(Upload on April 4 2022) [ 日本語 | English ]

Engler's syllabus (エングラー体系)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

Taxonomical systems of angiosperms

Three major syllabuses
New Engler's syllabus: complexity

Most herbaria apply this syllabus for seed plants

Cronquist's syllabus: strobiroid
APG system: molecular phylogeny

Prior to Engler

de Jussieu, Antoine Laurent 1748-1836, France

1789 de Jussieu system: Genera plantarum: secundum ordines naturales disposita
I. Acotyledones (無子葉植物類)

fungi, algae, hepaticae, musci, filices, najades

II. Monocotyledones (単子葉植物類)

1. Hypogynisch
2. Perigynisch
3. Epigynisch

III. Dicotyledones (無子葉植物類)

1. Apetalae
2. Monopetalae
3. Polypetalae
4. Diclines irregulares

de Candolle, Anguste Pyramus 1778-1841, France (Swiss)

1813 de Candolle system: Théorie élémentaires de la botanique, ou exposition des principes de la classication naturelle
1805–1815 Flore française
I. Vasculares (維管束植物) ≥ fern

1. Espgenae

a. Diplochlamydeae
b. Monochlamydeae

2. Endogene

a. Phanerogamae
b. Cryptogamae

II. Cellulares (細胞植物)

1. Foliaceae
2. Aphyllae

Endlicher, Stephan or Endlicher István László 1804-1849, Austria

1838 Endlicher system: Grundzüge einer neuen Theorie der Pflanzenerzeugung
1836-1850 Genera Plantarum Secundum Ordines Naturales Disposita
I. Thallophyta (葉状植物, thallophytes)
II. Cormophyta (cormophytes)

1. Acrobrya
2. Amphibrya
3. Acramphibrya

Brongniart, Adolphe-Théodore 1801-1876, France

1828-1837 Histoire des Végétaux Fossiles
1843 Enuméeration des generes de plantes cultivés au Muséum d'histoire naturelle de Paris
A. Cryptogamae (隠花植物)

a) Amphigenae
b) Acrogenae

B. Phanaerogamae (顕花植物)

a) Monocotyledonae

1. Albuminosae
2. Exalubuminosae

b) Dictyledoneae

1. Angiospermae

a') Gamopetalae
b') Dialypetalae

2. Gymnospermae

Eichler, August Wilhelm 1839-1887, Germany

1883 Syllabus der Vorlesungen über specielle und medicinisch-pharmaceutische Botanik (3rd edn). Berlin
A. Cryptogamae

I. Thallophyta

1. Algae

a. Cyanophyceae
b. Diatomeae
c. Chlorophyceae

1. Conjugatae
2. Zoospporeae
3. Characeae

2. Fungi

a. Schizomycetes
b. Eumycetes

1. Phycomycetes
2. Ustilagineae
3. Aecidiomycetes
4. Ascomycetes
5. Basidiomycetes

c. Lichenes

II. Bryophyta

1. Hepaticae
2. Musci

III. Pteridophyta

1. Equisetinae
2. Lycopodinae
3. Filicinae

B. Phanerogamae

I. Gymnospermae
II. Angiospermae

1. Monocotyleae
2. Dicotyleae

a. Choripetalae
b. Sympetalae

1968 Karsten G: Strasburger E, Noll E, Schenk H, Karsten G

Lehrbuch der Botanik
A. Kryptogamen

1. Thallophyta

Klasse Bacteria
Klasse Cyanophyceae
Klasse Flagellata
Klasse Myxomycetes
Klasse Peridineae
Klasse Conjugatae
Klasse Diatomeae
Klasse Heterocontae
Klasse Chlorophyceae
Klasse Characeae
Klasse Phaeophyceae
Klasse Rhodophyceae
Klasse Phycomycetes
Klasse Eumycetes
Klasse Lichenes

2. Bryophyta

Klasse Hepaticae
Klasse Musci

[plant taxonomy, herbarium checklist]

