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Photosynthesis (光合成)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

Life is woven from the air by light

That is the conversion from light energy to chemical energy (stocked into carbohydrates, represented by glucose, sucrose and starch) by green plants.
6CO2 + 12H2O + [solar energy] → C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O
carbon dioxide + water + [solar energy] → glucose + oxygen + water
Do not understand by the simplified equation. You can not understand why water is important, although you might learn this equation when you were in high school.

6CO2 + 6H2O + [solar energy] → C6H12O6 + 6O2

Characteristics of photosynthesis on terrestrial vascular plants

CO2, 6 moles = 134.4 liters at standard temperature and pressure
Fig. Photosynthesis for making budget
Visible light (solar radiation) → absorbed by leaves
Water → absorbed from soil (土壌) (or water) by roots ()

[ metabolism ]


Metabolism patterns on photosynthesis (光合成における代謝様式)

Calvin(-Benson) cycle (カルビン(=ベンソン)回路)

= reductive pentosephosphate cycle (還元的ペントースリン酸回路)
= photosynthetic carbon reduction, PCR (光合成的炭素還元回路)
= C3 cycle (C3回路)
Three molecules of CO2 fixed give a net yield of one molecule of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate at a net cost of nine molecules of ATP and six molecules of NADPH.

ribulose-1, 5-bP (ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate) 5C
3-P-glycerat (3-phosphoglycerate) 3C
1, 3-bP-glycerat (1, 3-diphosphoglycerate) 3C
GAP (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate) 3C
ribulose-5-P (ribulose 5-phosphate) 5C

1950 Calvin, et al.: discovered this cycle

Ecophysiology of photosynthesis (光合成の生理生態)

Photosynthesis requires the efficient capture of light whilst avoiding the absorption of damaging excess energy.
Light absorption can be optimised by plant growth, the movement of leaves and the movement of chloroplasts within leaves.
To grow optimally, plants must achieve a balance between the capture of light and the uptake of other resources.
Plants living in shaded conditions have adaptations to efficiently capture light including increased shoot:root ratios, thin leaves and high chlorophyll concentrations.
Both C4 and CAM involve a separation of CO2 absorption and fixation: C4 spatially and CAM temporally.
If a plant is to survive, grow and reproduce, it must make a net gain in carbon, that is, carbon gained through photosynthesis must be greater than carbon lost through respiration.
Photosynthesis makes a significant contribution to carbon uptake from the atmosphere and may go some way to offsetting atmospheric increases due to human activity.
Understanding the effects of global warming on photosynthesis is complex but necessary to fully understand the consequences of climate change.
Photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE)
the ratio of CO2 assimilation rate to leaf organic nitrogen content

Carbohydrate and metabolism (炭酸同化と代謝)

To reduce photorespiration, C3 plants → C4 plants
C3 plant (C3植物)
photorespiration present (Calvin cycle)
spinach, peanuts, cotton, wheat, rice, barley and most trees and grasses
Photosynthetic metabolism in the chloroplasts of C3 plants. 1,3BPG, bisphosphoglycerate; G-3-P, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate; DHAP, dihydroxyacetone phosphate; F-1,6-P, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate; F-6-P, fructose 6-phosphate; X-5-P, xylose 5-phosphate; E-4-P, erythrose 4-phosphate; S-1,7-P, sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate; S-7-P, sedoheptulose 7-phosphate
C4 plant (C4植物)
= Hatch-Slack pathway (Hatch & Slack 1966)
photorespiration absent

C4 plants            Sjoa  Sunflower  Sugar  Tobacco  Corn
                     bean             beat

Optimal               26      25       25       25      35
temperature (°C)
O2 fixation           35      28      25        11      55
(CO2 mg/dm2/h)
Photorespiration      46      27       47       55       0
(lost O2 %)

+ sugar cane, millet, sorghum, pineapple, daisies, cabbage, etc.

CAM plant (CAM植物)
= crassulacean acid metabolism
cacti, sedum, jade, orchids and agave
Instead of separating the light-dependent reactions and the use of CO2 in the Calvin cycle in space, CAM plants separate these processes in time (night and day).

Night: PEP →→→→→ oxaloacetete →→→ malate
______PEP carboxylase______________or other organic acids
Day:_____________ CO2
______________Calvin cycle
_______sugars ←↑______

Photoinhibition (光阻害)

Light-induced reduction in the photosynthetic capacity of a plant, alga, and cyanobacterium
≈ light-induced damage to PSII ∵ photosystem II (PSII) is most sensitive
Pulse amplitude modulation, PAM(パルス変調蛍光測定)