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Psychology (心理学)






Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

Development of human (general principle of human development) (人間の発達)


human
索引

Inheritance (or heredity) and environment (遺伝と環境)


inheritance (or heredity) and environment (遺伝と環境) → theory of interaction (相互作用理論)

Theory of heredity (遺伝理論)

development = (source of development by heredity) × (source of development by act) × (source of development by environment) → Major importance = "act".
Ex. 1. Heredity of mouse intelligence (Tryon 1940)
Ex. 2. mouse intelligence (知性) – maze-learning

Parents: bad and good results on the maze → crossing: good-good or bad-bad
→ after the crossing was repeated, mice were divided into two types, i.e., good and bad types → genetical selection

Ex. 3. A/S ratio (Hebb 1949)

race
Brain (cerebrum)
A: associative region
(連合野)
S: seat of thought
(思考中枢)

= the proportion of the brain not directly connected with either receptor inputs or motor outputs, where A is the association cortex and S is the sensory cortex
→ high ratio = complex brain

→ human shows very high ratio
We cannot apply Tryon's research to human. The following researches supposed the theory of heredity.

England: Streaming

In early time, children were divided at the ability.
Eleven (years old) plus examination - abolished by the Labour Party

USA: Low of immigration - society of white race

White people looks down upon colored people and their race. Low of stopped race for stopped criminal's race. Children of black people can learn in early age.
"Head start plan": Sesame Street on TV (the effects are little)
Jansen supposed the theory of heredity.

Research on family race (家系研究)

= research about well-family race such as Bach, Darwin, Kano, etc.

Results: Well men are born from well family race, but these data are unbelievable, because the races are curned, and those are not able to separate heredity and environment.

Ex. Caricakk Family (カリカーク一族) = bad family race (many criminals) (Goddard HH)

At independence war
w the North (good race) - ♂ (Caricakk, northern soldier) - ♀b the South (feeblemindness , bad race)

_____Total_____Low____Normal__Occupation, etc.
___numbers_intelligence__
w___496____0.0%_______-_____Doctor, judge, soldier
b___480____29.6%____10% >__Criminal, alcoholism,
_____________________________illegitimate child

There are not always explained by heredity only.

Methods (assays) of twins (双子分析)

1937 Newman, 1956 Burt: similarity of IQ (intelligence quotient) between twins

identical twins (一卵性双生児, the genes of them are the same) ⇔ fraternal twins (二卵性双生児, brother)
IQ differences differed between identical and fraternal twins, although their environment is similar.
Research identical twins in different environments.

___________________________A_B__C_D
Identical twins in same ENV_____83 94 94 86
Identical twins in different ENV___21 77 65 72
Fraternal twins in same ENV___172 54 92 75
Fraternal twins in different ENV_853 52 85 77

A: Number of pairs, B: Intelligence*, C: Reading/spelling*, D: mathematics*
* average of relative coefficient in twins.

→ not unbelievable
compared between identical twins grew in same and different environments (Anastasi A)

→ differences in IQ between the twins became large when the duration of separation was long (the maximum difference of IQ was 24)
In northern and southern parts, IQ of black people in Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, that is located in northern part, a part of immigrated black people increased their IQ (Lee 1951) and of those immigrants younger peoples increased their IQ more than older ones.

Darwin C (evolutionary theory): Disciple-Galten

Darwin effects

Hall S = Father of developmental education (発達教育学)
Gesell = human development – mature
Tarmen = IQ
Goddard = Caricakk Family race

→ They supposed the rule of heredity on development. Some modifications in this flow since 1950's have been conducted, e.g., by Lee (1951).

Table. Effects of areas on development due to the increase of the ability of human (Wheeler 1942)
                 Year  Mean IQ

    Age                  6   8  10  12  14  16

    Uncivilized  1930   95  89  84  81  75  74
    Development  1940  103  99  91  90  80  80

Change of society → Changes of ability of children
Identical twins who deal with difficult procedures and get difficult characters (Miki Y et al).

