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Scientists (科学者)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

[ Ecologist | Taxonomist | References ]


(s.l.) A person who is one engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge.
(s.s.) A scientist is an individual who uses the (natural) scientific method. University professors are not always scientists.

von Humboldt, Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander

(1769-1859, born in Berlin, Prussia), ggeographer, naturalist and explorer
botanical geography (influencing Darwin), firstly proposed the continents were eonce joined

1799-1804: traveling Latin America

Gottlob König
1779-1849, German
forestry scientist - forest care (森林撫育)
"Forest is the most beautiful decoration of the country (森林は国土の最も美しい装飾である)"
Sapporo Agricultural College (札幌農学校)
Clark, William Smith (1826-1886)

Boys, be ambitious like this old man.

Penhallow, David Pearce (1854-1901)
Wheeler, William (1851-1932)
Brooks, William Penn (1851-1938)

von Salisch, Heinrich (フォン・ザーリッシュ)

1846-1920, born in Jeschütz (now Ujeździec)
1885 Forstästhetik (Forest aesthetics, 森林美学)
1902 2nd edition (translated into English in 2008)
1911 3rd edition
Tatewaki M (舘脇 操)

Einstein, Albert (アインシュタイン)

1879/03/04-1955/04/18, German-born theoretical physicist
1905 introduced special relativity

proposed mass–energy equivalence formula, E = mc2

1916 introduced general relativity
1927 modeled the structure of the universe by the general relativity theory
1921 Nobel Prize in Physics
We do not have to say any more.
Words of wisdom
• Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better.
• Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning.
• Everything should be made as simple as possible, but no simpler.
• A normal adult never stops to think about problems of space and time. These are things which he has thought about as a child.
• Education is what remains after one has forgotten everything he learned in school.
• Curiosity has its own reason for existing.
• The more I learn, the more I realize I don't know. The more I realize I don’t know, the more I want to learn.

Hiromu OKADA (岡田 弘)

okada 1943-

Family Doctor of Mt. Usu

Mr. Okada started researching the prediction of eruptions on the day before the eruption of 1977. Stationed at the Usu Volcano Observatory from 1981 to 2001, he predicted the eruption of 2000 and successfully organized the early evacuation with zero casualties through coordinated community efforts. He was known as the “Family Doctor of Mt. Usu” and also as a major proponent for the registration of Mt. Usu as a Global Geopark.

(Plant community) Ecologist (植物群集生態学者)

A brief history of plant ecology viewing from ecologists

Warming, Johannes Eugenius Bülow (nickname = Eugen) (1841.11.3-1924.4.2, Denmark), The father of plant ecology

Plantesamfaud (植物群落) proposed in 1895
Warming E & Vahl M. 1909. Oecology of Plants - an introduction to the study of plant-communities. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 422 pp. (2nd edn 1925). [first book on plant ecology]

An important part has perhaps been played by means of climate, which on the whole has become milder.

Schimper, Andreas Franz Wilhelm (1856-1901), a botanist and phytogeographer

Schimper AFW. 1903. Plant geography upon a physiological basis. (Lubrecht & Cramer Ltd; Translated and reprinted edition, June 1960)
beginning of plant physiological ecology (ecophysiology)

Raunkiaer, Christen Christensen (eponymous) (1860-1938)

1907 lifeform classification

Tansley, Arthur George (1871-1955)

founded British Ecological Society

Clements, Frederic Edward (1874-1945)
Gleason, Henry Allen (1882-1975): Individualistic (or continuum) concept of plant associations

-. 1917. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 43:463-481. -. 1926. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 53:1-20. -. 1939. Amer. Midl. Nat. 21:92-110
Gleason did not disagree with the concept of plant "communities," per se: "Granted, of the actual existence of definable units of vegetation there is no doubt that these units have describable structure, that they appear, maintain themselves, and eventually disappear are observable facts."
Rather, he argued that: "vegetation, in its broader aspects, is composed of a number of plant individuals. The development and maintenance of vegetation is therefore merely the resultant of the development and maintenance of the component individuals ... according to this view, the phenomena of vegetation depend completely upon the phenomena of the individual"

Boysen Jensen, Peter (1883-1959), Danish plant ecophysiologist

1910 demonstrated the presence of growth hormone(s)
1932 Die Stoffproduktion der Pflanzen (Matter production by plants)

Turesson, Goete Wilhelm (1982-1970)

heritability of traits in plant species, common garden approaches, ecotypes

Braun-Blanquet, Josias (1884-1980), phytosociology

vegetation analysis and classification

Stebbins, George Ledyard (1906-2000)

comprehensive analyses of population and geographic variation in plants

Billings, William Dwight (1910-1997)

ecophysiology (gas exchange, water potential, temperature, etc.)