3. Pteridophyta

Klasse Filicinae
Klasse Equisetinae
Klasse Lycopodiinae

B. Phanerogamen

Klasse Gymnospermae
Klasse Angiospermae

A. Elcotylae
B. Monocotylae

1892 Engler
1962 Earder R et al.

Strasburgers Lehrbuch der Botanik
I. Bacteriophyta
II. Cyanophyta
III. Phycophyta

1. Chlorophytina

(1) Chlcrophyceae
(2) Charophyceae

2. Chrysophytina

(1) Heterokontae
(2) Chrosophyceae
(3) Diatomeae

3. Pyrrophytina
4. Euglenophytina
5. Phaeophytina

(1) Phaeophyceae

6. Rhodophytina

(1) Rhodophyceae

IV. Mycophyta

1. Myxomycophytina
2. Eumicophytina

(1) Phycomycetes

a. Uniflagellatae
b. Biflagellatae

(2) Eumycetes

a. Ascomycetes
b. Basidiomycetes

V. Bryophyta

(1) Hepaticae
(2) Musci

VI. Pteridophyta

(1) Psilophytinae
(2) Lycopodiinae
(3) Equisetinae
(4) Filicinae

VII. Spermatophyta

1. Gymnospermae

(1) Pteridospermae
(2) Cycadinae
(3) Bennetinae
(4) Cordatinae
(5) Ginkgoinae
(6) Coniferae
(7) Gnetinae

2. Angiospermae

(1) Dicotyledoneae

a. Dialypatalae
b. Apetalae
c. Sympetalae

(2) Monocotyledoneae

[ Engler HGA | Journal Englera ]

Engler's Syllabus ( エングラー体系 )

1924 Engler-Glig: Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien 9/10 Aufl.
I. Schizophyta (Schizomycetes, Schizophyceae)
II. Phytosarcodina (Acrasiales, Plamociophorales, Myxogasters)
III. Flagellatae
IV. Dinoflagellatae
? Silicoflagellatae
V. Bacillariophyta
VI. Conjugatae
VII. Chlorophyceae (Protococcales, Ulotrichales, Sihponocladales, Siphonales)
VIII. Charophyta
IX. Phaeophyceae
X. Rhodophyceae (Bangiales, Florideae)
XI. Eumycetes (Phycomycetes, Ascomycetes, Protomycetes, Basidiomycetes (+ Fungi imperfecti, Lichens))
XII. Embryophyta asiphnogama

1. Bryophyta (Filicales, Musci)

2. Pteridophyta (Hepaticae, Articulatae, Lycopodiales, Ptilotales, Ispetales)

XIII. Embryophyta siphonogama

1. Gymnospermae (Cycadofilicales, Cycadales, Bennettitales, Ginkgoales, Coniferae, Cordaitales, Gnetales)
2. Angiospermae (Monocotyledoneae, Dicotyledoneae (Archichlamydeae, or Acetalae), Metachlamydeae (Symoetalae))

1936 Engler-Diales: Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien 11 Aufl.
I. Schizophyta (Schizomycetes, Schizophyceae)
II. Phytosarcodina (Acrasiales, Plamociophorales, Myxogasters)
III. Flagellatae
IV. Dinoflagellatae
? Silicoflagellatae
V. Heterocontae
VI. Bacillariopjyta (Centricae, Pennales)
VII. Conjugatae
VIII. Chlorophyceae

1. Protococcales
2. Ulotrichales
3. Sihponocladales
4. Siphonales

IX. Charophyta
X. Phaeophyta
XI. Rhodophyta

1. Bangiales
2. Florideae

XII. Eumycetes

1. Phycomycetes
2. Ascomycetes
3. Protomycetes
4. Basidiomycetes (+ Webenkl, Lichens)

XIII. Archegonitatae

1. Unterabt Bryophyta (1. Hepaticae, 2. Musci)

2. Unterabt Pteridophyta (1. Psilophytinae, Articulatae, 3. Lycopodiinae, 4. Psilotinae, 5. Isoetinae, 6. Filicinae)

XIV. Embryophyta Siphonogama

1. Unterabt Gymnospermae (1. Cycadofilicales, 2. Cycadales, 3. Bennettitales, 4. Ginkgoales, 5. Cordaitales, 6. Coniferae & Gnetales)
2. Unterabt Angiospermae (1. Monocotyledonae, 2. Dicotyledoneae (Archlchlamydeae, Hetachlamydeae (Sympetalae)

