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Fungal taxonomy (菌類分類学)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

Progressing molecular methods to establsih the phylogenetic tree, as well as vascular plants
  │      │                    Yeast
 Insect   │                      │
parasites │                      │
  │      │       EUASCOMYCETAE  │    │              │
  │      │ Molds  │  │  │    │    │              │
  ├───┴────┴─┴─┴──┘    ├─ Mushrooms  │
Ascomycota                        Basidiomycota         │
  └──────────────────┘            Plants
                  │                ┌──Rhodophyta──┘
              CONJUAGTING         PROTIST       ANCESTORS
                  │                │
Fig. Phylogeny of kingdom Fungi (Margulis 1974)

1983 ___ fungi vs bacteria
Genus __ 5000 vs 200
Species _ 45000 vs 1200


Kingdom Eumycota (菌類, fungi)

Phylum Eumycota (Mycobionta) 真菌門

≈ fungi + molds + yeasts

Subphylum Mastigomycotina 鞭毛菌亜門(類)

Vegetative organ: monocecullar or mycelial, developing mobile spores or gametes
Swarmer (遊走細胞) at certain stages
1. planogametic conjugation (運動性配偶子接合)

isogamous (同形配偶)
anisogamous (異形同配偶) (adj. anisogamous): referring to gamets that cosistently differ in size, the larger designated "female" and the smaller "male"

physiological anisogamy: isogamy with physiological differences between the uniting isogametes


2. gametangial contact (配偶子単結合)
3. gametangial conjugation (配偶子接合)
4. spermatization (不動精子による受精)
5. somatogamy (体細胞接合)

Phylum Chytridiomycota ツボカビ

Class Chytridiomycetes ツボカビ
Class Oomycetes 卵菌
Class Blastocladiales (厚膜嚢菌)
⇒ separated to Phylum Blastocladiomycota
Blastocladiaceae (コウマクノウキン)
Allomyces E. J. Butler (カワリミズカビ) Blastocladia Reinsch (コウマクノウキン): B. emersonii
Catenariaceae (フシフクロカビ)
Coelomomycetaceae (ボウフラキン)

Phylum Zygomycota 接合菌

(= Subphylum Zygomycotina 接合菌亜門, 接合菌類)
⇒ polyphyletic group = disorganized

establishing Phylum Glomeromycota and others

Class Zygomycetes 接合菌綱
Order Mucorales (ケカビ)
Mucoraceae (ケカビ)

(Phylum Microsporidia 微胞子虫門)

Molecular phylogeny and biochemical analysis suggest that this taxon is close to Zygomycota

Phylum Ascomycota 子嚢菌

Phylum Basidiomycota 担子菌

Agaricales (ハラタケ)
Agaricaceae (ハラタケ)
Agaricus (ハラタケ): A. campestris L. (ハラタケ), edible when young
Tricholomataceae (キシメジ)
Armillaria (ナラタケ)

(Phylum Glomeromycota グロムス菌)

(Tsubaki 1981)

Phylum Deuteromycets 不完全菌, mitosporic fungi

sexual reproduction is not observed → vegetative reproduction by conidia

Species in Deutromycets are classified into any phyla based on molecular phylogenetic analysis

Phylum Ascomycota (子嚢菌)

Subphylum Pezizomycotina (チャワンタケ)

≈ former Euascomycota (真正子嚢菌)

Class Arthoniomycetes (ホシゴケ菌)

Former Class Loculoascomycetes (小房子嚢菌綱)

= bitunicate ascomycetes
divided into two classes, Eurotiomycetes and Dothideomycetes

Class Dothideomycetes (クロイボタケ)

110 families in 23 orders

Subclass Dothideomycetidae

Order Capnodiales
Mycosphaerellaceae (マイコスフェレラ)
Passalora Fr.
P. fulva (Cooke) U. Braun et Crous (トマト葉カビ病菌)
Order Dothideales
Order Myriangiales

Subclass Pleosporomycetidae

Order Hysteriales
Order Jahnulales
Order Mytilinidiales
Order Pleosporales
over 4700 species within 249 genera in 39 families

Subclass, incertae sedis

Order Botryosphaeriales
Order Microthyriales
Order Patellariales
Order Strigulales
Order Trypetheliales