Grant, Verne (1917-2007)

Grant V. 1971. Plant Speciation. Columbia University Press
pollination systems as reproductive isolation mechanisms

Whittaker, Robert Hardin (ホイッタカー) (1920-1980)
1970-present: Allozyme studies in plant ecological genetics
Harper, John Lander (1925-2009): Harper (1977), Begon, et al. (1996)
1960-1974 International Biological Program (IBP)
1975-: scale from molecular techniques to biogeochemistry
1985-: DNA-based genetic markers in plant ecological genetics
1990-: PCR-based genetic marker techniques
1998-: quantitative trait locus mapping emerges as a revolutionary method for studying selection
2000-: plants rule at ESA meetings

renewed focus on mechanisms that control distribution and abundance of plants

舘脇 操 Tatewaki Misao (舘脇 操), 1899.9.8-1976.7.18
  • ---. 1974. The geobotanical relationship between Beringia and northern Japan, with special reference to the arctic-alpine flora of the latter. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University 57: 340-348
  • ---, Ito K, Tohyama M. 1965. Phytosociological study on the forest of Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis Gordon). Research Bulletins of the College Experiment Forests, Hokkaido University 29: 1-176

Wegener, Alfred Lothar (1880-1930, ヴェゲナー/ウェゲナー)

Germany: Meteorologist, geophysicist and polar researcher
1912: the theory of continental drift (大陸漂移説)

not widely accepted until the 1950s
supported by plate tectonics

  • Wegener A. 1912. Die Entstehung der Kontinente. Geologische Rundschau 3: 276–292 (in German)
  • Köppen W, Wegener A. 2015. The Climates of the geological past (Die Klimate der geologischen Vorzeit)/ Thiede J, Lochte K, Dummermuth A. (eds.). Reprint of the original German edition and complete English translation. Borntraeger Scientific Publishers, Stuttgart
  • Wegener A. 1929. Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane (4 ed.). Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Akt. Ges (in German) [Wegener A. 1966. The origin of continents and oceans. Dover, New York]
Fossil patterns across continents (Gondwana)

Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1744.08.01–1829.12.18, ラマルク)

France: proposed use-and-disuse theory
1778 Flore françoise, ou, Description succincte de toutes les plantes qui croissent naturellement en France

1795 2nd edn, 1805 3rd edn

1809 Philosophie Zoologique
1815–22 Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres

Lamarckian evolution (Lamarckism or lamarckian theory)

Darwin, Charles Robert (1809.02.12-1882.04.19, ダーウィン)

England: naturalist, evolutionist and geologist
1859 On the origin of speies by means of natural selection
1844 Geological observations on the volcanic islands, visited during the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle
1868 The variation of animals and plants under domestication
1871 The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex
1872 The expression of the emotions in man and animals
1875 Insectivorous plants. John Murray, London
1888 Insectivorous plants (2nd ed). John Murray, London

Reported 14 genera in six families (revised by his son, Darwin F)

Clements Frederic Edward (1874-1945, クレメンツ)

described vegegtation associations and formations in North America, patterns and processes of succession (遷移), species as environmental indicators, climax community concept
  • ---. 1907. Plant physiology and ecology. Cornell University Library. 332 pp.
    "the climax community is determined by climate"
  • ---. 1916. Plant Succession: an analysis of the development of vegetation. Carnegie Institue of Washington (DC). 512 pp.
  • ---. 1928. Plant succession and indicators. H. W. Wilson Company, NY. 570 pp.
  • Weaver JE, ---. 1938. Plant ecology. McGraw-Hill, NY. 601 pp.
On vegetation and autogenic succession: Vegetation is the sum total of plants covering an area ... vegetation is more than the mere grouping of individual plants. It is the result of the interactions of numerous factors. The effects of the plants upon the place in which they live and their influence upon each other are especially significant
On vegetation as a 'superorganism': ... a study of vegetation reveals that it is an organic entity and that, like an organism, each part is interdependent upon every other part ... the development of vegetation consists of a number of closely related all organisms, vegetation arises, develops, matures, reproduces, and may eventually die ... vegetation, like all organisms, not only undergoes development but also possesses structure.
On climax vegetation and climate: "Depending upon climate, composition or structure varies (e.g., grassland, forest, tundra); these large units are formations or biome (バイオーム). The climax formation is not merely the response to a particular climate, but is at the same time the expression and indication of this climate.
Plant formations (植物共同体, 群落)

proposed by Clements ≠ an organic entity.

