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Nutrient (栄養素)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

Mineral nutrition (無機代謝物, 無機養分, 無機栄養)

Mineral nutrient (nutritional mineral, 無機栄養素)
→ a plant consists of much water composed of C, H and O → C, O, H are not dealt with nutrient content

Atoms in living organisms
H 62%, O 26, C 9.5, N 1.4, Ca, 0.31, P 0.22, Cl 0.08
+ K, S, Na, Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, B, Al, V, Ma, I, Si, Sn, Ni, Cr, F, Se

C, H and O: prerequisite for photosynthesis, but not dealt as essential elements because of the high abundance
Major elements (多量必須元素)
= macronutrient
= (metal) K Ca Mg + (non-metal) P N S
Trace elements (微量必須元素)
= micronutrient
= (metal) Fe Cu Mn Zn Mo Co V Na Ga + (non-metal) B Si Cl I
Beneficial elements (有用元素)
= (metal) Al Sr Rb + (non-metal) Se

Essential element (必須元素)

Major essential elements (多量必須元素)

= Macronutrient
Elements required by plants to grow and complete their life cycle

N (nitrogen)

1802 de Saussure
1851-1855 Boussingault

Forming amino acids, amino-enzymes, nucleic acids, chlorophyll, alkaloids, and purine bases
Organic nitrogen
Inorganic nitrogen

P (phosphorus)

1839 Liebig
1861 Ville

Forming ATP, RNA, DNA, phytin and certain enzymes

K (potassium)

1866 Bimer & Lacanus

Maintaining the water staus in plants via operating turgor pressure and opening and closing stomata

Ca (calcium)

1862 Strohmann

Maintaining cell integrity and membrane permeability
Inducing pollen germination and growth
Activating enzymes related to cell mitosis, division and elongation

Mg (magnecium)

1875 Boehm

Forming chlorophyll

S (sulfur)

1866 Bimer & Lucanus

Promoting protein synthesis
Consisting of cystine and thiamin
Forming disulfide bonds (S-S bond)

Trace or minor elements (微量必須元素)

= Micronutrient
The elements are required in relatively low concentrations in plants compared to the major elements

Fe (iron, Fe++, Fe3+)

1843 Gris

Mn (manganese)

1849-51 Salm-Hgorstmar: growing Avena sativa without Mn → gray speck disease (灰斑病)
1863 Raulin: Rhizopus (Ascophora), a fungus, needs Mn as trace element. Also, indicating the importance of Zn for the fungus
1907-12 Javillier & Bertrand: confirming that Mn is a trace element for Rhizopus and Aspergillus niger by additional tests
1922 McHargue: confirming the dispensability using Avena sativa, Glycine max and Lycopersicon sp.
1928 Samuel & Piper: inducing gray speck disease by applying water culture

Zn (zinc)

1869 Raulin / 1907 Javillier: showing that Aspergillus niger requires Zn for the grwoth
1914 Maze: demonstrating that Zea mays requires Zn for the growth
1926 Sommer & Lipman: advocating that all plants require Zn
1928 Sommer: demonstrating that Zn is essential for a few examined plant species

B (boron)

1910 Agulhon: the growths of Raphanus sativus, Avena sativa (oat) and Triticum aesticum (common wheat) are promoted by the contamination of B in water culture
1915 Maze: Zea mays (corn), the same above
1923 Warington: showing that Vicia fava (broad bean) requires B
1928 Sommer & Lipman: demonstrating that a few hihger plans required B
1945 Winfield: fungi did not require B
1952 Eyster: B is essential for blue-green algae. Azotobacter chroococcum required B to fix nitrogen

Cu (copper, Cu++, Cu+)

1925 McHargue 1927 Bortes, 1928 Roberg, 1935 Steinberg, 1939 Mulder: discovered that fungi and bacteria required Cu for their growths
1931 Sommer & Lipman, 1931 MacKinney: Lycopersicon esculenthum (tomato), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), reported that Hordeum vulgare (common barley), Linum usitatissimum (common flax ) were essential
1938 Arnon, 1942 Piper: demonstrated that Cu and Zn were essential by uisng purifing specific nutrient salts that did not contain Cu and Zn

Mo (molybdenum, MoO42-)