Class Eurotiomycetes

Subclass Chaetothyriomycetidae

Subclass Cryptocaliciomycetidae

Subclass Coryneliomycetidae

Subclass Eurotiomycetidae

Order Arachnomycetales Gibas, Sigler et Currah
Order Eurotiales G. W. Martin ex Benny et Kimbr.
Aspergillaceae Link (= Monascaceae J. Schröt.)
Elaphomycetaceae Tul. ex Paol.
Penicillaginaceae Houbraken, Frisvad et Samson
Thermoascaceae Apinis
Trichocomaceae E. Fisch. (マユハキタケ)
Penicillium Link 1809 (アオカビ)
Order Onygenales Cif. ex Benny et Kimbr.
Eurotiomycetidae, incertae sedis

Subclass Mycocaliciomycetidae

Subclass Sclerococcomycetidae

Class Geoglossomycetes (テングノメシガイ)

Class Laboulbeniomycetes

Class Lecanoromycetes (チャシブゴケ)

Class Leotiomycetes (ズキンタケ)

Order Erysiphales H. Gwynne-Vaughan (ウドンコカビ)
Erysiphaceae Tul. et C. Tul. (ウドンコカビ), powdery mildew
Erysiphe R. Hedw. ex DC.
Blumeria: B. graminis, barley powdery mildew or corn mildew
Sphaerotheca Kunze
Oidium (Nees) Link
Phyllactinia Lév.

Class Lichinomycetes

Class Orbiliomycetes

Class Pezizomycetes (チャワンタケ)

Class Sordariomycetes (フンタマカビ)

Order Xylariales (クロサイワイタケ)
Xylariaceae (クロサイワイタケ)
Rosellinia De Not.
R. necatrix Berl. ex Prill.: causing white root rot
Order Diaporthales
Diaporthaceae (ディアポルテ菌, 胴枯病菌)
Diaporthe, Diaporthopsis, Leucodiaporthe, Phomopsis, etc.
Leucostoma (De Not.) Höhn.

Class, incertae sedis

Order Lahmiales
Order Medeolariales
Order Triblidiales

Subphylum Saccharomycotina

= Class Saccharomycetes

= Order Saccharomycetales

Subphylum Taphrinomycotina

≈ Archiascomycetes or Archaeascomycetes

Class Archaeorhizomycetes

Class Neolectomycetes

= Neolecta

Class Pneumocystidomycetes

Class Schizosaccharomycetes

= yeasts

Class Taphrinomycetes

Old classification

Subdivision Ascomycotina (子嚢菌類)

the largest subdivision in fungi

Class Hemiascomycetes (半子嚢菌綱)

Class Plectomycetes (不整子嚢菌綱)

Class Pyrenomycetes (核菌綱)

Class Discomycetes (盤菌綱)

Phylum Basidiomycota (担子菌)

Subphylum Basidiomycotina 担子菌亜門(担子菌類)

Life cycle (生活環)
Haplobiontic A life cycle_Haplobiontic B________Haplobiontic C
Fig. Life cycle of sexually reproducing fungi
Fig. Life cycle of Agaricus sp. (mushroom)
Table. Saccardo's spore groups (Saccardo 1899) → Saccardo's system
Table. Saccardo's spore groups (Saccardo 1899)
SporesName covering 1 and 21: Spores hyaline or bright (Hyalo-)2: Spores dark (Phaeo-)
A1-celled (and not E, F, or G)AmerosporaeHyalosporaePhaeosporae
C2 or more cross septaPhragmosporaeHyalophragmaePhaeophragmae
FSpirally coiledHelioosporare
GStar-like in formStaurosporae