Ex. Fagus, Abies, Picea, tundra

initiation                                                         ←seed
selection initiating progress or initial causes ← germinating
construction continuing process or ecesis cause
terminating stabilizing process or climatic cause

Raunkiaer, Christen Christensen (1860.03.29-1938.03.11)

A Danish botanist and plant ecologist, being famous by the proposal of life-form concept
A professor in botany at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and the director of the Copenhagen Botanical Garden (1911-1923)
  • Raunkiaer C. 1907. Planterigets Livsformer ogderes Betydning for Geografien. Copenhargen
  • ---. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical geography. Oxford University Press, Oxford. (This translation contains the papers of Raunkiaer from 1903)

ter Braak CJF (1954-)

  • Jongman RHG, ter Braak CJF, van Tongeren OFR. 1995. Data analysis in community and landscape ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. pp. 299
  • ter Braak CJF. 1986. Canonical correspondence analysis: a new eigenvector technique for multivariate direct gradient analysis. Ecology 67: 1167-1179.
  • ---, Looman CWN. 1986. Weighted averaging, logistic regression and the Gaussian response model. Vegetatio 65: 3-11.
  • ---. 1987. The analysis of vegetation-environment relationships by canonical correspondence analysis. Vegetatio 69: 69-77.
  • ---, Gremmen NJM 1987. Ecological amplitudes of plant species and the internal consistency of Ellenberg's indicator values for moisture. Vegetatio 69: 79-87.
  • ---. 1988. Partial canonical correspondence analysis. pp. 551-558. in: Bock HH (ed.). Classification and related methods of data analysis. North Holland, Amsterdam.
  • ---. 1988. Canoco-a FORTRAN program for canonical community ordination by partial detrended canonical correspondence analysis, principal component analysis and redundancy analysis. TNO Institute of Applied Computer Science, Wageningen.
  • ---, Smilauer P. 2002. CANOCO reference manual and CanoDraw for Windows user's guide. Software for canonical community ordination (version 4.5). Microcomputer Power, Ithaca, NY

Botanist (植物学者)

Kihara Hitoshi 木原 均 (1893.10.21-1986.7.27), genetics
The history of the earth is recorded in the layers of its crust; The history of all organisms is inscribed in the chromosomes.
Keiteki dormitory

Taxonomist (分類学者)

Carl Linnaeus (Carl von Linné)

Naturalist (taxonomist), Sweden (Father of modern classification)

Born: May 23 1707 in southern Sweden
Died: January 10 1778 in Hammarby

artificial taxonomy → Darwin: natural taxonomy
1735 Systema Natureæ (System of nature, 自然の体系)
1736 Fundamenta Botanica (1740 2nd edn. 1741 3rd edn.)
1737 Critica Botanica
1737 Genera Plantarum (植物属誌): 935 genera
1738 Classes Plantarum (classes of plants) (植物の綱)
1751 Philosophia Botanica (Botanical Philosophy, 植物哲学)

the first textbook of descriptive systematic botany and botanical Latin (binomial nomenclature)

1753 Species Plantarum (1st edn) (植物種誌)

Principle of priority is effective after this publication (names propobsed before this publication are not accepted)

1764 Genera Plantarum (6nd edn): 1239 genera

Bentham, George, CMG FRS

1800-1884, UK
  • Bentham G, Hookker JD. 1862-1883. Genera Plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita. vols 3. L Reeve & Co., London

Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton

1817-1911, UK
1844-1847 Flora Antarctica
1851-1853 Flora Novae Zelandiae
1855 Flora Indica
1860 Flora Tasmanica
1872-1897 Flora of British India


Engler, (Heinrich Gustav) Adolf

Plant taxonomist, German

Born: March 2 1844. Sagan, Prussia
Died: October 10 1930. Berlin, Germany

1924 Engler-Glig: Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien 9/10 Aufl.

1936 Engler-Diales: Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien 11 Aufl.

1954 Melchior H und Wedermann E: Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien 12 Aufl.

New Engler's Syllabus


Collecting plant specimens from Japan
1682 Meister, Georg (1653-1713, German), gardener
1682 Cleyer, Andreas (1634-1697, Holland), botanist

they visited Japan

Kaempfer, Engelbert 1651-1716, Germany
1690-1691: stayed in Dejima as the doctor of Dutch trading house
1712 Amoenitatum exoticarum politico-physico-medicarum (廻国奇観)

☛ introduced Ginkgo biloba (イチョウ) to Europe

1727 The History of Japan (日本誌)

posthumous writings translated into English

1777-79 Geschichte und Beschreibung von Japan

German version of the "History of Japan"

Thunberg, Carl Peter 1743-1828
1775-1776: stayed in Dejima during, as the doctor of Dutch trading house

Flora Japonica 1784
Fauna Japonica 1822-1823

Andrias japonicus, introduced to Europe

von Siebold Philipp Franz 1796-1866

1823-1829 (1st visit to Dejima): most specimens kept in Holland National University Museum at Botany Leiden University Branch (Siebold Japanese Plant Collection)

