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International organizations (国際機関)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

United Nations [ treaty | law ()]

an organization with an international membership, scope, and/or presence
intergovernmental organizations (IGOs)
= International governmental organizations
organizations made up primarily of sovereign states
International nongovernmental organizations (INGOs)
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) operating internationally

International corporations

e.g., UN, OECD, OSCE, CoE, EU, and WTO

Non-governmental organizations (非政府組織) ≈ nonprofit organizations (民間非営利組織)


International organization (国際機関)

Table 1. List of acronyms used in this webpage

acronymfull nameestablished
ACSySArctic Climate System Study (北極海気候システム研究計画)
BAHCBiospheric Aspect of the Hydrologica1 Cycle (水循環の生物学的側面研究計画)
CLIVARClimate Variability and Predictability (気候変動と予測研究計画)
CMGCommission for Marine Geology disbanded in 1996 (海洋地質学委員会)
CSKCooperative Study of the Kuroshio and Adjacent Regions (黒潮域共同調査)
DISData and Information Systems (IGBPデータ情報システム)
FAOFood and Agriculture Organization of the UN (国連食料農業機関)
GCOSGlobal Climate Observing System (世界気候観測システム)
GCTEG1obal Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems (地球変化と陸上生態系研究計画)
GEOSECSGeochemica1 Ocean Sections Study (大洋縦断地球化学的研究計画)
GEWEXGlobal Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (地球規模熟と水循環研究計画)
GLOBECGlobal Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics (世界海洋生態系ダイナミックス研究計画)
GOOSGlobal Ocean Observing System (世界海洋観測システム)
GTOSGlobal Terrestrial Observing System (世界地表観測システム)1996
IABOInternational Association for biological Oceanography (国際生物海洋学協会)
IAGCInternationa1 Association on Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry (国際地球化学字菌化学協会)
IAMASInternational Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (国際気象学大気科学協会)
IAEAInternational Atomic Energy Agency (国際原子力機関)1957
IAPSOInternational Association for the Physical Sciences of the Ocean (国際海洋物理科学協会)
IAPTInternational Association for Plant Taxonomy (国際植物分類学連合)
IBPInternational Biological Program (生物圏国際協同研究計画)1964-1974
ICACGPInternational Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (国際大気化学と地球規模汚染に関する研究会)
ICRPInternational Commission on Radiological Protection (国際放射線防護委員会)1928
ICSUInternational Council of Scientific Unions (国際学術連合会議)
IGACInternational G1obal Atmospheric Chemistry Program (世界大気化学研究計画)
IGBPInternational Geosphere-Biosphere Program (地球圏-生物圏国際共同研究計画)1987
IGOSSIOC/WMO Integrated Global Ocean Services System (世界海洋サービス総合システム)
IGYInternational Geophysical Year (国際地球観測年)1957-58
IHDPInternational Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Program (人間次元での地球環境国際協同研究)
ILTERInternational Long-term Ecological Research (国際長期生態学研究)1993
INQUAInternational Union for Quaternary Research (国際第四紀研究連合)
IOCIntergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (政府間海洋学委員会)
IPCCIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (気候度化に関する政府間パネル)1988
ISSCInternational Social Science Council (国際社会科学会議)
IUBSInternational Union of Biologica1 Sciences (国際生物科学連合)
IUCNInternational Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (国際自然保護連合)
IUGGInternational Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (国際測地学地球物理学連合)
IUGSInternational Union of Geologica1 Sciences (国際地質科学連合)
IUPACInternational Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (国際純水及び応用化学連合)1919
JGOIFSJoint Global Ocean Flux Study (世界海洋フラックス研究計画)
JOAJoint Oceanographic Assembly (共同海洋科学大会)
JSCJoint Scientific Committee for the WCRP (WCRP共同科学委員会)
LOICZLand-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (沿岸域における陸海洋間相互作用研究計画)
LUCCLand-Use/Land-Cover Change (土地利用と地表変化研究計画)
PAGESPast Global Changes (古環境変化研究計画)
PICESNorth Pacific Marine Sciences Organization (北太平洋海洋科学機構)
SC-IGBPScientific Committee for the IGBP (IGBP科学委員会)
SCARScientific Committee on Antarctic Research (南極研究科学委員会)
SCOPEScientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (環境問題科学委員会)1969
SCORScientific Committee on Oceanic Research (海洋研究科学委員会)1957
SPARCStratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate (成層圏過程と気候研究計画)
STARTGlobal Change System for Analysis, Research and Training (地球環境変化解析、研究、訓練システム)
TOGATropical Oceans and Global Atmosphere (熱帯海洋と地球規模大気研究計画)
UNUnited Nations (国際連合)1945
UNEPUnited Nations Environment Program (国連環境計画)
UNESCOUnited Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (国連教育科学文化機関)1946
WCRPWorld Climate Research Program (世界気候国際協同研究計画)1980
WESTPACIOC Regional Sub-Commission for the Western Pacific (西太平洋共同調査)
WMOWorld Meteorological Organization (世界気象機関)1950
WOCEWorld Ocean Circulation Experiment (世界海洋循環研究計画)1990