Fungi01 Fungi02 Fungi03
[1] Amanita hemibapha ( Br.) Sacc. (タマゴタケ) at Kofu-en, South Ward, Sapporo, on June 30 2009. [2] Pycnoporus coccineus (ヒイロタケ), on a log tree along a trail at Mount Namsan in Seoul City, Korea, on September 13 2012. [3] Amanita muscaria (L.) Lam. (ベニテングタケ) at Upper Chatanika Camp Site, Alaska, USA, on August 11 2010. Back: at the campus of Hokkaido University on October 7 2014.
Fungi04 Fungi05 Fungi06
[4] Hericium erinaceum (Bull.) Persoon (ヤマブシタケ) at a street tree, N20/W3, North Ward, Sapporo, on October 8 2013. [5] Trichaptum biforme (Fr.) Ryvarden (ハカワラタケ) in a Hokkaido University Campus on September 11 2013. [6] Coprinellus micaceus (Bull.) Vilgalys, Hopple et Jacq. Johnson (キララタケ) at the base of an old Ulmus davidiana tree in the campus of Hokkaido University on June 21 2014. Also, seen on a few stumps at Nakayama Pass parking lot on August 27 2021.
Fungi07 Fungi08 Fungi09
[7] Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers. (アミガサタケ) on Shiroyama nature road in Kagoshima City, southern Kyushu, on March 20 2015. (fairy ring) [8] Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quél. (カワラタケ, syn. Trametes versicolor (L.) Lloyd) in Tsukiura Forest Park near the Toya Lake Experimental Station of Hokkaido University on September 15 2015. [9] Aleuria aurantia (Pers.) Fuckel (ヒイロチャワンタケ) in the Furano Experimental Forest of the University of Tokyo, central Hokkaido, on June 28 2017
Fungi10 Fungi11 Fungi12
[10] Pholiota terrestris Overholts (ツチスギタケ) that is poisonous on a lawn in the campus of Hokkaido University, Sapporo, on November 13 2017. [11] Fuscoporia obliqua (Ach. ex Pers.) Aoshima (カバノアナタケ) sample stored in the Uryu Experimental Forest, northern Japan, on June 28 2018. [12] Piptoporus betulinus (Bull.) P. Karst. (カンバタケ) grown on a stump of brich near the backyard of Japanese archery training hall, Hokkaido University, on September 8 2018.
Fungi13 Fungi14 Fungi15
[13] Gerronema fibula (Bull.) Singer (ヒナノヒガサ) on a lawn in front of Sarobetsu Wetland Center on August 27 2018. [14] Laccaria amethystina (Huds.) Cooke (ウラムラサキ) near the parking lot of Mount Koma, southern Hokkaido, on July 9 2018. [15] Perenniporia fraxinea (Bull.) Ryvarden (ベッコウタケ) at the base of a large cherry tree on a bank along Sophia Street, Chiyoda Ward, Tokyo, on October 19 2018.
Fungi16 Fungi17 Fungi18
[16] Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.) Murrill (アイカワタケ) on a tree (black locust) in N26/E1, East Ward, Sapporo, on September 7 2019. [17] Amanita pantherina (DC.: Fr.) Krombh. (テングタケ) in the Tomakomai Experimental Forest of Hokkaido University on September 12 2019. [18] Boletellus obscurecoccineus (Höhn.) Singer (ミヤマベニイグチ) in the Tomakomai Experimental Forest of Hokkaido University on September 12 2019.
Fungi19 Fungi20 Fungi21
[19] Dermocybe cinnamomea (L.) Fr. 1838 (ササタケ) at the edge of tussock in a post-mined peatland, Sarobetsu mire, on August 20 2019. [20] Scutellinia scutellata (L.) Lamb. (ベニチャワンタケ) in the north campus of Hokkaido University on March 31 2020. [21] Crepidotus subsphaerosporus (J. E. Lange) Kühner et Romagn. ex Hesler et A. H. Sm. (ニセコナカブリ) on the south slope of Mount Usu on April 9 2020.
Fungi22 Fungi23 Fungi24
[22] Coriolus polyzona (Pers.) Imaz. (キツネカワラタケ) on the south slope of Mount Usu on April 9 2020. [23] Fomitella fraxinea (Fr.) Imaz. (ベッコウタケ) on a stump in front of HU Coop Central Restaurant on August 11 2020. [24] Conocybe lactea (J. E. Lange) Metrod (キコガサタケ) near Ishikari Coast on the Road Station Ai-rodo (I-Road) in Atsuta on August 17 2020.
Fungi25 Fungi26 Fungi27
[25] Gymnopus androsaceus (L.) J. L. Mata et R. H. Petersen, syn. Marasmius androsaceus (L.) Fr. (オチバタケ) in ToEF on June 30 2022. [26] Bisporella citrina (Batsch) Korf et S.E.Carp. (ビョウタケ) near the former skislope on Mount Eniwa used for the Sapporo Winter Olympic Games on August 27 2022. [27] Agaricus campestris L. (ハラタケ) near the Institute of Low Temperatue Science, Hokkaido University, on September 23 2023.