1828 Siebold incident: ship returning home wrecked due to storm

cargo inspection - items prohibited for export → 1929 deportation

1859-1862 (2nd visit to Japan): specimens sold by his widow - kept in Collection of the Komarov Botanical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences

plants - researched by Zuccarini 1797-1848: Flora Japonica 1835-1870, co-authored with Zuccarini
animals - researched by de Haan W, Temminck CJ, Schlegel H, etc.: Fauna Japonica 1833-1850

Gray, Asa 1810-1888 (botany, USA)

1858/12/10: Cambridge Scientific Club
Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States, from New England to Wisconsin and South to Ohio and Pennsylvania Inclusive

Miquel, Friedrich Anton Wilhelm 1811-1871 (botany, Dutch)

plants in dutch colonies (particularly East Indies)

Franchet, Adrien René 1834-1900 (botany, France)

taxonomy and origin of (European) alpine plants - sudden death

Savatier, Paul Amédée Ludovic 1830-1891

stayed in Japan during 1868 and 1871 and during 1873 and 1876
Enumeratio Plantarum in Japonia Sponte Crescentium (日本植物目録) 1875-1879, co-authored with Franchet

Maximowicz, Carl Johann 1827-1891 (botany, Russia)

stayed in Japan during 1860 and 1864
1866-1877 "Diagnoses breves plantarum novarum Japoniae et Manshuriae"

☛ Japanese botanists (日本の植物学者)

Mendel, Gregor Johann (メンデル), July 20 1822 - January 6 1884 (Austrian)

the ordained (December 25 1846)
the founder of the modern science of genetics (heredity)

1856-1863: pea plant experiments

published the results and discussion of experiments in 1866

1865.02.08/03.08 lecture in Brno Natural History Society

introduced the present Mendelian laws - no response

  • Mendel JG. 1866. Versuche über Pflanzenhybriden, Verhandlungen des naturforschenden Vereines in Brünn, Bd. IV für das Jahr, 1865, Abhandlungen: 3–47 (translated version: Druery CT, William B. 1901. Experiments in plant hybridization. Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society 26: 1–32)

40 copies sent to famous scientists, including Darwin

1900 Rediscovery of Mendel's laws (more than three decades later)

Erich von Tschermak, Hugo de Vries and Carl Correns independently verified Mendel's experiments

the laws of Mendelian inheritance

[ philosophy ]

Philosopher (哲学者)

Fichte, Johann Gottlieb (フィヒテ), 1762-1814, German

influenced by Kant

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (ヘーゲル), 1770-1831, German
Heidegger, Martin (ハイデガー) 1889-1976, German
Foucault, Paul-Michel (フーコー), 1926-1984, France
structuralism, postmodernism
Gottlob Frege, Friedrich Ludwig (ゴットロープ・フレーゲ) 1848-1925, German
Philosopher, in particular, for analytic philosophy, logician and mathematician
Lyotard, Jean-François (リオタール), 1924-1998, France
Philosopher, sociologist, and literary theorist
The postmodern condition
Derrida, Jacques (デリダ), 1930-2004, France
post-structuralism and postmodern philosophy
developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction

1967 Speech and Phenomena
1967 Of Grammatology
1967 Writing and Difference
1972 Margins of Philosophy

Schopenhauer Arthur (ショーペンハウアー)

1788-1860, German
1939 On the Freedom of the Will
1840 On the Basis of Morality
1851 Parerga and Paralipomena

Kant Immanuel (カント), 1724-1804 Königreich Preußen (German)

Modern philosophy

Transcendental idealism
Critical philosophy
Synthetic a priori
Noumenon Sapere aude

Categorical imperative
Hypothetical imperative
"Kingdom of Ends"
The understanding–reason distinction
The abstract–concrete distinction
The primacy of the practical
Nebular hypothesis

1781 Kritik der reinen Vernunft (純粋理性批判) - 1783 2nd edn.
1788 Kritik der praktischen Vernunft (実践理性批判)
1790 Kritik der Urteilskraft (判断力批判)

Kierkegaard Soeren Aabye (キルケゴール)


founder of modern existential philosophy (実存哲学)

1813-55, Denmark

Nietzsche Friedrich Wilhelm (ニーチェ)

1844-1900, German
Apollonian and Dionysian
The "slave revolt" in morals
Death of God and nihilism
Will to power
Eternal return

Sartre Jean Paul (サルトル), 1905-1980, French

1938 La Nausée (嘔吐)
existentialism and phenomenology

influencing sociology, critical theory, post-colonial theory and literary studies

World War II

1943 Being and Nothingness (存在と無)
Les Chemins de la liberté (自由への道)

1945 Part 1. L'Âge de raison (分別ざかり)
1945 Part 2. Le Sursis (猶予)
1949 Part 3. La Mort dans l'âme (魂の中の死)
Unfinished Part 4. La Derniére chance (最後の機会)

1946 Existentialism and Humanism
1964 Les Mots (The Words, 言葉): autobiography
1964 Nobel Prize in Literature: declined by Sartre