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Nomenclature (命名規約)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

[typology, plant taxonomy]

Three major nomenclatures

ICBN (The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature)

1867 Paris Code (1st society meeting)
1994 Tokyo Code
2000 St. Louis Code
2006 Vienna Code
2011 Melbourne Code (for algae, fungi and plants)
2018 Shenzhen Code

ICZN (The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature)
ICNP (The International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes)

International Botanical Congress (国際植物会議)

held at 5-6 year intervals
Dealing with the scientific names of plants is decided by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature
The code is headed for debates at International Botanical Congress hosted by International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT)
The content of act: determining the usage of the category (分類群) rank (級), depending on the hierarchy → recusing the conntent
  1. Latin name (名前はラテン語とし扱われる)
  2. type specimen (タイプ標本指定)
  3. Latin language (ラテン語記載文、又は判別文)
  4. species circumstance (種の範疇明示)
  5. priority (先取権)
  6. legitimate name (合法名)
  7. correct name (正名)
  8. valid publication (正式出版)
  9. effective publication (有効出版)
Priority (先取権)
  • 1753.5.1: Linnaeus: Species Plantarum → vascular plants, lichens, slime molds, most algae, liverwort, peat mosses, etc.
  • 1801.1.1: Hedwig: Species Muscorum → musci except peat mosses
  • 1848: Falfs: British Desmidiae → Cosmarium in algae
  • 1821: Fries: Systema mycologicum → most fungi

Scientific name (学名)

Binomial nomenclature (二名法)
The International Plant Names Index (IPNI) (植物学名データベース)
Three components = generic name (属名) + species epithet (種小名) + authority (命名者名)

Oryza sativa Linne
Oryza = generic name, sativa = species epithet, Linne = authority

subspecies (subsp or ssp) (亜種), variety (var) (変種), forma (f) (品種) → followed species name, not shown only by these taxa

Philodendron scandens K. Koch et F. Sellow ssp.oxycardium (Schott) Bunt

ICBN (International Code of Botanical Nomenclature)
Syngameon: A group of genetically related organisms that may or may not be morphologically similar, and may belong to different genera

Synonyms (同種異名)

The synonym of a botanical scientific name is a name that also applies to this same taxon. A synonym can not exist in isolation: it is always "a synonym of …". For plant ecologists, the selection of scientific names is one of the problems.
In botany synonyms can be:
  1. homotypic (or nomenclatural): having the same type. The Linnaean name Pinus abies L. has the same type as Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. When the latter is taken to be the correct name (there is almost complete consensus on that), Pinus abies is a homotypic synonym of Picea abies. However, if the species were regarded to belong to Pinus (now unlikely) the relationship would be reversed and Picea abies would become a homotypic synonym of Pinus abies.
  2. heterotypic (or taxonomic): with a different type. Some botanists split the dandelion into many, quite restricted species. The name of each such species has its own type. When the dandelion is regarded as including all those small species, the names of all those species are heterotypic synonyms of Taraxacum officinale F.H.Wigg. Reducing a taxon to a heterotypic synonym is termed "to sink in synonymy" or "as synonym".
  1. superfluous synonyms
In botany it is not required that a synonym be a valid name: a listing of synonyms often contains names that for some reason did not make it as a formal name (unpublished or manuscript names), or have not yet been formally published. Such a synonym must have the form of a formal name: it must look like a proper 'Latin name'.
A homotypic synonym need not share an epithet or name with the correct name, but only the type. For example the name Taraxacum officinale, mentioned above, has the same type as Leontodon taraxacum L. The latter is a homotypic synonym of Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.
Basionym (basyonym, 基礎異名)
a previously published legitimate name-bringing or epithet-bringing synonym from which a new name is formed for a taxon of different rank or position (ICBN)
Homonym (異物同名)
a name for a taxon that is identical in spelling to another such name, that belongs to a different taxon

[microbiological taxonomy]

International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (国際原核生物命名規約)

