Li-Na-K, Cl-Br-I, Ca-Sr-Ba, S-Se-Te

1858 Cannizzaro (1826-1910, Italy)

embryo stage of atomic hypothesis and molecule hypothesis

1862 Béguyer de Chancourtois, Alexandre-Emile (France, geologist)

the elements, when ordered by their atomic weights, displayed similar properties at regular intervals

1863 Newlands, John (England)

the law of octaves: divided the then discovered 56 elements into 11 groups, based on the characteristics

1864 Odling, William (1829-1921, England)

the proportional numbers of the elements

1869 Meyer, Julius Lothar 1830-1895, Germany
____ Mendeleev, Dimitri Ivanovich 1834-1907, Russia

independently published
63 elements were already-known →
the seats of unknown elements were blank - the properties were predicted

1894 Strutt, John William & Ramsay, William

argon (Ar) (noble gas or rare gas, 希ガス) was discovered
→ revision of periodic table

+ synthetic elements (人工元素)
Table. Periodic table of the elements

A/B = subgroups A and B, respectively

Group 0 or 18 element = inert gas (不活性ガス)
He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn
Group 1 element (一族元素) ≈ alkali(ne) metal (アルカリ金属)
Valence electron = 1
A: (H) Li Na K Rb Cs Fr
Group 2 element ≈ alkaline-earth metal (アルカリ土類金属, s.l.)
Valence electron = 2
A: (Be) (Mg) Ca Sr Ba Ra

Be, Mg = mangesium group (マグネシウム族)
Ca-Ra = alkaline-earth metal (アルカリ土類金属, s.s.)

B: Zn Cd Hg
Group 3 element ⊂ transition element (遷移元素)
A: Sc
B: B Al Ga
+ rare earth (希土類) = Sc Y from 57La to 71Lu + 89-103
Group 4 element ⊂ transition element
Titanium subgroup = Ti Zr Hf Rf =
Plumbum or lead subgroup = C Si Ge Sn Pb
Group 5 element = vanadium group
A: V Nb Ta
B: N P As Sb Bi
Group 6 element ≈ chromium element ⊂ transition element
A: Cr Mo W
B: O S Se Te
Group 7 or 17 element
A: Mn Tc Re Bh
B: F Cl Br I At Ts (halogen ハロゲン, X)
Group 8 or 16 element = chalcogen or oxygen element
O S Se Te Po (S Se Te = sulfur element)
Law. Oddo-Harkins law or rule (オッド‐ハーキンスの法則)

An element with an even atomic number (e.g., C = 6) is more abundant than both elements with the adjacently larger and smaller odd atomic numbers (B = 5 and N = 7)

Isotope (同位体)

Stable isotope (安定同位体)
Isotopologue (同位体分子種)

Element = Σisotopologue (abundance, %): δ range in ‰
H = 1H (99.9844) + 2H (D) (0.0156): D/H = 700
O = 16O (99.763) + 17O (0.0375) + 18O (0.1995): 18O/16O = 100
C = 12C (98.89) + 13C (1.11): 13C/12C = 100
N = 14N (99.64) + 15N (0.36): 15N/14N = 50
S = 32S (95.02) + 33S (0.75) + 34S (4.21) + 36S (0.02): 34S/32S = 100


they generally have equal chemical properties
their mass differences confer different physical properties

heavier isotopic molecules have

lower mobility
stronger binding energy
fewer collisions
lower diffusion energy

⇒ application to biogeochemical cycle

Theory of elementary particles (素粒子論)

= elementary particle physics

Scientific method (科学方法論)

Method (方法)

μεθοδος (metahodos, methodos or metodus) (G)

way to reach something - recognition of nature "how it should be (being, 存在)"

Fact decision → causality → value-judgment (philosophy)

demonstrative (論証的) ⇔ factual (empirical) 実証的
deductive (演繹的) ⇔ inductive (帰納的)
speculative (思弁的) ⇔ experimental (実験的)

Mill: 1863 Utilitarianism

the law of uniformity of nature

nature behaves in the same way under same conditions

the law of causation

every event has a cause

Poincaré, Henri (1854-1912): thesis (命題) ≈ loi brute (組成の法則)

→ law (法則, s.l.)
実証主義positivism ≈ justificationism (正当化主義)