Table. Twins searched at Junior high school belonging with University of Tokyo
                          Character difference

    Breeding difference   Clearly  A litte  None

    Existence                14       14      4
    None                      4       21     11
    Total                    18       35     15

Effect of breeding in family
Advance of culture

→ Ability of children increases (Test for ability over 100). Normal advantage is 100.
→ Accelerated phenomenon of development (Cultured society has this character.)

Table. Ability-Age (or school grade) connection in Cambodia (Shibuya 1963)
    School year  Age   10  11  12  13  14  15  16

        5              63  61  67  63  64  60   -
        6               -  74  73  76  72  66  72
        7               -   -  80  83  82  81  76

The same school years and not same age - Degree of ability is mostly same.
The same age and school year is high - Much education got who is higher.
Ability: obtained the effects by school education
Degree of development ability: not depended on age, but periods of education is determinant in Cambodia, number of school is low - The same age, but difference of educated volume

Doll operation (recovery of 24 dolls) (Kagan et al. 1979)

twins




Fig. Sumpedro = comparatively large town in country, A few go to school. Sunmalcos = small town, most of them cannot go to school. SE = school education

About leaning ability → Effect of school education
Research about home children (Skeels & Dye 1940-50)
The objectives of this study are to obtain the education effects on home children (施設児) whose development conditions are very poor.

↓ two groups

One is experimental group (13 members) called A. The children who are in especially late to develop go in a home for low intelligence people. And they were took care of by girls who were low intelligence during some years from two-years old. These methods are regarded as many people around for taking care of them. (Humane environments are rich.) Another is control group (12 members) called B. They were maintained in a home. A few peoples take care of them. (Humane environments were poor. After those periods, the same environments were given to two of them.
A: They increased their IQ up to 10 and 9 members increased the IQ up to 20. This is hopeful development.
B: They were not able to touch with the society.

After 10 years, half of A went into universities and men worked as a soldier, sailor, etc. Women became nurse, teacher, secretary and marriage. Half of B were in a home, 2 members got married but 1 is divorced. Some people got work, e.g., washer, and worker.

Results and conclusion:

Humane environments should be rich - need communication to develop the ability
Action of children - Response from ENV - Action of children - (like a chain)
intelligent curiosity - development
obtaining knowledge: if responses are not, action of children is less.
Ex. hospitary: ホスピタリズム(施設病) hospitalism

home: environment changes are poor

Effect or influence of ENV - they are not direct touch, they get media of action.

Effects of learning in the early stages of development

(学習の発達初期における効果)

Learning is greatly important in the early stages of development.
Ex. Lee (1951)
Ex. study on wild-man (or wild-child) (野生児研究)
Inner motive (内発的動機) for condition of development and learning

catching to classical learning is outer motive (外発的動機, 学習心理学用語) = drive reduction theory (動因低減説)
Learning: repair motion to constant direct - because the drive reduced.

Driving (動因): unwell tensed condition =

1) pain, stimulation
2) starve, thirsty (physiological unbalance)
3) neutral stimulus with 1) and 2)

Experiment: Avoidance training

drive

Push and then open the door

In accident, the door opened and went to the next room. This is one of the learning for avoidance to unwell tense. Lamp lighted before the electric shock was given. Thereafter, mouse went to the next room to avoid the shock. Lamp hits (case 3)
Motive reduction - well
Mouse is very hungry - give maze - meet to put on goal.
Two types of driving:

a) hungry - unwell tensed condition
b) feed - reinforcement(強化)

The principle is the same for human.
Learning of motive reduction theory

1) Human (animal) is inactive existence.
2) When they get unwell tensed condition, they only act. (Action for survival)
3) For leaning, they make motive factor (Education by drop and whip).

→ outer motive (They dislike to do it.)

