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(Upload on May 14 2020) [ 日本語 | English ]

Fungal taxonomy (菌類分類学)






Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

  │      │                    Yeast
 Insect   │                      │
parasites │                      │
  │      │       EUASCOMYCETAE  │    │              │
  │      │ Molds  │  │  │    │    │              │
  ├───┴────┴─┴─┴──┘    ├─ Mushrooms  │
Ascomycota                        Basidiomycota         │
  └──────────────────┘            Plants
     LIVING PHYLA OF THE FUNIGI KINGDOM                 │
                  │                ┌──Rhodophyta──┘
              CONJUAGTING         PROTIST       ANCESTORS
                  │                │
Fig. Phylogeny of kingdom Fungi (Margulis 1974)

1983 ___ fungi vs bacteria
Genus __ 5000 vs 200
Species _ 45000 vs 1200

索引

Kingdom Eumycota (菌類, fungi)


Phylum Eumycota (Mycobionta) 真菌門

≈ fungi + molds + yeasts

Subphylum Mastigomycotina 鞭毛菌亜門(類)

Vegetative organ: monocecullar or mycelial, developing mobile spores or gametes
Swarmer (遊走細胞) at certain stages
Flagellum:
Conjugation:
1. planogametic conjugation (運動性配偶子接合)

isogamous (同形配偶)
anisogamous (異形同配偶) (adj. anisogamous): referring to gamets that cosistently differ in size, the larger designated "female" and the smaller "male"

physiological anisogamy: isogamy with physiological differences between the uniting isogametes

heterogamous

2. gametangial contact (配偶子単結合)
3. gametangial conjugation (配偶子接合)
4. spermatization (不動精子による受精)
5. somatogamy (体細胞接合)

Phylum Chytridiomycota ツボカビ

Class Chytridiomycetes ツボカビ
Class Oomycetes 卵菌
Class Blastocladiales (厚膜嚢菌)
⇒ separated to Phylum Blastocladiomycota
Blastocladiaceae (コウマクノウキン)
Allomyces E. J. Butler (カワリミズカビ) Blastocladia Reinsch (コウマクノウキン): B. emersonii
Catenariaceae (フシフクロカビ)
Coelomomycetaceae (ボウフラキン)
Physodermataceae
Sorochytriaceae

Phylum Zygomycota 接合菌

(= Subphylum Zygomycotina 接合菌亜門, 接合菌類)
⇒ polyphyletic group = disorganized

establishing Phylum Glomeromycota and others

Class Zygomycetes 接合菌綱
Order Mucorales (ケカビ)
Mucoraceae (ケカビ)

(Phylum Microsporidia 微胞子虫門)

Molecular phylogeny and biochemical analysis suggest that this taxon is close to Zygomycota

Phylum Ascomycota 子嚢菌

Phylum Basidiomycota 担子菌

Agaricales (ハラタケ)
Tricholomataceae キシメジ
Armillaria ナラタケ

(Phylum Glomeromycota グロムス菌)

(Tsubaki 1981)

Phylum Deuteromycets 不完全菌, mitosporic fungi

sexual reproduction is not observed → vegetative reproduction by conidia

Species in Deutromycets are classified into any phyla based on molecular phylogenetic analysis

Phylum Ascomycota (子嚢菌)


Class Sordariomycetes
Order Xylariales (クロサイワイタケ)
Xylariaceae
Rosellinia De Not.
R. necatrix Berl. ex Prill.: causing white root rot

Phylum Basidiomycota (担子菌)


Subphylum Basidiomycotina 担子菌亜門(担子菌類)

Life cycle (生活環)
Basidiomycetes
Haplobiontic A life cycle_Haplobiontic B________Haplobiontic C
Fig. Life cycle of sexually reproducing fungi
Basidiomycetes
Basidiomycetes
Fig. Life cycle of Agaricus sp. (mushroom)
Table. Saccardo's spore groups (Saccardo 1899) → Saccardo's system
Table. Saccardo's spore groups (Saccardo 1899)
SporesName covering 1 and 21: Spores hyaline or bright (Hyalo-)2: Spores dark (Phaeo-)
A1-celled (and not E, F, or G)AmerosporaeHyalosporaePhaeosporae
B2-celledDidymosporaeHyalodidymaePhaeodidymae
C2 or more cross septaPhragmosporaeHyalophragmaePhaeophragmae
DMuriformDiotyosporaeHyalodictyaePhaeodictyae
EFiliformSooleoosporae
FSpirally coiledHelioosporare
GStar-like in formStaurosporae