UN (国連)

International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA, 国際影響評価学会)
well-recognized by the UN
1980 established
  • provide information for decision-making that analyses the biophysical, social, economic and institutional consequences of proposed actions
  • promote transparency and participation of the public in decision-making
  • dentify procedures and methods for the follow-up (monitoring and mitigation of adverse consequences) in policy, planning and project cycles
  • contribute to environmentally sound and sustainable development
Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)
impact assessment process that aims to mainstream environmental, social, economic and health issues and ensure the sustainability of strategic decisions
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, 国際原子力機関)

UNESCO (ユネスコ)

World heritage (世界遺産)

Places registered in the UNESCO world heritage list becausae of special cultural and/or physical significances
Japan (world natural heritage site)
  • Buddhist Monuments in the Horyu-ji Area
  • Himeji-jo
  • Shirakami-Sanchi
  • Yakushima
  • Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto (Kyoto, Uji and Otsu Cities)
  • Historic Villages of Shirakawa-go and Gokayama
  • Hiroshima Peace Memorial (Genbaku Dome)
  • Itsukushima Shinto Shrine
  • Historic Monuments of Ancient Nara
  • Shrines and Temples of Nikko
  • Gusuku Sites and Related Properties of the Kingdom of Ryukyu
  • Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes in the Kii Mountain Range
  • Shiretoko
  • Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine and its Cultural Landscape
  • Hiraizumi - Temples, Gardens and Archaeological Sites Representing the Buddhist Pure Land
  • Ogasawara Islands
  • Fujisan, sacred place and source of artistic inspiration

International conference (国際会議)

COP (the Conference of the Parties of United Nations Conventions, 条約締約国会議)

1997 COP3 (Kyoto, Japan): Kyoto Climate Change Conference
2001 COP7 (Marrakech, Morocco): Marrakech Climate Change Conference
2005 COP11 (Montreal, Canada): Montreal Climate Change Conference
2012 COP18 (Doha, Qatar): Doha Climate Change Conference
2013 COP19 (Warsaw, Poland): Warsaw Climate Change Conference
2014 COP20 (Lima, Peru): Lima Climate Change Conference
2018 COP24 (Katowice, Poland): Katowice Climate Change Conference
2019 COP25 (Madrid, Spain): UN Climate Change Conference
= reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries
COP11: agenda
COP18: a work program on results-based finance
COP19: Warsaw framework for REDD+

Work program on results-based finance to progress the full implementation of the activities referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 70

COP20: REDD+ information hub
= Intergovernmental science-policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (生物多様性及び生態系サービスに関する政府間科学-政策プラットフォーム)
2012/04 established

Treaty (条約)

Ramsar Convention (ラムサール条約): the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat
taking a broad approach in determining the wetlands which come under its aegis. Under the text of Art 1.1, wetlands are defined as:

areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres.

in addition, for the purpose of protecting coherent sites, Art 2.1 provides that wetlands to be included in the Ramsar List of internationally important wetlands:

may incorporate riparian and coastal zones adjacent to the wetlands, and islands or bodies of marine water deeper than six metres at low tide lying within the wetlands.

Washington Convention (ワシントン条約): the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
Biodiversity Convention (生物多様性条約), the Convention on Biological Diversity; CBD
Biological diversity defined by CBD
The variability among living organisms on the earth, including the variability within and between species and within and between ecosystems
1. conservation of biological diversity
2. sustainable use of its compounds
3. fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from generic resources

SBSTTA (the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice)

Other effective area-based conservation measures (OECM)

[species richness (種数), extinction event (大絶滅)]