Experiment to motive reduction theory
Ex. Puzzle experiment (conducted by Harlow)

drive
Monkey: motive, reinforcement - not observed
drive
Fig. Learning curves by Harlow's puzzle - ambition

Ex. Discriminated learning experiment on monkey (Batear)

drive
When he opens the one window, he can see outer landscape. If the landscape is most curiosity, learning steps fast.
drive A monkey chooses one of them.
drive

Ex. Curiosity for intelligent growth on babies or boys (Fels Research Population)

Prosperous to intelligent curiosity - Intelligent growth is large.
Conclusion (6-10 years old)
IQ: Rise: competitive, intelligent curiosity, Interesting large, Patience ↔ Fall: opposite to the above
Intelligence rises: curiosity, interesting → competence needed.

Challenge sense to your theme (Harter 1982)

_______________________Normal Late Home
Choose difficult theme (%)___64.9__12.5_14.5
- zigzag puzzle: 3 ranks = simple (easy), middle, difficult

development
Left part:__The right side__Nothing
_________The wrong side Picture
Right part: The right side__Picture
_________The wrong side Nothing


→ normal child - choose left, weak-minded child - choose right

Changing IQ of child by mother and father (Sato & Miyaki 1980)

development
Mother-child interference and mother-child behavior: one year before elementary school entrance. development

Feature of child behavior and mother or father approach (1st year of elementary school)

development

5-6 ages → parent: positive effect on child growth
effect from mother - big: pressure has negative effects
effect from father - not big (children feel the model of society)

Sensitivity of PARENT

| +
(feature of parent behavior)
consideration / maintenance – Adaptive behavior in Kinder garden
Interference from parent_____Father interference: + or -
farther +↓- except father
Child self-confidence: independence from parent
↓ +
High grade of intelligent work ↓ +
Adaptive behavior in elementary school

Physical reward drops volition (意欲): "Opposite effort by outer reward"

Experimental examples (Lepper) for 3-5 aged children in a kinder garden

A: reward with notice__B: reward__C: no reward
________8.59%_______16.73%____18.09%

Children draw pictures during free time.
A: notice - give reward if you draw well. B: reward without the notice. C: nothing
↓ for a while
Q. How many children draw spontaneously?
A.: They draw for reward. (In this case, pictures are methods to get reward)

When they don not receive reward, they do not draw any pictures. - Notice: minus effect
Reward = Picture - no

Reinforcement (強化)

exogenous effect has two senses
1. control - behavior control (like A)
2. information - How to do?
Experiment (conducted by Deci)

Puzzle_________Time 1 (1st time)_Time 2 (2nd)_Time 3
Series 1____________248.2_________313.9____198.5
Series 2 (control)_____213.9_________205.7____241.8

Reward = $1
Time 1: no reward, series 1 and 2
Time 2: reward to Series 1_________Series 1 has a mind.
Time 3: no reward to both series.____Series 1 has no mind.

"Helplessness (無力感)" from indiscriminate punishment (Seligman 1967)

Materials - university students

  1. discrimination learning (弁別学習) = no solution): indiscriminate punishment
  2. anagram (アナグラム課題): direct word switch or word play, the result of rearranging the letters of a word or phrase to produce a new word or phrase, using all the original letters exactly once → making as many as they can - impossible

repeatedly failed in the easy tasks → can not solve the tasks they have ever done (cf. also can been seen the avoidance learning of dogs)

Experiments conducted by Duweck

Materials: school children - They design by brick.
Succeeded group__failed group (They cannot make that.)
_______________
Failed group______succeeded group
do their best______two patterns of behavior

1. problem is difficult.
2. They have a mind.

Others loose a mind to be short of effort (for their ability)

Source of failure (原因帰属)
Curiosity (好奇心)
  1. Diffused curiosity: curiosity without some information
  2. Specific curiosity: curiosity for answer

development
education method with curiosity should use specific curiosity

Developing process of intelligent ability
→ Development theory proposed by Piaget (ピアジェの発達理論)

function_____function
↑↓___________↑↓
structure____structure
Time 1__change__Time 2

Experiment #1

development
moving the fence, but the baby does not find out the ball by trick
before 8 months: he/she thinks ball disappears → after 8 months: he/she thinks it is strange.

Experiment #2: three mirrors, all of which show the face of the mother

development
3-4 months: he/she does not have any questions when it sees three mirrors.
7-8 months: it is astonished, due to three mothers of it.

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