Fungi01 Fungi02 Fungi03
[1] Amanita hemibapha (Berk.et Br.) Sacc. (タマゴタケ) at Kofu-en, South Ward, Sapporo, on June 30 2009. [2] Pycnoporus coccineus (ヒイロタケ), on a log tree along a trail at Mount Namsan in Seoul City, Korea, on September 13 2012. [3] Amanita muscaria (L.) Lam. (ベニテングタケ) at Upper Chatanika Camp Site, Alaska, USA, on August 11 2010. Back: at the campus of Hokkaido University on October 7 2014.
Fungi04 Fungi05 Fungi06
[4] Hericium erinaceum (Bull.) Persoon (ヤマブシタケ) at a street tree, N20/W3, North Ward, Sapporo, on October 8 2013. [5] Trichaptum biforme (Fr.) Ryvarden (ハカワラタケ) in a Hokkaido University Campus on September 11 2013. [6] Coprinellus micaceus (Bull.) Vilgalys, Hopple et Jacq. Johnson (キララタケ) at the base of an old Ulmus davidiana tree in the campus of Hokkaido University on June 21 2014. Also, seen on a few stumps at Nakayama Pass parking lot on August 27 2021.
Fungi07 Fungi08 Fungi09
[7] Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers. (アミガサタケ) on Shiroyama nature road in Kagoshima City, southern Kyushu, on March 20 2015. (fairy ring) [8] Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quél. (カワラタケ, syn. Trametes versicolor (L.) Lloyd) in Tsukiura Forest Park near the Toya Lake Experimental Station of Hokkaido University on September 15 2015. [9] Aleuria aurantia (Pers.) Fuckel (ヒイロチャワンタケ) in the Furano Experimental Forest of the University of Tokyo, central Hokkaido, on June 28 2017
Fungi10 Fungi11 Fungi12
[10] Pholiota terrestris Overholts (ツチスギタケ) that is poisonous on a lawn in the campus of Hokkaido University, Sapporo, on November 13 2017. [11] Fuscoporia obliqua (Ach. ex Pers.) Aoshima (カバノアナタケ) sample stored in the Uryu Experimental Forest, northern Japan, on June 28 2018. [12] Piptoporus betulinus (Bull.) P. Karst. (カンバタケ) grown on a stump of brich near the backyard of Japanese archery training hall, Hokkaido University, on September 8 2018.
Fungi13 Fungi14 Fungi15
[13] Gerronema fibula (Bull.) Singer (ヒナノヒガサ) on a lawn in front of Sarobetsu Wetland Center on August 27 2018. [14] Laccaria amethystina (Huds.) Cooke (ウラムラサキ) near the parking lot of Mount Koma, southern Hokkaido, on July 9 2018. [15] Perenniporia fraxinea (Bull.) Ryvarden (ベッコウタケ) at the base of a large cherry tree on a bank along Sophia Street, Chiyoda Ward, Tokyo, on October 19 2018.
Fungi16 Fungi17 Fungi18
[16] Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.) Murrill (アイカワタケ) on a tree (black locust) in N26/E1, East Ward, Sapporo, on September 7 2019. [17] Amanita pantherina (DC.: Fr.) Krombh. (テングタケ) in the Tomakomai Experimental Forest of Hokkaido University on September 12 2019. [18] Boletellus obscurecoccineus (Höhn.) Singer (ミヤマベニイグチ) in the Tomakomai Experimental Forest of Hokkaido University on September 12 2019.
Fungi19 Fungi20 Fungi21
[19] Dermocybe cinnamomea (L.) Fr. 1838 (ササタケ) at the edge of tussock in a post-mined peatland, Sarobetsu mire, on August 20 2019. [20] Scutellinia scutellata (L.) Lamb. (ベニチャワンタケ) in the north campus of Hokkaido University on March 31 2020. [21] Crepidotus subsphaerosporus (J. E. Lange) Kühner et Romagn. ex Hesler et A. H. Sm. (ニセコナカブリ) on the south slope of Mount Usu on April 9 2020.
Fungi22 Fungi23 Fungi24
[22] Coriolus polyzona (Pers.) Imaz. (キツネカワラタケ) on the south slope of Mount Usu on April 9 2020. [23] Fomitella fraxinea (Fr.) Imaz. (ベッコウタケ) on a stump in front of HU Coop Central Restaurant on August 11 2020. [24] Conocybe lactea (J. E. Lange) Metrod (キコガサタケ) near Ishikari Coast on the Road Station Ai-rodo (I-Road) in Atsuta on August 17 2020.

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