1954 Melchior H und Wedermann E: Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien 12 Aufl.
I. Bacteriophyta (Schizomycetes)
II. Cyanophyta (Cyanophyceae)
III. Glaucophyta (Glaucophyceae)
IV. Myxophyta

1. Acrasicae
2. Myxomycetes)

V. Englenophyta
VI. Pyrrophyta

1. Cryptophyceae
2. Chloromonadophyceae
3. Desmocontae
4. Dinophyceae

VII. Chrysophyta

1. Heterokontae
2. Chrysophyceae
3. Bacillariophyceae

VIII. Chlorophyta
IX. Charophyta
X. Phaeophyta

1. Isogeneratae
2. Heterogeneratae, Haplostichidae, Polystichidae

XI. Rhodophyta

1. Bangiophyceae
2. Florideae

XII. Fungi

1. Archimycetes
2. Phycomycetes
3. Ascomycetes
4. Basidiomycetes

XIII. Lichenes

1. Phycolichenes
2. Ascolichenes
3. Bacidiolichenes

XIV. Bryophyta

1. Hepaticae
2. Musci

XV. Pteridophyta

1. Psilophytopsida
2. Lycopsida
3. Psilotopsida
4. Articulatae
5. Filices

XVI. Gymnospermae

1. Cycadopsida
2. Coniferopsida
3. Taxopsida
4. Chlamydospermae

XVII. Angiospermae

1. Licotyledoneae [Archichlamyceae, Sympetalae]
2. Monocotyledonae

(Cronquist, A.J. 1919-1992)

Cronquist's syllabus (クロンキスト体系)

Cronquist, A.J. 1919-1992
1980s': Illustration from the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation
Qronquit system is similar to Takhtajan system
Based on strobiloid theory
  • Cronquist A. 1981. An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. Columbia University Press. 1262 pp.
  • Cronquist A. 1988. The evolution and classification of flowering plants (2nd edn). New York Botanical Garden. 555 pp.

APG system (APG体系)

APG (angiosperm phylogeny group)

APG II 2003


Fig.1 Phylogenetic relationships for angiosperms inferred from analysis of rbcL, atpB and 18S rDNA sequences; the jackknife consensus tree (for groups receiving 50% support) is shown. The shortest trees found were 45,100 steps. The number of species in each clade is given in parentheses; not all 560 species occurred in a clade portrayed in this summary tree. Jackknife support is given below branches. (Soltis et al. 1999)

PPG (Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification, 羊歯植物系統分類体系)

treating with lycophytes and ferns (or monilophytes)
2016 PPG I (PPG I 2016)
PPG I Fig. 1. Summary tracheophyte phylogeny, depicting relationships among lycophyte and fern families recognized in this PPG I classification. Composite topology is derived from the results of numerous phylogenetic studies (e.g.,Pryer et al., 2001, 2004; Korall etal., 2006; Schuettpelz&Pryer, 2007;Rai & Graham, 2010; Lehtonen, 2011;Rothfels et al., 2012a, 2015; Knie et al., 2015; Zhang & Zhang, 2015). Most nodes have received consistently strong support; dotted lines indicate areas of considerable uncertainty. For each family, we note the total number of genera recognized in PPG I and the sum of species estimates for these genera (terminal clade height is roughly proportional to diversity for families with more than 100 species). Where applicable, informal clade names are provided in parentheses.


ICTVdB: Viruses
BIOS: Microorganisms and protists
Fungorum: Fungi
FishBase: Animals
AlgaeBase: Plants
ILDIS: for legumes
IOPI Global Plant Checklist: Plants
  • Emery C. 2003. Taxonomy tasks off online. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 1: 278
    • TOL, Tree of Life Project
    • ITIS, Integrated Taxonomic Information System
    • GBIF, Global Biodiversity Information Facility
    • Species 2000
  • Froese R, Bisby FA & Wilson KL (eds.). 2003. Species 2000 & ITIS catalogue of life 2003: Indexing the world's known species. CD-ROM, Species 2000. Los Banos, Philippines