Popper, Karl (1902-1994): hypothetico-deductivism (仮説演繹主義)

→ falsification (反証)


P: problem
P: plan
D: data
A: analysis
C: conclusion

Exploratory research (探索的研究)

Exploratory research → confirmatory research

research ethics

[ philosopher ]

Philosophy (哲学)

philos (Gr. to love or to befriend) + sophia (Gr. wisdom) → love of wisdom = search for wisdom

Ideology (イデオロギー)

= idea (観念) + logos (思想)

Scholasticism (スコラ哲学), philosophia scholastica

Representative scholastic in the 11th-12th centuries
Anselmus, Cantuariensis (アンセルムス), 1033?-1109

1093–1109 Archbishop of Canterbury
the father of scholasticism: ontological argument (神の本体論的/存在論的存在証明)

Abélard, Pierre (アベラール), 1079-1142

the auctores of nominalism (唯名論, via moderna)

Rucelinus or Roscellinus, Compendiensis (ロスケリヌス), 1050?-1125?

the auctores of nominalism

Maimonides, Moises (マイモニデス), 1135-1204

Judaic thinker and philosopher, physicist and rabbi of Jew
tried to synchronize between the spark of God in Jew and Aristotelian philosophy, by using the methods similar with Christian scholasticism

William of Ockham 1285-1347, England

English Franciscan friar, scholastic philosopher, apologist and Catholic theologian

Occam's razor (オッカムの剃刀)
= Ockham's or Ocham's razor (L. novacula Occami)
= principle or law of parsimony (ケチの原理) (L. lex parsimoniae)
problem-solving principle → model selection (モデル選択)

• entities should not be multiplied beyond necessity

Modern philosophy (近代・現代哲学)

Montesquieu Charles-Louis de (モンテスキュー, France) 1689-1755

the French Enlightenment (啓蒙思想)

Rousseau Jean-Jacques (ルソー) 1712-1778
Bentham, Jeremy (1748-1832, Eng.): modern utilitarianism (功利主義)

pleasure = hapiness
Fundamental axiom: it is the greatest happiness of the greatest number that is the measure of right and wrong

Mill, John Stuart (1806-1873, Eng.)

it is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied

Bergson Henri 1859-1941, France (1927 Nobel Prize in Literature)
Jaspers, Karl Theodor (1883-1969, German), psychology and philosophy

Existentialism (実存主義)
1938 Existenzphilosophie (1971 Philosophy of Existence)
1948 Der philosophische Glaube 「哲学的信仰」

Marxism (マルクス主義)

Structuralism (構造主義)

Linguistics (logology, 言語学)

The study of the structure and development of language in general or of particular languages
Theory of linguistic relativity (言語的相対論)
= principle of linguistic relativity (言語的相対性原理)
= Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, SWH (サピア=ウォーフの仮説)

the particular language one speaks influences the way one thinks about reality
language → influencing culture

de Saussure, Ferdinand (ソシュール, 1857-1913, France)
Comparative methodology (比較方法論)
Four heavenly kings of structuralism
Levi-Strauss, Claude (レヴィ=ストロース, 1908-1992, France)

structural anthropology, original of structuralism
1930-1039 Brazil
1940-1949 New York
1955 Tristes Tropiques 「悲しき南回帰線」
1962 La pensée sauvage「野生の思考」
1964-1972 Les mythologiques「神話論理」

Lacan, Jacques-Marie-Émile (ラカン, 1901-1981, France)

return to Freud
proposed three orders: imaginary - symbolic - real

Foucault, Michel (フーコー, 1926-1984, France)

historical science
1961 L'Histoire de la folie à l'àge classique「狂気の歴史」
1969 L'Archéologie du savoir「知の考古学」
1975 Surveiller et punir, naissance de la prison 「監獄の誕生」

Althusser, Louis Pierre (アルチュセール, 1918-1990, French)

Marxist philosophy
1965 Pour Marx 「マルクスのために」
1965 Lire le Capital 「資本論を読む, Reading Capital」

Philosophy of science, s.l. (科学哲学)

What qualifies as science ⇒
concerned with the foundations, methods and implications of science

metaphysics (形而上学)
ontology (存在論)
epistemology (認識論)