1930, 1936 Bortels: Azotobacter, nitrogen-fixing fungus
1937 Steinberg: micro-organisms require Mo when the nutrient source is nitrate
1939 Arton, Stant: higher plants require Mo when the nutrient source is nitrate
1940 Jenson, Betty, 1942 Anderson: Rhizobium, a root nodule bacterium, requires Mo
1940 Bortels: Other micro-organisms, such as Nostoc, Anabena, Clostridium butyricum require Mo. Nitrogen-fixing bacteris is high requisite performance
1945 Stewart, Leonard: pointing out that the cause of yellow spotting on citrus was owing to the poverty of Mo
1945 Mitchell, 1952 Davis: broccoli and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) recovered whip tail by adding Mo
1961, 1962 Bond, Hewitt: Actinomycetes on Casuarina cunninghamiana, Myrica gale, Alnus glutinosa require Mo

Cl (chlorine)

1955 Boyer, Carton, Johnson & Stout

Beneficial elements (有用元素)

Al (aluminium, or aluminum)
Se (seleniumm, セレン)
1933 Robinson: Se absorbed by plants
1934-35: Hurd-Karrer: growth failure (chlorosis) due to exess Se
1966 Ganji: 0.02-2.0 ppm in plant dry weight
Na (natrium, or sodium)
Si (silicon)

Vitamin (ビタミン)

= major essential elements or traces
aB1 (Thiamin)TPP (Thiamin-pyrophosphate)
DPT (diphosphothiamin)
carbohydrate metabolism
c'B2 (Riboflavin)FMN, FADredox, biological oxidation
B6 (Pyridoxin)PLP (pyridoxal phosphate)amino-acid metabolism
Nicotinamide (Niacin)NAD, NADPbiological oxidation
Panthotenic acidCoAlipid metabolism
Biotin (H)Biocytin (enzyme-protein complex)CO2 transfer, lipid and sugar metabolism
Folic acid (M)H4-folateC1-compound transfer → nucleic acids, amino acids
B12Cobamide coenzymeintramolecular rearrangement of H → nucleic acids, lipids
Lipoic acidLipomideAcyl transfer α-KG oxidation → glucides
Ex. Rat liver (μmol/g wet wt)

NAD + NADP = 0.88
NADP + NADPH = 0.29 (total = 1.17)
CoA = 0.42
FAD = 0.07
TPP = 0.035
PLP = 0.0074
B12 = 0.00012

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex: complex made of three enzymes

5 steps:
E1: pyruvate dehydrogenase (decarboxylase), EC 1, 2, 4, 1
E2: dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase, EC 2, 3, 1, 12
E3: dihydrolipoamide reductase (dehydrogenase), EC 1, 6, 4, 3

Folic acid (Vitamin B complex, 葉酸)

Pteridine-P-aminobenzoic acid-Glutamic acid
C1: -CH2OH, -CHO, -CH3 = tetrahydrofolic acid (FH4) in vivo - not functioned as co-enzyme when the form is not like this

CH2OH-CH(NH2)-COOH (Serine) + FH4
→ CH2-CNH2-COOH (Glycine) + N5, N10-methylase-FH4

K Vitamin K: lipophilicity (脂溶性)

relted to electron transfer

Ex. ubiquinone (UQ)

R: -H, menadione (2-methyl-1, 4-naphtoquinone)

n = 3: vitamin K1, =5-8: K2 series (=6: K2(30), =7: K2(35))

R: -OH, phthicol

Transfer (移動)

Fertilizer (肥料)

The born of agriculture → emergence of agricultural pests
10,000 BP: The born of agriculture [cause] increase in population + food insufficiency (glacial age → cooling of the earth for 1,000 years = difficulties in coursing and picking)
5,000 BP: the develpment of agricultural cultures
Green revolution (緑の革命)
= Third Agricultural Revolution, ≈ seed-fertilizer revolution
A period of technology transfer initiatives that saw increased crop yields and agricultural production

high-yielding varieties of crops
chemical fertilizers/pesticide - effective to high-yielding varieties
⇒ spread to developing countries

1962 International Rice Research Institute, IRRI (国際イネ研究所)

Philippines, financially supported by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Ford Foundation
1966 IR-8, called Miracle Rice, was developed

1963 Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo, CIMMYT (国際トウモロコシ小麦改良センター)

Mexico, financially supported by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Ford Foundation

Hyponex medium (ハイポネックス)
Hyponex (powder type): NPK = 6.5:5:19
Water pollution (on skislope)