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Conservation (保全)






Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

[ naturalness | endangered species | hotspot ]

Conservation (保全)

Human ecosystem (生態系) and the environment (環境) (Mader 1985)
lead to environmental problems.

Land use: urbanization, cropland and rangeland, etc. + Pollution

Human activities are causing the extinction of many different kinds of organisms (species).
Humans are beginning to learn how to work with nature for a better environment.

Conservation biology (保全生物学)

The studies on the nature and status of biodiversity at varous scalses for conserving species, habitats, and ecosystems

Conservation ecology (保全生態学)

Ecological approach
blend natural processes with reclamation decision (succession, competition, grazing etc.)
create landscapes managing natural elements
create complementary species assemblages - mosaic nature
maximize use of existing site qualities/species
expand conservative areas
Ex. Heath (s.l.): meaning that harsh, alpine vegetation dominated by Empetrum nigrum, etc. in the case of Japan

Decrease in Scotland forests and development of heath
Distribution: British Isls (widespread), NW Europe and SW Finland

Oceanic climatic condition → cool and humid summer and warm in winter

List of major plants in heath, most of which are less than 1.5 m in height
Erica cinerea, E. tethalix, Empetrum nigrum, Vaccinium vitis-idaea = Ericaceous shrubs

索引

England: vascular plants = ca 1570 taxa (= a half of Japan, and close to Hokkaido)
Glacier: England → decrease by human activity
The New Stone Age: as compared with the Old Stone Age
Decrease in pollen = elm, ash (Fraxinus), maple
Increase in pollen = birch, oak, plantain, grass
→ deforestation
Scotland: failure in agriculture → livestock farming (sheep) = exploitation of forest → difficulties in revegetaion → development of heath

Landscape conservation (景観保全)
reclamation: return to productive use
rehabilitation: improve derelict land
restoration: return to a complete, natural system
Landscape unit

Naturalness (自然度)


Table. Degree of naturalness in ecosystems. Hemerobiotic state, and some characteristics of vegetation and soil. (van der Maarel 1975)
NaturalnessHemerobiotic stateChanges substrateChanges vegetation structureChanges floristic compositionLoss natives (%)Gain neophytes (%)
NaturalA-hemerobioticNoNoNo00
Near naturalOligo-FewNoMost species spontaneous< 1%5%
Semi-(agri)-naturalMeso-Small, superficialOther life form dominatingMost species spontaneous1-5%5-12%
AgriculturalEu-Moderate to drasticCrops dominatingFew species spontaneous6%13-20%
Near-culturalPoly-Drastic artificial substrateOpen ephemeralFew to no species?21-80%
CulturalMeta-hemerobioticDrastic artificial substrate----

Endangered species (絶滅危惧種)


(s.l.) A population of species which is at risk of becoming extinct, because it is either few in numbers, or threatened by changing ecosystems
(s.s.) taxa in danger of extinction and whose survival is unlikely if the causal factors continue operating. Included are taxa whose numbers have been reduced to a critical level or whose habitats have been so drastically reduced that they are deemed to be in immediate danger of extinction. Also included are taxa that are possibly already extinct but have definitely been seen in the wild in the past 50 years

Red Data Book (RDB)


Red Data Book, RDB: source books that record endangered plants and animals, not only published by IUCN

Red Data species, RDS: endangered species assigned by International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, IUCN (2008)

IUCN

Extinct (EX)No individuals remaining
Extinct in the Wild (EW)Known only to survive in captivity, or as a naturalized population outside its historic range
Critically Endangered (CR)Extremely high risk of extinction in the wild
Endangered (EN)High risk of extinction in the wild
Vulnerable (VU)High risk of endangerment in the wild
Near Threatened (NT)Likely to become endangered in the near future
Least Concern (LC)Lowest risk. Does not qualify for a more at risk category
Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category
Data Deficient (DD)Not enough data to make an assessment of its risk of extinction
Not Evaluated (NE)Has not yet been evaluated against the criteria

Hokkaido (北海道)

Drosera
Mammals (哺乳類)
Most of them are endangred in Hokkaido
Vascular plants (維管束植物)
*: distributed in Sarobetsu mire (サロベツ湿原) → wetland (湿原)
Aconitum ito-seiyanum (セイヤブシ), R (Hokkaido)
Betula apoiensis (アポイカンバ), CR
Betula davurica (ヤエガワカンバ), NT
Carex bigelowii (オハグロスゲ), DD
Carex nemurensis (ホソバオゼヌマスゲ), VU
Carex rhynchophysa (オオカサスゲ), CR
Cirsium apoense (アポイアザミ), CR
Crepis gymnopus (エゾタカネニガナ), VU
Drosera anglica (ナガバノモウセンゴケ)*, VU
Erigeron thunbergii var. angustifolius (アポイアズマギク), CR
Hypochaeris crepidioides (エゾコウゾリナ), EN
Iris laevigata (カキツバタ)*, VU
Lonicera chamissoi (チシマヒョウタンボク), VU
Pogonia japonica (トキソウ)*, NT
Rumex longifolius (ノダイオウ), VU
Salix arbutifolia (ケショウヤナギ), VU
and more

Wildlife management (野生生物管理学)


Metagenomics (メタゲノミクス)

≈ environmental genomics, ecogenomics and community genomics
The study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples
Applicaations
Infectious disease diagnosis
(Gut) microbe characterization
Biofuel
Environmental remediation
Biotechnology
Agriculture
Ecology

Biodiversity (生物多様性)


biodiversity = biological diversity, proposed by Wilson & Peter (1988)
The totality or total complexity of genes, species, and/or ecosystems in a various scales from habitat to the world.
Table. Biodiversity should be considered with three levels.
  • level: measurable parameter
  • ecosystem: number of functional types
  • species: number of species (species richness), diversity index (多様性指数)
  • gene: the total amount of genetic variation in a population or species
reflected in the number of different species, the different combination of species, and the different combinations of genes within each species.

Biodiversity hotspots (生物多様性ホットスポット)


Map of hotspts

Featuring exceptional concentrations of endemic species and experiencing exceptional loss of habitat (Myers et al. 2000)

Based on the number of endemic species > 1,500 species
2000 (established): Bonin Islands only
25 hotspots (Area = 1.4%) → 44% vascular plants / 35% vertebrates
2005 (revised): the whole of Japan
34 hotspots (Area = 2.3%) → 50% vascular plants / 42% vertebrates

The twenty-five biodiversity hotspots (green, coded as 1-25) prorposed by Myers et al. (2000) and added nine hotspots (blue, 26-34) (Mittermeier et al. 2005)

  1. The Tropical Andes
  2. Mesoamerica
  3. The Caribbean Islands
  4. The Atlantic Forest
  5. Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena
  6. The Cerrado
  7. Chilean Winter Rainfall-Valdivian Forests
  8. The California Floristic Province
  9. Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands
  10. The Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa
  11. The Guinean Forests of West Africa
  12. The Cape Floristic Region
  13. The Succulent Karoo
  1. The Mediterranean Basin
  2. The Caucasus
  3. Sundaland
  4. Wallacea
  5. The Philippines
  6. Indo-Burma
  7. The Mountains of Southwest China
  8. Western Ghats and Sri Lanka
  9. Southwest Australia
  10. New Caledonia
  11. New Zealand
  12. Polynesia and Micronesia
  1. The Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands
  2. Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany
  3. The Eastern Afromontane
  4. The Horn of Africa
  5. The Irano-Anatolian
  6. The Mountains of Central Asia
  7. Eastern Himalaya
  8. Japan
  9. East Melanesian Islands
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