Bacterial taxonomy = taxonomy of bacteria, systematic bacteriology or bacterial systematics (細菌分類学)
1917 Buchanan (US): Manual of determinative bacteriology

the Chairman Bergy = so-called "Bergy's manual" 6 orders, 30 families, 88 genera - adopted to the standard taxonomical syllabus

1923 Bergy's manual (1st edn), revised every six years
1930 (Paris): First International Congress of Microbiology

International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, ICNB (国際細菌命名規約)

following Species Plantarum (Linnaeus 1753)
Culture collections

1936 2nd ICNB (London)
1939 3rd ICNB (New York)
1947 4th ICNB (Copenhagen)
1950 5th ICNB (Rio de Janeiro)
1953 6th ICNB (Rome)

International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria and Viruses (1958) renamed from ICNB

1957 Bergy's manual (7th edn)

10 orders, 47 families, 190 genera

1958 7th ICNB (Stockholm)
1962 8th ICNB (Montreal)
1966 9th ICNB (Moscow)
1968 Judicial Commission of ICNB (Leicester)
1970 10th ICNB (Mexico City)
1973 11th ICNB (Jerusalem)
1974 Bergy's manual (8th edn): entire revision of the syllabus

Binomial nomenclature (2名法) + strain name (株名)

Ex. Escherichia coli K-12

Not adopted class and higher orders bcause of unclearness between the phylogeny and hierarchy

1978 12th ICNB (München)
1980 Approved Lists of Bacterial Names
1982 13th ICNB (Boston)
1986 14th ICNB (Manchester)
1990 15th ICNB (Osaka/大阪)
1990 Lapage et al.: ICNB Bacteriological Code, 1990 Revision

Approved officially by International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology

1999 International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), renamed
2008 ICNP revised

Typology (類型分類学)

Typological species

Species identified by the type specimen
Morphospecies (形態種): species named by typology

Type specimen (基準標本)

  1. holotype: the one specimen or illustration used by the author, or designated by the author as the nomenclatural type
  2. paratype: a specimen cited in the protologue that is neither the holotype, isotype, nor one of the syntypes. These are often listed as representative specimens in the original description

    syntype = all specimens of (holotype + paratype)

  3. isotype: any duplicate specimen of the holotype
  4. lectotype: a specimen or illustration designated as the type when no holotype was indicated at the time of publication. If possible, the lectotype should be selected from the syntypes or original material.
    Isolectotype: any duplicate specimen of the lectotype
  1. neotype: a specimen or illustration selected as the type when all of the material on which the name of the taxon was based is missing
Holotype of Gnetum gnemon L. var. gnemon f. stipitatum Markgraf. Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg III 10: 440 (1930). Hyosig Won, Missouri Bot. Gard., 19 June 2001
in the Herbarium Bogoriense (BO), LIPI Cibinong Science Center, Cibinong, Indonesia, on January 25 2018.

Herbarium (標本庫)

pl. herbaria (cf. fungarium for fungi)
that is a space or room for collection of preserved plant specimens
Herbarium code
H: University of Helsinki (Helsinki, Finland)
K: Royal Botanic Gardens (Kew, England)
L: Nationaal Herbarium Nederland (Leiden, Netherlands)
S: Swedish Museum of Natural History (Stockholm, Sweden)
W: Museum of Natural History of Vienna (Vienna, Austria)
BM: British Museum of Natural History (London, England)
BO: Herbarium Bogoriense (Bogor, Indonesia)
LE: Komarov Botanical Institute (St. Petersburg, Russia)
MO: Missouri Botanical Garden (St. Louis, Missouri, USA)
NY: New York Botanical Garden (Bronx, New York, USA)

Index herbariorum

SAPS: Hokkaido University Museum (terrestrial plants, Sapporo, Japan)

[ specimens donated to SAPS ]

[link to GBIF]

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF)

Free and open access to biodiversity data (international organization)
Darwin Core, DwC
Data format developed by Biodiversity Information Standards (TDWG)

stored in DwC-A (archive)