(Upload on June 25 2017) [ 日本語 | English ]

Education study or pedagogy (教育学)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

[ arboretum ]

Environmental education (EE) (環境教育)

Organized efforts to educate about how natural environments function and how humans manage their behavior and ecosystems fpr the sustainability of human societies.
  • awareness
  • knowledge
  • attitude
  • skills
  • evaluation ability
  • participation

Debate (ディベート)

A process involving formal discussion on a particular topic

debater (affirmative and negative sides)
judge (making decision - verdict)
proposition - resolution


Active learning (Al)

Rubric (ルーブリック)
an evaluation tool or set of guidelines used to promote the consistent application of learning expectations, learning objectives, or learning standards in the classroom, or to measure their attainment against a consistent set of criteria


= study of technology and society

[GeoPark (ジオパーク), field trip (野外実習)]

Natural education (自然教育)

Botanical garden (植物園)

= botanic garden
a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation, research and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names
→ often establshed with herbarium
Basic functions
  1. availability of plants for scientific research, including research facilities
  2. plants accurately labelled
  3. display of plant diversity and/or economic significance in form and use for student education
  4. studies in plant taxonomy

Koishikawa Botanical Garden (小石川植物園)

Experimental cultivation of sweet potatoes
Konyo Aoki conducted experimental cultivation of sweet potatos in 1735, the first trial of its kind in the Tokyo area. His success initiated sweet potato cultivation throughout Japan as an emergency crop and is commemorated by a stone monument resembling a sweet potato.well
Well of "Koishikawa Yojyosho"
The Koishikawa Yojyosho (Charitable Hospital) was opened to the poor by the Tokugawa Shogunate on 10 January 1723 at this place and had accommodation for 40 (later 170) patients. This well was installed as a part of the Yojyosho. The plentiful water springing from this well was of high quality and therefore played a valuable role in saving refugees of the Tokyo Earthquake of 1923.

Botanic Garden, Hokkaido University


When the garden was opened in the late 19t century, it was surrounded by fertile soil with many springs called mem in Ainu and the land was covered by broad-leaved forests with Japanese elm, ash and alder. These springs and vegetation commonly seen in wetlands were found in this area because this garden is located on the edge of the alluvial fan built by the Toyohira River ("the mother river of Sapporo").

The Botanic Garden are making efforts to conserve the forest landscape and vegetation.
The Hokkaido University Botanic Garden is a research oriented botanic garden in the northern part of Japan. Because this garden is located in cold climate, cool-climate plants can be grown in the open air, whereas in Honshu and areas further south, these plants are grown only in botanic gardens in highlands or climate-controlled low-temperature greenhouses. With this advantage, we collect, cultivate and exhibit boreal and alpine plants which are mostly from Hokkaido but also from other boreal and mountain areas. We also propagate and ex-situ conserve endangered plants.
The Museum and Northern Peoples Museum
The Museum, built by the Kaitaku-shi (Hokkaido Development Commission) in 1982 is the oldest building build for a museum in Hokkaido. Along with the surrounding buildings, it has been designated as an Important Cultural Property of Japan. This museum displays natural history and historical collections by the Kaitaku-shi and Hokkaido University. The Northern Peoples Museum displays artifacts related to cultural materials and livelihood of the aboriginal peoples of Hokkaido, the Ainu.

Arboretum (pl. arboreta) (樹木園)

One of the botanical gardens containing living collections of woody plants
Particular, for

fruticetum (灌木園): shrubs
viticetum: grapes
pinetum: needle-leaved trees
salicetums (hortus Salix): willows
populetums: poplars
quercetums: oaks

Outreach (アウトリーチ)

An activity of providing services to any populations who might not otherwise have access to those services

Lifelong learning (生涯教育)

≈ career-long education, lifelong education, lifetime education and permanent education
1965 Lengrand, Paul (UNESCO): proposed life-long integrated education

a form of self-initiated education that is focused on personal development (no standardized definition)

Recurrent education (リカレント教育)
Rehn, Gösta (economist, Sweden, 1913-11996)
1951 Rehn–Meidner model
1962 head, the Department of Labour and Social Affairs, OECD (Paris) 1973 For greater flexibility in working life. OECD Observer 62

Online class

Hybrid learning

Opportunities for creative, flexible course design (Dimitrov 2021, FD)
Identify key characteristics of hybrid course design

Describe examples of pre-and in-class learning activities that can be used to engage students in the hybrid class room

Reflect on which components of a lesson are best suited to synchronous versus asynchronous modalities

Work in small groups to discuss how a course concept you currently instruct could be redesigned using a hybrid model

Hybrid/blended Learning Involves
The thoughtful integration of the face-to-face and online modalities, where activities and assessments are designed for meaningful student learning, taking into account the overall coherence of the learning experience. (Picciano 2006, Vaughan et al. 2013)

Technology enhanced
Blended learning
Mostly online
Completely online

Definitions of hybrid/blended learning
not strict but ...
Case York U: F2F instruction is replaced by online instruction for 1/3 of the course, while 1/3 is delivered F2F. The remaining third may be any combination of online or F2F. Total course contact hours will remain the same as a traditional F2F course.
  • Greater accessibility, more participation
    More students able to participate in class discussion and interaction (second language speakers, students with disabilities, students with family responsibilities)
  • Greater flexibility for students
    Reduced commute, more time for family, jobs, wellness
  • Higher expectations for in person classes
    "If I came all the way to campus for class, it needs to be good. I don’t want the professor to repeat the textbook."
  • Online learning develops virtual team work skills
    collaboration across cultures, timezones, clear communication of expectations;